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Microgravity and Vision Impairments in Astronauts

Microgravity and Vision Impairments in Astronauts Author Erik Seedhouse
ISBN-10 9783319178707
Release 2015-09-08
Pages 96
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Recent missions on board the International Space Station have revealed previously unreported physiological consequences of long duration space flight, particularly in eyesight, and in this Brief Dr. Seedhouse reviews the existing theories on what causes this degeneration and how long it will last. Notably, 60% of long-duration crews have reported subjective degradation in vision, a clear indication that further study is necessary before astronauts embark on even longer-term space missions. Decreased near-visual acuity was reported in 46% of ISS/Mir crewmembers, resulting in a change of up to 2 dioptres in their refractive correction. It is possible that ophthalmic changes have been present since the first days of spaceflight, but had been attributed to other causes; this approach to the issue as well as other hypotheses are all presented in full to give a broad foundation of the existing knowledge on the topic. The changes have occurred at various times during a mission with varying degrees of visual degradation. Some cases resolved on return to Earth, but several crewmembers have not regained pre-flight visual acuity, indicating the damage may be permanent. One explanation of the syndrome has been attributed to hyperopic shift due to aging, but onboard analysis techniques, including visual acuity assessments, retinal imagery, and ultrasound examination of the eye, has led to the acceptance of a wider syndrome. In addition to vision changes, studies have reported flattening of the globe, swelling of the optic disc (papilledema), choroidal folds in the retina, swelling of the optic nerve sheath, and visual field defects. It is widely hypothesized that this spectrum of symptoms may be explained by an elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). Establishing the provenance of this medical problem, monitoring its occurrence and resolving the symptoms for future long term space missions is a key challenge for space medicine. With this book, readers have an entry point for understanding the full scope of the problem and its possible origins.



Yearbook on Space Policy 2015

Yearbook on Space Policy 2015 Author Cenan Al-Ekabi
ISBN-10 9783709148600
Release 2017-01-02
Pages 307
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The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.



The Twenty First Century Commercial Space Imperative

The Twenty First Century Commercial Space Imperative Author Anthony Young
ISBN-10 9783319189291
Release 2015-06-01
Pages 92
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Young addresses the impressive expansion across existing and developing commercial space business markets, with multiple private companies competing in the payload launch services sector. The author pinpoints the new markets, technologies, and players in the industry, as well as highlighting the overall reasons why it is important for us to develop space. NASA now relies on commercial partners to supply cargo and crew spacecraft and services to and from the International Space Station. The sizes of satellites are diminishing and their capabilities expanding, while costs to orbit are decreasing. Suborbital space tourism holds the potential of new industries and jobs. Commercial space exploration of the Moon and the planets also holds promise. All this activity is a catalyst for anyone interested in joining the developing space industry, from students and researchers to engineers and entrepreneurs. As more and more satellites and rockets are launched and the business of space is expanding at a significant pace, it is increasingly important for scientists and engineers of many disciplines to understand how the business evolved and where it is continuing to develop. The growing field is fully explored in this concise overview to the players in this changing landscape.



Beyond Safety Training

Beyond Safety Training Author Corinne Bieder
ISBN-10 9783319655277
Release 2017-10-11
Pages 159
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book investigates why, despite more and more resources devoted to safety training, expectations are not entirely met, particularly in the industrial sectors that have already achieved a high safety level. It not only reflects the most precious viewpoints of experts from different disciplines, different countries, with experiences in various industrial fields at the cutting edge of theories and practices in terms of safety, professionalization and their relationships. It also consolidates the positioning of the Foundation for an Industrial Safety Culture, highlighting what is currently considered at stake in terms of safety training, taking into account the system of constraints the different stakeholders are submitted to. It reports some success stories as well as elements which could explain the observed plateau in terms of outcome. It identifies some levers for evolution for at-risk industry and outlines a possible research agenda to go further with experimental solutions.



Biotechnology in Space

Biotechnology in Space Author Günter Ruyters
ISBN-10 9783319640549
Release 2017-12-21
Pages 109
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This book summarizes the early successes, drawbacks and accomplishments in cell biology and cell biotechnology achieved by the latest projects performed on the International Space Station ISS. It also depicts outcomes of experiments in tissue engineering, cancer research and drug design and reveals the chances that research in Space offers for medical application on Earth. This SpringerBriefs volume provides an overview on the latest international activities in Space and gives an outlook on the potential of biotechnological research in Space in future. This volume is written for students and researchers in Biomedicine, Biotechnology and Pharmacology and may specifically be of interest to scientists with focus on protein sciences, crystallization, tissue engineering, drug design and cancer research.



Sensory Motor and Behavioral Research in Space

Sensory Motor and Behavioral Research in Space Author Reinhard Hilbig
ISBN-10 9783319682013
Release 2017-10-24
Pages 86
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This volume of the series SpringerBriefs in Space Life Sciences describes findings from space and accompanying ground research related to spatial orientation, posture and locomotion, cognition and psychomotor function. The results are not only of importance to health and performance of astronauts during their space mission, but also impact people on Earth, especially in the ageing societies of the Western countries. The space environment produces mismatches between sensory inputs from canal and otolith afferents which are difficult to study in humans, and are therefore studied in the fish model. Brain and vestibular organ of fish are analyzed under altered gravitational conditions; particularly weightlessness and structural failures as well as malfunctions in different inner ear components are investigated and discussed. The book is aiming at students, engineers and scientists in space and aging research, as well as psychology, neurosciences and sensory motor research.



Cardiovascular System Red Blood Cells and Oxygen Transport in Microgravity

Cardiovascular System  Red Blood Cells  and Oxygen Transport in Microgravity Author Hanns-Christian Gunga
ISBN-10 9783319332260
Release 2016-07-14
Pages 74
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This book comprehensively describes the physiological changes and consequences that occur in humans during spaceflight. It specifically presents the adaptations of the cardiovascular and the respiratory system. Specific changes occurring after 10, 20 or more days in space are depicted. Furthermore, the book explains various effective countermeasures that are required upon return of the astronauts to Earth. The book is a must-have for all biomedical and clinical researchers in the field of cardiovascular biology and respiration, and a fascinating reading for all interested laymen, who wish to understand a bit more about spaceflight research and technology.



The Immune System in Space Are we prepared

The Immune System in Space  Are we prepared Author Alexander Choukèr
ISBN-10 9783319414669
Release 2016-10-21
Pages 127
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This book gives insight into the mechanism of the immune system and the influence of the environment on earth. Further, the book explains the changes that occur in our immune system in the absence of gravity and their fundamental consequences. Several limiting factors for human health and performance in microgravity have been clearly identified as an unacceptable risk for long-term and interplanetary flights. Serious concerns arose whether spaceflight-associated immune system dysfunction ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond Earth's orbit. The immune system has undergone many evolutionary steps to cope with a new and changing environment, but `space` has not been evolutionary experienced before. Through endocrine orchestration of cell functions, cell to cell communications and intracellular mechanisms the human body and his immune system have an enormous capacity to adapt and react to altered environmental conditions. Thus, the special sensitivity to altered gravity renders the immune system an ideal biological model system to understand if and how gravity on Earth is required for the normal function of cells and cellular networks. It is one of the most fundamental challenges to find out, if our organism and our cellular machinery are able to live and to adequately perform without the gravity field of Earth. The book is written for immunologists and researchers in human physiology under normal and stressfull conditions.



A Scenario for Interstellar Exploration and Its Financing

A Scenario for Interstellar Exploration and Its Financing Author Giovanni Bignami
ISBN-10 9788847053373
Release 2013-04-10
Pages 101
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This book develops a credible scenario for interstellar exploration and colonization. In so doing, it examines: • the present situation and prospects for interstellar exploration technologies; • where to go: the search for habitable planets; • the motivations for space travel and colonization; • the financial mechanisms required to fund such enterprises. The final section of the book analyzes the uncertainties surrounding the presented scenario. The purpose of building a scenario is not only to pinpoint future events but also to highlight the uncertainties that may propel the future in different directions. Interstellar travel and colonization requires a civilization in which human beings see themselves as inhabitants of a single planet and in which global governance of these processes is conducted on a cooperative basis. The key question is, then, whether our present civilization is ready for such an endeavor, reflecting the fact that the critical uncertainties are political and cultural in nature. It is written in such a way as to allow the non-professional reader to become part of the debate on the future of space programs.



Spaceports Around the World A Global Growth Industry

Spaceports Around the World  A Global Growth Industry Author Erik Seedhouse
ISBN-10 9783319468464
Release 2016-12-31
Pages 130
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This brief presents a concise description of the existing spaceport market, the technologies being tested and developed at them, and the private companies that are making them possible. While NASA has its own plan for the future of space exploration, one that includes a new shuttle, an interplanetary spacecraft, and astronauts going to Mars, many people believe that the real future of space exploration is currently centered around dozens of commercial spaceports, financed by entrepreneurs inspired not only by profit but by the dream of creating a new space age, one not limited by bureaucracies or by budget allocations. Commercial spaceports in Florida, Texas, Oklahoma, Virginia and Alaska, as well as in countries like Curaçao and Sweden, are becoming home to dozens of private aerospace companies and provide a place where cutting-edge technology can be developed, tested and launched into space. Based on original interviews with principles at the various companies involved and on-site observations at the Mojave Air and Space Port, the author traces the early days of the spaceport movement and outlines what lies ahead.



The Rise of Private Actors in the Space Sector

The Rise of Private Actors in the Space Sector Author Alessandra Vernile
ISBN-10 9783319738024
Release 2018-03-12
Pages 101
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This book provides a broad set of information and data on the rise of private actors in the space sector, organized into different topics covering the various trends that have shaped the space sector during the last decade. The book, written in a descriptive fashion, concludes with recommendations for future analytical research on the topic.



Space Radiation and Astronaut Safety

Space Radiation and Astronaut Safety Author Erik Seedhouse
ISBN-10 9783319746159
Release 2018-04-10
Pages 122
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This brief explores the biological effects of long-term radiation on astronauts in deep space. As missions progress beyond Earth's orbit and away from the protection of its magnetic shielding, astronauts risk constant exposure to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. The text concisely addresses the full spectrum of biomedical consequences from exposure to space radiation and goes on to present possible ways to mitigate such dangers and protect astronauts within the limitations of existing technologies.



The NeuroMuscular System From Earth to Space Life Science

The NeuroMuscular System  From Earth to Space Life Science Author Dieter Blottner
ISBN-10 9783319122984
Release 2014-11-25
Pages 92
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The book provides fundamental new insights in the structure and function of the healthy NeuroMuscular system. Recent findings suggest that the musculoskeletal system that supports movement control on Earth is controlled by unique principles of structural, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Mechanical loading by working against normal gravity helps to support principal structures in bone, muscle and associated subcellular scaffold components. Disuse or immobilization of the body in bed rest on Earth or in microgravity in Space result in considerable loss of bone, muscle and force with downregulation of neuromuscular activity resulting in impaired performance control. The goal is to develop exercise prescriptions to maintain postural control in normal life, aging and rehabilitation on Earth as well as for an adequate human performance management in Space.



The Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology

The Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology Author William C. Faquin
ISBN-10 9783319712857
Release 2018-01-31
Pages 182
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This volume describes a uniform international approach for classifying and reporting salivary gland FNA samples. The new reporting system is evidence-based using data from the literature as well as upon the experience of a multi-disciplinary group of leading experts involved in the field of salivary gland cytopathology. Each diagnostic category of this novel salivary gland reporting system includes detailed descriptions of the cytologic criteria as well as a comprehensive set of photomicrographs demonstrating all of the key microscopic features along with annotated descriptions for each image. Designed as a practical book with easy readability, The Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology combines the high-quality images of an atlas with a logical approach described in concise text-form and in line-drawing algorithms. It presents for the first time, an international cytologic reporting system for salivary gland lesions designed and endorsed by a panel of experts in the field.



Pigmentary Skin Disorders

Pigmentary Skin Disorders Author Prasad Kumarasinghe
ISBN-10 9783319704197
Release 2018-04-12
Pages 297
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Diagnosis and management of pigmentary skin disorders has become an important area in dermatology as the demand for treatment of these conditions has increased exponentially, particularly with skin of color. However, coverage in standard texts regarding various pigmentary disorders is insufficient and the need for focused attention on new developments and latest research findings is growing. Pigmentary Skin Disorders is written and edited by international leaders in the field and chapters include a clinician’s approach to categorizing pigmentary disorders, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, lasers in pigmentary disorders, and drug-induced pigmentation. This volume is part of Springer's Updates in Clinical Dermatology series which aims to promote the rapid and efficient transfer of medical research into clinical practice. Covering new developments and innovations in all fields of clinical dermatology, it provides the clinician with a review and summary of recent research and its implications for clinical practice. Each volume is focused on a clinically relevant topic and explains how research results impact diagnostics, treatment options and procedures, as well as patient management. The reader-friendly volumes are highly structured with core messages, summaries, tables, diagrams and illustrations and are written by internationally well-known experts in the field.



The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology

The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology Author Syed Z. Ali
ISBN-10 9783319605708
Release 2017-08-31
Pages 236
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The first edition of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology was published in 2010 and has greatly influenced the practice of thyroid cytopathology. The terminology proposed and illustrated in this text has been widely adopted not only in the U.S. but also abroad. It has become an essential text for pathology trainees and practicing pathologists examining thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. Since 2010, there have been a number of important advances in the management of patients with nodular thyroid disease and in the understanding of the biology of thyroid cancer. This new edition includes these advances that impact terminology for reporting thyroid cytopathology. In particular, it incorporates a discussion of the recently implemented and now widespread use of molecular testing of thyroid FNA samples, which has transformed the management of patients with nodular thyroid disease in the U.S.. In addition, this edition accommodates the recent changes to the classification of thyroid cancer, most notably the introduction of a new thyroid diagnosis, that of "non-invasive follicular tumor with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)". Thoroughly revised and updated, The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, Second Edition will provide the reader with a unified approach to diagnosing and reporting thyroid FNA interpretations. It serves as a reference guide not just for pathologists, but also endocrinologists, surgeons, and radiologists.



Exercise in Space

Exercise in Space Author Stefan Schneider
ISBN-10 9783319295718
Release 2016-05-13
Pages 108
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This volume of the Series SpringerBriefs in Space Life Sciences summarizes the newest finding in the field of mental health and physiological exercise in Space. Currently two major challenges are impacting human health in the western societies, one being a move towards a sedentary society, the second one being longevity. Both have a considerable impact on physical as well as mental health. Space life science research helps to understand the underlying degenerative physiological and neuro-psychological processes as living in space, living in microgravity can be regarded as a time lapse of the sedentary and aging human being. Translational research of the past years has shown that exercise can be regarded as a key factor to counteract physical and mental deconditioning in space, guaranteeing a holistic approach to health and a benefit to the socio-demographic changes of our society. The book is written for scientists in biomedicine, more specific in aging research, sports physiology and neurosciences.