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Mineral Dust

Mineral Dust Author Peter Knippertz
ISBN-10 9789401789783
Release 2014-09-01
Pages 509
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This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions. Scientific observations and results are presented, along with numerous illustrations. This work has an interdisciplinary appeal and will engage scholars in geology, geography, chemistry, meteorology and physics, amongst others with an interest in the Earth system and environmental change. body>



Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Author
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822022872253
Release 2002
Pages
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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society book for free.



Geology of Clays

Geology of Clays Author Georges Millot
ISBN-10 9783662416099
Release 2013-12-11
Pages 430
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Geology of Clays has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Geology of Clays also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Geology of Clays book for free.



The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes

The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes Author R. A. Bagnold
ISBN-10 9780486141190
Release 2012-06-08
Pages 320
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The first book to deal exclusively with the behavior of blown sand and related land forms, its accessible style makes it an enduring reference. 84 figures. 16 halftones.



Thermodynamics of Minerals and Melts

Thermodynamics of Minerals and Melts Author R.C. Newton
ISBN-10 9781461258711
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 304
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Today large numbers of geoscientists apply thermodynamic theory to solu tions of a variety of problems in earth and planetary sciences. For most problems in chemistry, the application of thermodynamics is direct and rewarding. Geoscientists, however, deal with complex inorganic and organic substances. The complexities in the nature of mineralogical substances arise due to their involved crystal structure and multicomponental character. As a result, thermochemical solutions of many geological-planetological problems should be attempted only with a clear understanding of the crystal-chemical and thermochemical character of each mineral. The subject of physical geochemistry deals with the elucidation and application of physico-chemical principles to geosciences. Thermodynamics of mineral phases and crystalline solutions form an integral part of it. Developments in mineralogic thermody namics in recent years have been very encouraging, but do not easily reach many geoscientists interested mainly in applications. This series is to provide geoscientists and planetary scientists with current information on the develop ments in thermodynamics of mineral systems, and also provide the active researcher in this rapidly developing field with a forum through which he can popularize the important conclusions of his work. In the first several volumes, we plan to publish original contributions (with an abundant supply of back ground material for the uninitiated reader) and thoughtful reviews from a number of researchers on mineralogic thermodynamics, on the application of thermochemistry to planetary phase equilibria (including meteorites), and on kinetics of geochemical reactions.



Thermodynamics in Mineral Sciences

Thermodynamics in Mineral Sciences Author Ladislav Cemic
ISBN-10 9783540243649
Release 2005-08-02
Pages 386
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Thermodynamics is an important tool to interpreting the conditions at which natural geomaterial equilibrate. It allows one to determine, for example, the equilibrium pressures and temperatures and the nature and chemical composition of phases - volved mineralogical and petrological processes. Simple chemical model systems, which are often studied in the laboratory in order to understand more complicated natural systems, generally consist of few chemical components. In order to use phase equilibrium results obtained from model systems for interpreting the con- tions of formation of natural geologic materials, extrapolations in compositional space and other P-T conditions are often required. This can only be done using the mathematical formalism that is offered by thermodynamics. An number of excellent books on thermodynamics with regards to the fields of mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry have been published over past 40 years. Many of them are, however, written for more advanced students and experienced - searchers and it is often assumed that the reader already possesses some prior knowledge of the subject. Consequently, discussions and presentations of basic c- cepts, which are necessary for beginning students and others attempting to learn thermodynamics for the first time, are often given short shrift. Therefore, the aim of this book is to explain the basic principles of thermodynamics at an introductory l- el, while trying not to loose much of the mathematical rigor that is one of the most important and central aspects of this subject.



Introduction to Clay Minerals

Introduction to Clay Minerals Author Bruce Velde
ISBN-10 9789401123686
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 198
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Introduction to Clay Minerals is designed to give a detailed, concise and clear introduction to clay mineralogy. Using the information presented here, one should be able to understand clays and their mineralogy, their uses and importance in modern life.



Minerals

Minerals Author Hans-Rudolf Wenk
ISBN-10 9781316425282
Release 2016-09-30
Pages
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The new edition of this popular textbook, once again, provides an indispensable guide for the next generation of mineralogists. Designed for use on one- or two-semester courses, this second edition has been thoughtfully reorganised, making it more accessible to students, whilst still being suitable for an advanced mineralogy course. Additions include expanded introductions to many chapters, a new introductory chapter on crystal chemistry, revised figures, and an extended plates section containing beautiful colour photographs. Text boxes include historical background and case studies to engage students, and end-of-chapter questions help them reinforce concepts. With new online resources to support learning and teaching, including laboratory exercises, PowerPoint slides, useful web links and mineral identification tables, this is a sound investment for students in the fields of geology, materials science and environmental science, and a valuable reference for researchers, collectors and anyone interested in minerals.



The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks

The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks Author Bruce B. Velde
ISBN-10 9783540756347
Release 2008-07-18
Pages 406
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Of huge relevance in a number of fields, this is a survey of the different processes of soil clay mineral formation and the consequences of these processes concerning the soil ecosystem, especially plant and mineral. Two independent systems form soil materials. The first is the interaction of rocks and water, unstable minerals adjusting to surface conditions. The second is the interaction of the biosphere with clays in the upper parts of alteration profiles.



The Rare Earth Elements

The Rare Earth Elements Author J.H.L. Voncken
ISBN-10 9783319268095
Release 2015-12-24
Pages 127
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This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.



Environmental Organic Chemistry

Environmental Organic Chemistry Author René P. Schwarzenbach
ISBN-10 9781118767047
Release 2016-10-12
Pages 1026
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Examines in a pedagogical way all pertinent molecular and macroscopic processes that govern the distribution and fate of organic chemicals in the environment and provides simple modeling tools to quantitatively describe these processes and their interplay in a given environmental system Treats fundamental aspects of chemistry, physics, and mathematical modeling as applied to environmentally relevant problems, and gives a state of the art account of the field Teaches the reader how to relate the structure of a given chemical to its physical chemical properties and intrinsic reactivities Provides a holistic and teachable treatment of phase partitioning and transformation processes, as well as a more focused and tailor-made presentation of physical, mathematical, and modeling aspects that apply to environmental situations of concern Includes a large number of questions and problems allowing teachers to explore the depth of understanding of their students or allowing individuals who use the book for self-study to check their progress Provides a companion website, which includes solutions for all problems as well as a large compilation of physical constants and compound properties



The Science of Clays

The Science of Clays Author Swapna Mukherjee
ISBN-10 9789400766839
Release 2013-10-09
Pages 335
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This book is an attempt to provide a comprehensive and coherent description of three widely separated aspects of clays: the science of clays; the industrial uses of clays; and the role of clays in the environment. Most of the existing literature lacks such an integrated study and this work endeavours to fill that gap. An exhaustive account of the science of clays is presented in Part I of the book, which includes the classification, origin and evolution, composition and internal structure, chemical and physical properties of clays; soil mechanics; and analytical techniques for determining clay constituents. Part II provides a comprehensive description of the applications of clays and their derivatives in various industries, while Part III describes the role of clays in the environment; the pollution caused by clay minerals; and the application of clays in order to prevent environmental hazards. A principal feature of the book is its explanation of how the structure and composition of particular clay types facilitate their specific industrial or environmental applications, thus describing the interrelationship between three widely varying aspects of clay. A number of thought-provoking questions are raised at the end of the work in order to leave readers with a better insight in this regard.



Demystifying Climate Models

Demystifying Climate Models Author Andrew Gettelman
ISBN-10 9783662489598
Release 2016-04-09
Pages 274
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This book demystifies the models we use to simulate present and future climates, allowing readers to better understand how to use climate model results. In order to predict the future trajectory of the Earth’s climate, climate-system simulation models are necessary. When and how do we trust climate model predictions? The book offers a framework for answering this question. It provides readers with a basic primer on climate and climate change, and offers non-technical explanations for how climate models are constructed, why they are uncertain, and what level of confidence we should place in them. It presents current results and the key uncertainties concerning them. Uncertainty is not a weakness but understanding uncertainty is a strength and a key part of using any model, including climate models. Case studies of how climate model output has been used and how it might be used in the future are provided. The ultimate goal of this book is to promote a better understanding of the structure and uncertainties of climate models among users, including scientists, engineers and policymakers.



The Earth s Magnetism

The Earth s Magnetism Author Roberto Lanza
ISBN-10 9783540279808
Release 2006-09-23
Pages 280
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Initially, this book reviews the general characteristics of the Earth’s magnetic field and the magnetic properties of minerals, and then proceeds to introduce the multifold applications of geomagnetism in earth sciences. The authors analyze the contribution of geomagnetism both in more general geological fields, such as tectonics and geodynamics, and in applied ones, such as prospecting and pollution. Primarily, the book is aimed at undergraduate geology or geophysics students. It is geared to provide them with a general overview of geomagnetism, allowing them to understand what contributions this branch of science can offer in the more special sectors of earth sciences. Graduate students and geology researchers will also benefit from it, as it enables them to gain a clear and concise image of the techniques which can be applied in their areas of specialization.



Sustainable Food Systems

Sustainable Food Systems Author Robert Biel
ISBN-10 9781911307099
Release 2016-12-05
Pages 152
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Faced with a global threat to food security, it is perfectly possible that society will respond, not by a dystopian disintegration, but rather by reasserting co-operative traditions. This book, by a leading expert in urban agriculture, offers a genuine solution to today’s global food crisis. By contributing more to feeding themselves, cities can allow breathing space for the rural sector to convert to more organic sustainable approaches. Biel’s approach connects with current debates about agroecology and food sovereignty, asks key questions, and proposes lines of future research. He suggests that today’s food insecurity – manifested in a regime of wildly fluctuating prices – reflects not just temporary stresses in the existing mode of production, but more profoundly the troubled process of generating a new one. He argues that the solution cannot be implemented at a merely technical or political level: the force of change can only be driven by the kind of social movements which are now daring to challenge the existing unsustainable order.Drawing on both his academic research and teaching, and 15 years’ experience as a practicing urban farmer, Biel brings a unique interdisciplinary approach to this key global issue, creating a dialogue between the physical and social sciences



Earth as an Evolving Planetary System

Earth as an Evolving Planetary System Author Kent C. Condie
ISBN-10 9780128037096
Release 2015-12-01
Pages 430
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Earth as an Evolving Planetary System, Third Edition, examines the various subsystems that play a role in the evolution of the Earth, including subsystems in the crust, mantle, core, atmosphere, oceans, and life. This third edition includes 30% new material and, for the first time, includes full color images in both the print and electronic versions. Topics in the great events chapters are now included in the beginning of the book, with the addition of a new feature of breakout boxes for each event. The second half of the book now focuses on a better understanding of Earth's history by looking at the interactions of the subsystems over time. The Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, crustal and mantle evolution, the supercontinent cycle, great events in Earth history, and the Earth in comparison to other planets are also covered. Authored by a world leader in tectonics who also authored the two previous editions Presents comprehensive coverage of the Earth's history that is relevant for both students and teachers Includes important section on Comparative Planetary Evolution, not found in other textbooks All illustrations presented throughout both the print and electronic versions in full color



New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences

New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences Author Committee on New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation
ISBN-10 9780309219242
Release 2012-03-26
Pages 132
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The 2001 National Research Council (NRC) report Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science (BROES) described how basic research in the Earth sciences serves five national imperatives: (1) discovery, use, and conservation of natural resources; (2) characterization and mitigation of natural hazards; (3) geotechnical support of commercial and infrastructure development; (4) stewardship of the environment; and (5) terrestrial surveillance for global security and national defense. This perspective is even more pressing today, and will persist into the future, with ever-growing emphasis. Today's world-with headlines dominated by issues involving fossil fuel and water resources, earthquake and tsunami disasters claiming hundreds of thousands of lives and causing hundreds of billions of dollars in damages, profound environmental changes associated with the evolving climate system, and nuclear weapons proliferation and testing-has many urgent societal issues that need to be informed by sound understanding of the Earth sciences. A national strategy to sustain basic research and training of expertise across the full spectrum of the Earth sciences is motivated by these national imperatives. New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences identifies new and emerging research opportunities in the Earth sciences over the next decade, including surface and deep Earth processes and interdisciplinary research with fields such as ocean and atmospheric sciences, biology, engineering, computer science, and social and behavioral sciences. The report also identifies key instrumentation and facilities needed to support these new and emerging research opportunities. The report describes opportunities for increased cooperation in these new and emerging areas between EAR and other government agency programs, industry, and international programs, and suggests new ways that EAR can help train the next generation of Earth scientists, support young investigators, and increase the participation of underrepresented groups in the field.