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Microfabricated Cortical Neuroprostheses

Microfabricated Cortical Neuroprostheses Author André Mercanzini
ISBN-10 9781482247152
Release 2011-01-14
Pages 250
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The use of neural implants for stimulation and recording show excellent promise in restoring certain functions to the central nervous system; and neuroprostheses remains one of the most important tools of neuroscientists for the elucidation of the brain's function. Ailments such as Parkinson's disease, obesity, blindness, and epilepsy are being studied from this angle. Development of better electrodes for recording and stimulation is therefore critical to ensure continuing progress in this field. This book addresses one of the main clinical complications with the use of electrodes, namely the reaction of the neurological tissue in the immediate vicinity of an implanted device. The authors describe new techniques for assessing this phenomenon, as well as new microfabrication techniques to impede the inflammatory response of the brain. Inflammation can adversely effect these devices, limiting their lifetime and reducing their effectiveness. The measurement protocols and improved fabrication protocols described within these pages will become standard tools in the future of neuroprostheses. The author holds two U.S. patents on microassembly and is also a Review Editor for Frontiers in Neuroengineering.



Advances in Nanotechnology Research and Application 2011 Edition

Advances in Nanotechnology Research and Application  2011 Edition Author
ISBN-10 9781464920585
Release 2012-01-09
Pages 8758
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Advances in Nanotechnology Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Nanotechnology. The editors have built Advances in Nanotechnology Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Nanotechnology in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Nanotechnology Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.



Robot Programming by Demonstration

Robot Programming by Demonstration Author Sylvain Calinon
ISBN-10 1439808678
Release 2009-08-24
Pages 222
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Recent advances in RbD have identified a number of key issues for ensuring a generic approach to the transfer of skills across various agents and contexts. This book focuses on the two generic questions of what to imitate and how to imitate and proposes active teaching methods.



Neuroprosthetics

Neuroprosthetics Author Justin C. Sanchez
ISBN-10 9781466553248
Release 2015-11-18
Pages 236
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Master the tools of design thinking using Neuroprosthetics: Principles and Applications. Developed from successfully tested material used in an undergraduate and graduate level course taught to biomedical engineering and neuroscience students, this book focuses on the use of direct neural sensing and stimulation as a therapeutic intervention for complex disorders of the brain. It covers the theory and applications behind neuroprosthetics and explores how neuroprosthetic design thinking can enhance value for users of a direct neural interface. The book explains the fundamentals of design thinking, introduces essential concepts from neuroscience and engineering illustrating the major components of neuroprosthetics, and presents practical applications. In addition to describing the approach of design thinking (based on facts about the user’s needs, desires, habits, attitudes, and experiences with neuroprosthetics), it also examines how effectively "human centered" neuroprosthetics can address people’s needs and interactions in their daily lives. Identifying concepts and features of devices that work well with users of a direct neural interface, this book: Outlines the signal sensing capabilities and trade-offs for common electrode designs, and determines the most appropriate electrode for any neuroprosthetic application Specifies neurosurgical techniques and how electronics should be tailored to capture neural signals Provides an understanding of the mechanisms of neural–electrode performance and information contained in neural signals Provides understanding of neural decoding in neuroprosthetic applications Describes the strategies that can be used to promote long-term therapeutic interventions for humans through the use of neuroprosthetics The first true primary text for undergraduate and graduate students in departments of neuroscience and bioengineering that covers the theory and applications behind this science, Neuroprosthetics: Principles and Applications provides the fundamental knowledge needed to understand how electrodes translate neural activity into signals that are useable by machines and enables readers to master the tools of design thinking and apply them to any neuroprosthetic application.



Handbook of Neuroprosthetic Methods

Handbook of Neuroprosthetic Methods Author Warren E. Finn
ISBN-10 9781420040876
Release 2002-12-16
Pages 456
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Work in the field of neuroprosthetics requires multidisciplinary teams, but these collaborators must meet on common ground to develop an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of each part of a bioengineering project. The Handbook of Neuroprosthetic Methods provides a comprehensive resource for the techniques, methodologies, and options available to properly design and undertake experiments within the field of neuroprosthetics. It combines the most commonly employed concepts, applications, and knowledge from the many disciplines associated with neuroprosthetic research to foster more effective, profitable, and productive collaborations. From basic neurophysiology to emerging technologies, this book provides a clear introduction to the entire range of neuroprosthetic systems. Each chapter includes background information, methodology, illustrative figures that clarify experimental methods, and tables that outline and compare experimental choices. The last part of each chapter provides practical applications and examples that relate the topic to the actual design and implementation of a neuroprosthetic system or device. Through its exploration of a variety of developmental processes, the book provides guidance on issues that have yet to be solved, strategies for solving such problems, and the pitfalls often encountered when developing neural prostheses. Whether you are new to or a veteran of the field, whether you work directly or indirectly with neuroprosthesis projects, the Handbook of Neuroprosthetic Methods provides an accessible common ground for all involved in neuroprosthetic design and research.



Implantable Neuroprostheses for Restoring Function

Implantable Neuroprostheses for Restoring Function Author Kevin Kilgore
ISBN-10 9781782421092
Release 2015-02-24
Pages 456
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Research and developments in neuroprostheses are providing scientists with the potential to greatly improve the lives of individuals who have lost some function. Neuroprostheses can help restore or substitute motor and sensory functions which may have been damaged as a result of injury or disease. However, these minute implantable sensors also provide scientists with challenges. This important new book provides readers with a comprehensive review of neuroprostheses. Chapters in part one are concerned with the fundamentals of these devices. Part two looks at neuroprostheses for restoring sensory function whilst part three addresses neuroprostheses for restoring motor function. The final set of chapters discusses significant considerations concerning these sensors. Systematic and comprehensive coverage of neuroprostheses Covers the fundamentals of neuroprostheses, their application in restoring sensory and motor function and an analysis of the future trends Keen focus on industry needs in the field of biomaterials



Bio inspired Flying Robots

Bio inspired Flying Robots Author Jean-Christophe Zufferey
ISBN-10 1420066846
Release 2008-04-24
Pages 205
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This book demonstrates how bio-inspiration can lead to fully autonomous flying robots without relying on external aids. Most existing aerial robots fly in open skies, far from obstacles, and rely on external beacons, mainly GPS, to localise and navigate. However, these robots are not able to fly at low altitude or in confined environments, and yet this poses absolutely no difficulty to insects. Indeed, flying insects display efficient flight control capabilities in complex environments despite their limited weight and relatively tiny brain size. From sensor suite to control strategies, the literature on flying insects is reviewed from an engineering perspective in order to extract useful principles that are then applied to the synthesis of artificial indoor flyers. Artificial evolution is also utilised to search for alternative control systems and behaviors that match the constraints of small flying robots. Specifically, the basic sensory modalities of insects, vision, gyroscopes and airflow sense, are applied to develop navigation controllers for indoor flying robots. These robots are capable of mapping sensor information onto actuator commands in real time to maintain altitude, stabilize the course and avoid obstacles. The most prominent result of this novel approach is a 10-gram microflyer capable of fully autonomous operation in an office-sized room using fly-inspired vision, inertial and airspeed sensors. This book is intended for all those interested in autonomous robotics, in academia and industry.



Analysis and Design Principles of MEMS Devices

Analysis and Design Principles of MEMS Devices Author Minhang Bao
ISBN-10 008045562X
Release 2005-04-12
Pages 328
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Sensors and actuators are now part of our everyday life and appear in many appliances, such as cars, vending machines and washing machines. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) are micro systems consisting of micro mechanical sensors, actuators and micro electronic circuits. A variety of MEMS devices have been developed and many mass produced, but the information on these is widely dispersed in the literature. This book presents the analysis and design principles of MEMS devices. The information is comprehensive, focusing on microdynamics, such as the mechanics of beam and diaphragm structures, air damping and its effect on the motion of mechanical structures. Using practical examples, the author examines problems associated with analysis and design, and solutions are included at the back of the book. The ideal advanced level textbook for graduates, Analysis and Design Principles of MEMS Devices is a suitable source of reference for researchers and engineers in the field. * Presents the analysis and design principles of MEMS devices more systematically than ever before. * Includes the theories essential for the analysis and design of MEMS includes the dynamics of micro mechanical structures * A problem section is included at the end of each chapter with answers provided at the end of the book.



Innovative Neuromodulation

Innovative Neuromodulation Author Jeffrey E. Arle
ISBN-10 9780128005965
Release 2017-01-16
Pages 340
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Innovative Neuromodulation serves as an extensive reference that includes a basic introduction to the relevant aspects of clinical neuromodulation that is followed by an in-depth discussion of the innovative surgical and therapeutic applications that currently exist or are in development. This information is critical for neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists, bioengineers, and other proceduralists, providing a clear presentation of the frontiers of this exciting and medically important area of physiology. As neuromodulation remains an exciting and rapidly advancing field—appealing to many disciplines—the editors’ initial work (Essential Neuromodulation, 2011) is well complemented by this companion volume. Presents a comprehensive reference on the emerging field of neuromodulation that features chapters from leading physicians and researchers in the field Provides commentary for perspectives on different technologies and interventions to heal and improve neurological deficits Contains 300 full-color pages that begin with an overview of the clinical phases involved in neuromodulation, the challenges facing therapies and intraoperative procedures, and innovative solutions for better patient care



The NeuroProcessor

The NeuroProcessor Author Yevgeny Perelman
ISBN-10 9781402087264
Release 2008-08-20
Pages 122
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Understanding brain structure and principles of operation is one of the major challengesofmodernscience.SincetheexperimentsbyGalvanionfrogmuscle contraction in 1792, it is known that electrical impulses lie at the core of the brain activity. The technology of neuro-electronic interfacing, besides its importance for neurophysiological research, has also clinical potential, so called neuropr- thetics. Sensory prostheses are intended to feed sensory data into patient’s brain by means of neurostimulation. Cochlear prostheses [1] are one example of sensory prostheses that are already used in patients. Retinal prostheses are currently under research [2]. Recent neurophysiological experiments [3, 4] show that brain signals recorded from motor cortex carry information regarding the movement of subject’s limbs (Fig. 1.1). These signals can be further used to control ext- nal machines [4] that will replace missing limbs, opening the ?eld of motor prosthetics, devices that will restore lost limbs or limb control. Fig. 1.1. Robotic arm controlled by monkey motor cortex signals. MotorLab, U- versity of Pittsburgh. Prof Andy Schwartz, U. Pitt 2 1 Introduction Another group of prostheses would provide treatment for brain diseases, such as prevention of epileptic seizure or the control of tremor associated with Parkinson disease [5]. Brain implants for treatment of Epilepsy and Parkinson symptoms (Fig. 1.2) are already available commercially [6, 7]. Fig. 1.2. Implantable device for Epilepsy seizures treatment [7]. Cyberonics, Inc.



Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells Author Arvind Shah
ISBN-10 1420066749
Release 2010-08-19
Pages 430
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Photovoltaic technology has now developed to the extent that it is close to fulfilling the vision of a "solar-energy world," as devices based on this technology are becoming efficient, low-cost and durable. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of thin-film silicon, a prevalent PV material, in terms of its semiconductor nature, starting out with the physical properties, but concentrating on device applications. A special emphasis is given to amorphous silicon and microcrystalline silicon as photovoltaic materials, along with a model that allows these systems to be physically described in the simplest manner possible, thus allowing the student or scientist/engineer entering the field of thin-film electronics to master a few basic concepts that are distinct from those in the field of conventional semiconductors. The main part of the book deals with solar cells and modules by illustrating the basic functioning of these devices, along with their limitations, design optimization, testing and fabrication methods. Among the manufacturing processes discussed are plasma-assisted and hot-wire deposition, sputtering, and structuring techniques.



Hardware Considerations of Space time Processing in Implantable Neuroprosthetic Devices

Hardware Considerations of Space time Processing in Implantable Neuroprosthetic Devices Author Kyle E. Thomson
ISBN-10 MSU:31293028457475
Release 2006
Pages 104
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Hardware Considerations of Space time Processing in Implantable Neuroprosthetic Devices has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Hardware Considerations of Space time Processing in Implantable Neuroprosthetic Devices also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Hardware Considerations of Space time Processing in Implantable Neuroprosthetic Devices book for free.



Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies

Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies Author Ana Fred
ISBN-10 9783642184710
Release 2011-02-04
Pages 408
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, BIOSTEC 2010, held in Valencia, Spain, in January 2010. The 30 revised full papers presented together with 1 invited lecture were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 410 submissions in two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers cover a wide range of topics and are organized in four general topical sections on healthinf, biodevices, biosignals, and bioinformatics.



Thermodynamics and Energy Systems Analysis

Thermodynamics and Energy Systems Analysis Author Lucien Borel
ISBN-10 9781439894705
Release 2012-02-02
Pages 500
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This book illustrates the basic concepts of phenomenological thermodynamics and how to move from theory to practice by considering problems in the fields of thermodynamics and energy-systems analysis. Many subjects are handled from an energetics or exergetics angle: calorimeters, evaporators, condensers, flow meters, sub or supersonic nozzles, ejectors, compressors, pumps, turbines, combustion processes, heaters, smoke stacks, cooling towers, motors, turbo-reactors, heat pumps, air conditioning, thermo-electrical generators, energy storage, and more.



Animal Intelligence

Animal Intelligence Author Edward Thorndike
ISBN-10 9781351321020
Release 2017-11-30
Pages 297
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Animal Intelligence is a consolidated record of Edward L. Thorndike's theoretical and empirical contributions to the comparative psychology of learning. Thorndike's approach is systematic and comprehensive experimentation using a variety of animals and tasks, all within a laboratory setting. When this book first appeared, it set a compelling example, and helped make the study of animal behavior very much an experimental laboratory science. This landmark study in the investigation of animal intelligence illustrates Thorndike's thinking on the evolution of the mind. It includes his formal statement of the influential law of effect, which had a significant impact on other behaviorists. Hull's law of primary reinforcement was closely related to the law of effect and Skinner acknowledged that the process of operant conditioning was probably that described in the law of effect. The new introduction by Darryl Bruce is an in-depth study of Thorndike's legacy to comparative psychology as well as a thorough retrospective review of Animal Intelligence. He includes a biographical introduction of the behaviorist and then delves into his theories and work. Among the topics Bruce covers with respect to Thorndike's studies are the nature of animal intelligence, the laws of learning and connectionism, implications for comparative psychology, and relation to theories of other behaviorists. Animal Intelligence is an intriguing analysis that will be of importance to psychologists and animal behaviorists.



Microfabrication of an implantable silicone microelectrode an epiretinal prosthesis

Microfabrication of an implantable silicone microelectrode an epiretinal prosthesis Author Mariam Nader Maghribi
ISBN-10 UCAL:X66407
Release 2003
Pages 410
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Millions of people suffering from diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration are legally blind due to the loss of photoreceptor function. Fortunately a large percentage of the neural cells connected to the photoreceptors remain viable, and electrical stimulation of these cells has been shown to result in visual perception. These findings have generated worldwide efforts to develop a retinal prosthesis device, with the hope of restoring vision. Advances in microfabrication, integrated circuits, and wireless technologies provide the means to reach this challenging goal. This dissertation describes the development of innovative silicone-based microfabrication techniques for producing an implantable microelectrode array. The microelectrode array is a component of an epiretinal prosthesis being developed by a multi-laboratory consortium. This array will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces. Because the array is intended as a long-term implant, vital biological and physical design requirements must be met. A retinal implant poses difficult engineering challenges due to the size of the intraocular cavity and the delicate retina. Not only does it have to be biocompatible in terms of cytotoxicity and degradation, but it also has to be structurally biocompatible, with regard to smooth edges and high conformability; basically mimicking the biological tissue. This is vital to minimize stress and prevent physical damage to the retina. Also, the device must be robust to withstand the forces imposed on it during fabrication and implantation. In order to meet these biocompatibility needs, the use of non-conventional microfabrication materials such as silicone is required. This mandates the enhancement of currently available polymer-based fabrication techniques and the development of new microfabrication methods. Through an iterative process, devices were designed, fabricated, tested and implanted into a canine eye. Metal traces were embedded within a thin substrate fabricated using poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), an inert biocompatible elastomeric material with high oxygen permeability and low water permeability. Due to its highly conformable nature, PDMS contacted the curved retinal surface uniformly. Fundamental material characteristics were examined to develop reliable and repeatable fabrication processes.



Recent Advances on the Modular Organization of the Cortex

Recent Advances on the Modular Organization of the Cortex Author Manuel F. Casanova
ISBN-10 9789401799003
Release 2015-06-22
Pages 436
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The way you perceive the world, plan, make decisions and communicate your thoughts and feelings depends on the function and hierarchical arrangement of cortical modules. The ability to both provide adaptive responses to our ever-changing environment and to pursue a useful role in society is the most important problem faced by present day neuroscientists. In essence, the workings of cortical modules define the nature of our soul, making each of us who we are. This book provides a breath-taking view of different perspectives by world renowned authorities as to the workings of these cortical modules both in the normal state and in mental disorders.