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Microbial Endocrinology Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health

Microbial Endocrinology  Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health Author Mark Lyte
ISBN-10 9783319202150
Release 2015-11-20
Pages 374
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This new edition highlights the numerous advances made in the field of microbial endocrinology over the last five years. Prominent among these new topics featured is the emergence of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and the role it plays in brain function. Specific focus is given to the role of microbial endocrinology in the evolutionary symbiosis between man and microbe as it relates to both health and disease. With new chapters on the microbiome and its relation to neurochemicals, this new edition brings this important volume up to date.



Microbial Endocrinology The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease

Microbial Endocrinology  The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease Author Mark Lyte
ISBN-10 9781493908974
Release 2014-07-05
Pages 436
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The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​



Protozoa and Human Disease

Protozoa and Human Disease Author Mark Wiser
ISBN-10 9781136738166
Release 2010-11-18
Pages 300
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Protozoa and Human Disease is a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying parasitology and microbiology. It will also be a useful reference for public health and medical students. Dr. Mark Wiser reviews medically important protozoa, and treatment strategies. He describes pathogens according to a taxonomic scheme and in reference to the organ systems they affect. The book covers the morphological features and life cycles of the various protozoa and the pathogeneses of the diseases they cause. Life cycles are discussed in detail as they also influence host-parasite interactions, pathology, disease transmission, and epidemiology. Students will benefit from the authors fresh approach, which blends classical and medical parasitology with more modern disciplines. These include the molecular and immunological basis of pathogenesis; metabolic pathways; specialized subcellular structures; ecology of disease transmission; antigenic variation; and molecular epidemiology. An extensive glossary of molecular biology, immunology, and medical terms helps students navigate across disciplines.



Invertebrate Immunity

Invertebrate Immunity Author Kenneth Söderhäll
ISBN-10 1441980598
Release 2011-06-28
Pages 316
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It can be seen that the insects are the still attracting most research and researchers. However, an increasing interest is emerging to study new invertebrate groups, especially those where the genome is known. Even though Drosophila has been and still is an excellent model for immune studies, it is now clear that there are great differences between immune responses in Drosophila and that of several other invertebrates, which indeed calls for more research on other invertebrates



Ageless Nation

Ageless Nation Author Michael G. Zey
ISBN-10 9781351533256
Release 2017-07-05
Pages 368
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In this intriguing volume, futurist and author Michael G. Zey imagines a time in which technology has stretched human life spans to four hundred years or more. Genetic engineering, cloning, and stem-cell technology will eradicate diseases and allow for nanoscopic repair and maintenance of the body. "Smart drugs" and caloric restriction programs will largely stop aging and ensure healthy bodies and sharp minds indefinitely.Grounding his speculation in contemporary scientific research, Zey's optimistic vision sees retirement replaced by hiatuses between careers, and leisure time spent in multi-generational homes. Key players in the debate include supporters like Cambridge University scientist Aubrey de Grey, who envisions five-thousand-year life spans, and the radical futurist author Ray Kurzweil, who foresees the merging of humans and computers. Organizations such as the Coalition to Extend Life lobby the government for immortality research funding and find opposition in the President's Council on Bioethics and "deep ecologists" advocating zero-population growth.Criticizing current environmental trends as anti-progress and anti-human, Zey's own solutions include controversial measures like human control of weather, colonization of outer space, and genetically modifying food. He concludes that the eventuality of a modern Fountain of Youth is closer than we think. Zey's predictions about the future are thoughtful and fascinating.



Chronic Inflammation

Chronic Inflammation Author Masayuki Miyasaka
ISBN-10 9784431560685
Release 2016-11-01
Pages 702
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This book provides readers with the most up-to-date information on cutting-edge research concerning chronic inflammation. We now know that when inflammation becomes chronic, it acts as a strong disease-promoting factor in a variety of disorders including arteriosclerosis, obesity, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. Chronic inflammation is hence called as the “silent killer”; it upsets the body’s homeostatic mechanism insidiously. In spite of these developments, we know very little about the mechanism underlying chronic inflammation. Particularly, we do not know precisely what induces chronic inflammation or what promotes its prolongation in a spatiotemporal framework. Neither do we have clear knowledge about how chronic inflammation destroys various tissues or how it predisposes individuals to many different diseases. To make the situation worse, we have no effective treatment against chronic inflammation. Since 2010, two major research programs (CREST and PRESTO) aimed at clarifying the mechanisms underlying chronic inflammation were launched in Japan, and investigators of different research areas with a brilliant track record were selected by their research proposals. Subsequently they have made their best efforts to answer the conundrum concerning chronic inflammation. This book is a compendium of such research efforts. In each chapter, the CREST- or PRESTO-funded researchers summarize their original work concerning mechanisms of induction, progression, or resolution underlying chronic inflammation. The most emphasized characteristic is the molecular aspect of chronic inflammation. The book thus presents the most recent progress made in the molecular understanding of chronic inflammation.



Bacterial Signal Transduction Networks and Drug Targets

Bacterial Signal Transduction  Networks and Drug Targets Author Ryutaro Utsumi
ISBN-10 0387788859
Release 2008-12-05
Pages 242
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This fascinating book encourages many microbiologists and students to enter the new world of signal transduction in microbiology. Over the past decade, a vast amount of exciting new information on the signal transduction pathway in bacteria has been unearthed.



Natural Antimicrobial Agents

Natural Antimicrobial Agents Author Jean-Michel Mérillon
ISBN-10 9783319670454
Release 2018-02-08
Pages 337
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Documenting the latest research in the field of different pathogenic organisms, this book presents the current scenario about promising antimicrobials in the following areas: Part I. Plants as source of antibacterials, Part II. Naturally occurring antifungal natural products, Part III. Antiparasitic natural products, Part IV. Antiviral natural products. Renowned scientists from the globe have been selected as authors to contribute chapters. Use of plants for various ailments is as old as human civilization and continuous efforts are being made to improve medicinal plants or to product their bioactive secondary metabolites in high amounts through various technologies. About 200,000 natural products of plant origin are known and many more are being identified from higher plants and micro-organisms. Some plants based drugs are used since centuries and there is no alternative medicine for many such drugs as cardiac glycosides. Drug discovery from medicinal plants or marine micro-organisms continues to provide an important source of new drug leads. Research on new antibacterials represents a real and timely challenge of this century, particularly for the treatment of infections caused by clinical isolates that show multidrug resistance. The main microorganisms involved in the resistance process have been identified and given the acronym ESKAPE for Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis including highly drug-resistant strains (XDR-TB) has also emerged as one of the most important clinical challenges of this century. Plants of diverse taxa and marine micro-organisms are rich source of these antimicrobials. An attempt has been made to compile the recent information about natural sources of antibacterials and their sustainable utilization. Increased panic of these pathogens warrants a growing demand for research to undertake the threat of multidrug resistance. The search for new antifungal, antiparasitic and antiviral natural products is far from devoid of interest. According to the WHO report in 2013, malaria still represents some 207 million cases worldwide and more than 3 billion of people are still exposed to this risk. Similarly, about 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis. The fight against some viruses also requires that the research on natural products continue. For example, even if an antiretroviral with direct action was recently approved in Europe in 2013, its high cost does not allow to offer it to an exposed population in countries where the cost of drugs remains a problem for a large part of the population. These books are useful to researchers and students in microbiology, biotechnology, pharmacology, chemistry and biology as well as medical professionals.



Modeling the Transmission and Prevention of Infectious Disease

Modeling the Transmission and Prevention of Infectious Disease Author Christon J. Hurst
ISBN-10 9783319606163
Release 2017-08-31
Pages 286
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This volume focuses on blocking disease transmission and the ecological perspective of pathogens and pathogenic processes. The chapters on blocking transmission cover the environmental safety of space flight, biocides and biocide resistance, as well as infection control in healthcare facilities. The book also offers insights into the ecological aspects of infectious disease, introducing the reader to the role of indigenous gut microbiota in maintaining human health and current discussions on environmentally encountered bacterial and fungal pathogens including species that variously cause the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer and coccidioidomycosis. Further, it explores the influenza A virus as an example for understanding zoonosis. It is a valuable resource for microbiologists and biomedical scientists alike.



The Biological Basis of Cancer

The Biological Basis of Cancer Author Robert G. McKinnell
ISBN-10 9780521844581
Release 2006-08-28
Pages 475
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This is a revised and updated edition of a text used in undergraduate courses on cancer biology. It covers everything from the molecular basis of cancer to clinical aspects of the subject, and has a lengthy bibliography designed to assist newcomers with the cancer literature. An introduction acquaints students with the biological principles of cancer and the human dimensions of the disease by considering genuine cases of cancer in fictionalized letters. Other chapters discuss cancer pathology, metastasis, carcinogenesis, genetics, oncogenes and tumor suppressors, epidemiology, and the biological basis of cancer treatment. Also included are an appendix with descriptions of common forms of cancer, a glossary of cancer-related terms and colour plates to illustrate the pathology of many of the types of cancer discussed in the text. Upper-division undergraduates with a background in freshman biology and chemistry, as well as beginning graduate students will find this a valuable text.



Beneficial Microorganisms in Medical and Health Applications

Beneficial Microorganisms in Medical and Health Applications Author Min-Tze Liong
ISBN-10 9783319232133
Release 2015-12-12
Pages 261
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This volume is devoted to the application of microorganisms in medical treatment and health protection. Topics discussed include the role of probiotics in immune modulation, in prevention of influenza, and in atopic dermatitis. Further chapters cover aspects such as the relation of the gut microbiome and stress, the immune system, the regulation of inflammation, the benefits of Bifidobacterium for infants, and bacteriocin in medical applications, as well as the use of in vitro models of the gastrointestinal tract, omics approaches for targeting microbial health potential and the production of hepatitis B vaccines. This volume will be of particular interest to scientists working in the fields of clinical medicine, applied microbiology, pharmacy and public health.



The Seven Mysteries of Life

The Seven Mysteries of Life Author Guy Murchie
ISBN-10 0395957915
Release 1999
Pages 690
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Mixing science with philosophy, the author contemplates what he perceives to be the seven mysteries of life, ranging from evolution to divinity



Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment

Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment Author Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
ISBN-10 9783319477442
Release 2017-06-16
Pages 400
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This book describes the vast variety of xenobiotics, such as pesticides, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, agrochemicals and other pollutants, their interactions with the soil environment, and the currently available strategies and techniques for soil decontamination and bioremediation. Topics covered include: transport mechanisms of pollutants along the Himalayas; use of earthworms in biomonitoring; metagenomic strategies for assessing contaminated sites; xenobiotics in the food chain; phyto-chemical remediation; biodegradation by fungi; and the use of enzymes and potential microbes in biotransformation. Accordingly, the book offers a valuable guide for scientists in the fields of environmental ecology, soil and food sciences, agriculture, and applied microbiology.



Aquatic Biofilms

Aquatic Biofilms Author Helena Guasch Anna M. Romani
ISBN-10 9781910190180
Release 2016-01-15
Pages 242
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Biofilms in aquatic ecosystems colonize various surfaces (sand, rocks, leaves) and play a key role in the environment. Aquatic biofilms supply energy and organic matter to the food chain, they are important in recycling organic matter and contribute to water quality. This book is a concise review of the current knowledge on aquatic biofilms with an emphasis on the characteristics and ecology of biofilms in natural ecosystems and a focus on biofilm applications linked to water pollution problems. The volume is divided into three sections: Biofilms Mode of Life; Biofilms and Pollution; and New Technologies using Biofilms. In the first section the aquatic biofilm mode of life is described and reviewed. Key aspects covered include the three-dimensional structure and cell to cell communication of biofilms, their dynamic prokaryotic diversity and their vital role in biogeochemical cycles. In the second part of the book the use of biofilms in water quality is comprehensively covered. Chapters discuss biofilms in water quality, environmental risk assessment, monitoring and ecotoxicological approaches. Further topics include biofilm development in sewage pipes and the potential for microbial transformations in these systems. The final section focuses on important examples of novel technologies based on biofilms for water treatment, including the biodegradation of pollutants, the application of bioelectrogenic biofilms, and the biofilm capacity for nitrogen removal. With contributions from ecologists, engineers and microbiologists this book presents scientists and technicians with up-to-date knowledge and a clear understanding of aquatic biofilms from different and complementary points of view. An essential reference book for anyone working with biofilms.



Processes of Believing The Acquisition Maintenance and Change in Creditions

Processes of Believing  The Acquisition  Maintenance  and Change in Creditions Author Hans-Ferdinand Angel
ISBN-10 9783319509242
Release 2017-04-13
Pages 476
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This volume answers the question: Why do we believe what we believe? It examines current research on the concept of beliefs, and the development in our understanding of the process of believing. It takes into account empirical findings in the field of neuroscience regarding the processes that underlie beliefs, and discusses the notion that beyond the interactive exploratory analysis of sensory information from the complex outside world, humans engage in an evaluative analysis by which they attribute personal meaning and relevance to the probabilistic representations of objects and events. Beliefs exert a strong influence on behaviour, decision-making, and identifying and solving problems. Despite their importance, beliefs have until recently not been at the centre of scientific interest. In fact, “belief” is an ill-defined phenomenon. From a transdisciplinary perspective the actual approaches to understanding belief seem incompatible as they attempt to highlight such different topics as “belief – religion”, “belief – spirituality”, “belief – faith”, “belief – knowledge”, “belief – attitude”, “belief – disbelief”, “belief – illusion”, and “believing – brain function”. This situation contradicts the idea that belief is close to pathological phenomena and that it should be eliminated from scientific discussions. Rather, believing is fundamental for understanding the many problems of every-day life. In fact, the book shows that beliefs are relevant for politics, international affairs, economy, law, or religions also in modern societies. This book presents the increasing scientific interest in beliefs and believing, and reflects the change in focus from the content aspect of belief towards the fluid nature of believing.



Staying with the Trouble

Staying with the Trouble Author Donna J. Haraway
ISBN-10 9780822373780
Release 2016-08-19
Pages 304
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In the midst of spiraling ecological devastation, multispecies feminist theorist Donna J. Haraway offers provocative new ways to reconfigure our relations to the earth and all its inhabitants. She eschews referring to our current epoch as the Anthropocene, preferring to conceptualize it as what she calls the Chthulucene, as it more aptly and fully describes our epoch as one in which the human and nonhuman are inextricably linked in tentacular practices. The Chthulucene, Haraway explains, requires sym-poiesis, or making-with, rather than auto-poiesis, or self-making. Learning to stay with the trouble of living and dying together on a damaged earth will prove more conducive to the kind of thinking that would provide the means to building more livable futures. Theoretically and methodologically driven by the signifier SF—string figures, science fact, science fiction, speculative feminism, speculative fabulation, so far—Staying with the Trouble further cements Haraway's reputation as one of the most daring and original thinkers of our time.



Integrative Gastroenterology

Integrative Gastroenterology Author Gerard Mullin
ISBN-10 9780195371109
Release 2011-06-27
Pages 688
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Digestive complaints have become increasingly common. Recent statistics show that gastrointestinal complaints account for nearly a third of all visits to primary care doctors and that nearly one in six Americans suffer from digestive disease.In this volume, an international panel of leading experts provides a wealth of information for health care practitioners and consumers on the rationale, methods, modalities, and efficacy of integrative solutions for gastrointestinal disorders. Coverage includes a diverse range of treatment methods, such as meditation, massage, yoga, supplements, special diets, energy medicine, homeopathy, and acupuncture, as well as a special section devoted to mind-body medicine in digestive health and disease. In discussing unconventional treatments, the authors address many of the controversies that surround the remedies.