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Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems

Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems Author Zahid Amjad
ISBN-10 9781466568686
Release 2013-10-26
Pages 450
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Soluble and insoluble impurities present in water used for domestic and industrial applications can lead to the deposition of unwanted materials on equipment surfaces. Impurities such as dissolved minerals, natural organic compounds, and suspended particles can impact various processes and systems including boiling and cooling processes, desalination, geothermal power generation, milk pasteurization, oil and gas refining, the pulp and paper industry, and biological systems. Understanding the mechanisms of scale inhibition and dispersion is important in addressing the resulting challenges. Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems presents developments in mineral scale formation and control in a variety of industrial and biological systems, providing in-depth discussions on topics important to academic researchers and industrial technologists. With contributions from experts in their respective fields, this book comprises 22 chapters in 5 parts. It begins by addressing precipitation and inhibition of various scale-forming salts—such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium fluoride, and calcium phosphate—in various industrial systems, including boilers, cooling, and high-pressure and high-temperature applications. Part II describes the precipitation and inhibition of salts encountered in sugar refining and geothermal power generation. Part III describes mineral scales that are important in biological systems. Part IV deals with the control of suspended matter in industrial water systems. Part V examines analytical techniques commonly used to characterize mineral scales and deposits during in-house evaluation of new products and deposit samples received for characterization from industrial installations, as well as product failure analyses. Covering the broad scope of mineral scales, this book both reviews current concepts and presents new information, with detailed discussions on fundamental and mechanistic aspects of mineral scale formation and inhibition.



Mineral Scales and Deposits

Mineral Scales and Deposits Author Zahid Amjad
ISBN-10 9780444627520
Release 2015-05-21
Pages 784
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Mineral Scales and Deposits: Scientific and Technological Approaches presents, in an integrated way, the problem of scale deposits (precipitation/crystallization of sparingly-soluble salts) in aqueous systems, both industrial and biological. It covers several fundamental aspects, also offering an applications’ perspective, with the ultimate goal of helping the reader better understand the underlying mechanisms of scale formation, while also assisting the user/reader to solve scale-related challenges. It is ideal for scientists/experts working in academia, offering a number of crystal growth topics with an emphasis on mechanistic details, prediction modules, and inhibition/dispersion chemistry, amongst others. In addition, technologists, consultants, plant managers, engineers, and designers working in industry will find a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation. Provides a unique, detailed focus on scale deposits, includes the basic science and mechanisms of scale formation Present a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation Correlates chemical structure to performance Provides guidelines for easy assessment of a particular case, also including solutions Includes an extensive list of industrial case studies for reference



Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition

Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition Author Z. Amjad
ISBN-10 9781489914002
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 354
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This book documents the proceedings of the symposium, "Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition," held at the American Chemical Society Annual Meeting August 21 to 26, 1994, in Washington, D. C. The symposium, sponsored by the Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, was held in honor of Professor George H. Nancollas for his pioneering work in the field of crystal growth from solution. A total of 30 papers were presented by a wide spectrum of scientists. This book also includes papers that were not presented but were in the symposium program. The separation of a solid by crystallization is one of the oldest and perhaps the most frequently used operations in chemistry. Because of its widespread applicability, in recent years there has been considerable interest exhibited by academic and industrial scientists in understanding the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble salts. The salt systems of great interest in industrial water treatment area (i. e. , cooling and boiler) include carbon ates, sulfates, phosphates, and phosphonates of alkaline earth metals. Although not as common as calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate, barium and strontium sulfates have long plagued oil field and gas production operations. The build-up of these sparingly soluble salts on equipment surfaces results in lower heat transfer efficiency, increased corrosion rates, increased pumping costs, etc. In the laundry application, insoluble calcium carbonate tends to accumulate on washed fabrics and washing equipment parts, resulting in undesirable fabric-encrustation or scaling.



Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition

Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition Author Z. Amjad
ISBN-10 9781489914002
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 354
Download Link Click Here

This book documents the proceedings of the symposium, "Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition," held at the American Chemical Society Annual Meeting August 21 to 26, 1994, in Washington, D. C. The symposium, sponsored by the Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, was held in honor of Professor George H. Nancollas for his pioneering work in the field of crystal growth from solution. A total of 30 papers were presented by a wide spectrum of scientists. This book also includes papers that were not presented but were in the symposium program. The separation of a solid by crystallization is one of the oldest and perhaps the most frequently used operations in chemistry. Because of its widespread applicability, in recent years there has been considerable interest exhibited by academic and industrial scientists in understanding the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble salts. The salt systems of great interest in industrial water treatment area (i. e. , cooling and boiler) include carbon ates, sulfates, phosphates, and phosphonates of alkaline earth metals. Although not as common as calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate, barium and strontium sulfates have long plagued oil field and gas production operations. The build-up of these sparingly soluble salts on equipment surfaces results in lower heat transfer efficiency, increased corrosion rates, increased pumping costs, etc. In the laundry application, insoluble calcium carbonate tends to accumulate on washed fabrics and washing equipment parts, resulting in undesirable fabric-encrustation or scaling.



Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems

Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems Author Zahid Amjad
ISBN-10 9781461555179
Release 2013-11-27
Pages 515
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Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems book for free.



Biotreatment of Industrial Effluents

Biotreatment of Industrial Effluents Author Mukesh Doble
ISBN-10 9780080456218
Release 2005-04-07
Pages 336
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With increasing government regulation of pollution, as well as willingness to levy punitive fines for transgressions, treatment of industrial waste is a important subject. This book is a single source of information on treatment procedures using biochemical means for all types of solid, liquid and gaseous contaminants generated by various chemical and allied industries. This book is intended for practicing environmental engineers and technologists from any industry as well as researchers and professors. The topics covered include the treatment of gaseous, liquid and solid waste from a large number of chemical and allied industries that include dye stuff, chemical, alcohol, food processing, pesticide, pharmaceuticals, paint etc. Information on aerobic and anaerobic reactors and modeling and simulation of waste treatment systems are also discussed. * Compares chemical and biochemical means of industrial waste treatment * Provides details of technology (i.e. reactors, operating conditions etc) with regard to the biochemistry aspects. * Can be used as a teaching aid for graduate courses and a reference material by practicing environmental scientists and engineers. * Researchers can extract synergy between treatment procedures and various effluents.



Microbiology for Minerals Metals Materials and the Environment

Microbiology for Minerals  Metals  Materials and the Environment Author Abhilash
ISBN-10 9781482257304
Release 2015-02-25
Pages 608
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Better Understand the Connection between Microbiology and the Inorganic World Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment links chemical, metallurgical, and other metal inherent systems with microbes, and analyzes the interdependence between them. Specifically intended to underscore the importance of microbes in environmental remediation in the mining industries, this text offers a basic and conceptual understanding of the role of microbes, and provides an extensive exploration of microbiology and metals. Each chapter is written by experts from research, industry and academia. The authors expand on the whole scale of microbiology applications relevant to minerals, metal, material, and environment. They elicit the applications of microbes for metal extraction (including mechanisms and methods) from primary ores/minerals and mining wastes, biomining and related concepts of microbial diversity and various operations, and molecular biology of microbes involved in such systems (extremophiles). They also address in detail biohydrometallurgy, biomineralisation, bioleaching, biobeneficiation, biosynthesis, and bioremediation and other related areas. This book: Includes bacterial leaching, hybrid leaching, and biosynthesis related to different metals Covers recent developments in alternative procedures with the use of extremophiles and leaching bacteria Explains the imperative importance of bacteria in minerals and metals sector Addresses microbial interventions for waste cleanup and upgradation of minerals Compares existing processes with the new ones to elicit their importance Provides case studies on all respective topics by eminent researchers A resource for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals involved in chemical/mining/metallurgical engineering/environmental science/microbiology, Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment skillfully explains the symbiotic relationship between microbiology and minerals-metals-materials, and utilizes experts from across the globe.



Polymers in Particulate Systems

Polymers in Particulate Systems Author Vincent Hackley
ISBN-10 0824706781
Release 2001-11-09
Pages 384
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"Presents the latest research on the flow and structure of complex particulate sustemsions, the adsorption behavior of polymers, and the consolidation behavior and mechanical properties of films. Highlights recent advances in polymer functionality, conformation, and chemistry for biological, biomedical, and industrial applications."



Cassava

Cassava Author R. J. Hillocks
ISBN-10 0851998836
Release 2002
Pages 332
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Cassava is a major tropical tuber crop found throughout the tropics (India, Oceania, Africa and Latin America). Hitherto, there has been no single text covering all aspects of cassava biology, production and utilization. This book fills that gap, representing the first comprehensive research level overview of this main staple crop. Chapters are written by leading experts in this field from all continents. The book is suitable for those working and researching in cassava, in both developed and developing countries, as well as advanced students.



The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems

The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Author Braden R. Allenby
ISBN-10 NAP:00081
Release 1994-01-01
Pages 259
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Explores the emerging framework for making environmental factors an integral part of economic and business decision making



Phosphate Minerals

Phosphate Minerals Author J.O. Nriagu
ISBN-10 9783642617362
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 444
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The literature on the geology, chemistry, and biochemistry of phosphorus generally takes its mineralogy for granted. The in cidental information on phosphate minerals given in these texts is often obsolescent and inaccurate. The few mineralogical texts that have dealt comprehensively with the phosphate minerals have now become outdated, and typically present the essential information in a manner unsuitable for nongeological readers. This volume is intended as a ready reference for workers who require good basic information on phosphate minerals or their synthetic equivalents. The topics covered should appeal to geologists and geochemists, lithologists, environmental scientists and engineers, chemists and biochemists who have any interest in the intricate world of phosphorus. The hard tissues of many vertebrates and the many pathological calcifications consist mostly of phosphate minerals. The precipita tion of these compounds also plays a major role in the ecological cycling of phosphorus, and occasionally even dominates the behavior of many trace metals in many geochemical and biolog ical systems. Indeed, many pegmatitic phosphate minerals have acquired some notoriety because of the rarer trace metals which they tend to accumulate. With the commercialization of phosphate fertilizers since the early part of the 19th century, phosphate minerals have assumed an important role in industrial chemistry and agriculture. Clearly, the study of phosphate minerals is important from the economic, agricultural, environmental and (human and animal) health viewpoint.



Aqueous Systems at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

Aqueous Systems at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures Author Roberto Fernandez-Prini
ISBN-10 0080471994
Release 2004-07-06
Pages 766
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The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has produced this book in order to provide an accessible, up-to-date overview of important aspects of the physical chemistry of aqueous systems at high temperatures and pressures. These systems are central to many areas of scientific study and industrial application, including electric power generation, industrial steam systems, hydrothermal processing of materials, geochemistry, and environmental applications. The authors’ goal is to present the material at a level that serves both the graduate student seeking to learn the state of the art, and also the industrial engineer or chemist seeking to develop additional expertise or to find the data needed to solve a specific problem. The wide range of people for whom this topic is important provides a challenge. Advanced work in this area is distributed among physical chemists, chemical engineers, geochemists, and other specialists, who may not be aware of parallel work by those outside their own specialty. The particular aspects of high-temperature aqueous physical chemistry of interest to one industry may be irrelevant to another; yet another industry might need the same basic information but in a very different form. To serve all these constituencies, the book includes several chapters that cover the foundational thermophysical properties (such as gas solubility, phase behavior, thermodynamic properties of solutes, and transport properties) that are of interest across numerous applications. The presentation of these topics is intended to be accessible to readers from a variety of backgrounds. Other chapters address fundamental areas of more specialized interest, such as critical phenomena and molecular-level solution structure. Several chapters are more application-oriented, addressing areas such as power-cycle chemistry and hydrothermal synthesis. As befits the variety of interests addressed, some chapters provide more theoretical guidance while others, such as those on acid/base equilibria and the solubilities of metal oxides and hydroxides, emphasize experimental techniques and data analysis. - Covers both the theory and applications of all Hydrothermal solutions - Provides an accessible, up-to-date overview of important aspects of the physical chemistry of aqueous systems at high temperatures and pressures - The presentation of the book is understandable to readers from a variety of backgrounds



Microencapsulation in the Food Industry

Microencapsulation in the Food Industry Author Anilkumar G. Gaonkar
ISBN-10 9780124047358
Release 2014-06-30
Pages 590
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Microencapsulation is being used to deliver everything from improved nutrition to unique consumer sensory experiences. It’s rapidly becoming one of the most important opportunities for expanding brand potential. Microencapsulation in the Food Industry: A Practical Implementation Guide is written for those who see the potential benefit of using microencapsulation but need practical insight into using the technology. With coverage of the process technologies, materials, testing, regulatory and even economic insights, this book presents the key considerations for putting microencapsulation to work. Application examples as well as online access to published and issued patents provide information on freedom to operate, building an intellectual property portfolio, and leveraging ability into potential in licensing patents to create produce pipeline. This book bridges the gap between fundamental research and application by combining the knowledge of new and novel processing techniques, materials and selection, regulatory concerns, testing and evaluation of materials, and application-specific uses of microencapsulation. Practical applications based on the authors’ more than 50 years combined industry experience Focuses on application, rather than theory Includes the latest in processes and methodologies Provides multiple "starting point" options to jump-start encapsulation use



Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System

Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System Author Ernst-Detlef Schulze
ISBN-10 0080507409
Release 2001-08-10
Pages 350
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The interactions of biogeochemical cycles influence and maintain our climate system. Land use and fossil fuel emissions are currently impacting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur on land, in the atmosphere, and in the oceans. This edited volume brings together 27 scholarly contributions on the state of our knowledge of earth system interactions among the oceans, land, and atmosphere. A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic and paleobiotic context for investigating these complex interrelationships. * Eight-page colour insert to highlight the latest research * A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic context for investigating these complex interrelationships.



Separation Technologies for the Industries of the Future

Separation Technologies for the Industries of the Future Author Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems
ISBN-10 9780309063777
Release 1999-01-08
Pages 128
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Separation processes-or processes that use physical, chemical, or electrical forces to isolate or concentrate selected constituents of a mixture-are essential to the chemical, petroleum refining, and materials processing industries. In this volume, an expert panel reviews the separation process needs of seven industries and identifies technologies that hold promise for meeting these needs, as well as key technologies that could enable separations. In addition, the book recommends criteria for the selection of separations research projects for the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology.



Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients

Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients Author Seid Mahdi Jafari
ISBN-10 9780128097410
Release 2017-05-25
Pages 500
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Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients: Principles and Applications brings different nanoencapsulated food bioactive ingredients, their structure, applications, preparation, formulations and encapsulation methodologies, covering a wide range of compounds and giving detailed examples of the issues faced in their nano-encapsulation. The book addresses findings related to the study of natural food colorants, vitamins, antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, flavors, essential oils, fish oil and essential fatty acids, and other related ingredients. As a definitive manual for researchers and industry personnel working, or interested in, various branches of encapsulation for food ingredients and nutraceutical purposes, users will find this a great reference. Explains different categories of nanoencapsulated food ingredients, covering their applications, nanoencapsulation techniques, release mechanisms and characterization methods Addresses findings related to the study of natural food colorants, vitamins, antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, flavors and essential oils Provides a deep understanding and potential of nanoencapsulated food ingredients, as well as their novel applications in functional foods and nutraceutical systems



Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma

Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma Author Vijai G. Gupta
ISBN-10 9780444595942
Release 2014-02-17
Pages 650
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Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma serves as a comprehensive reference on the chemistry and biochemistry of one of the most important microbial agents, Trichoderma, and its use in an increased number of industrial bioprocesses for the synthesis of many biochemicals such as pharmaceuticals and biofuels. This book provides individuals working in the field of Trichoderma, especially biochemical engineers, biochemists and biotechnologists, important information on how these valuable fungi can contribute to the production of a wide range of products of commercial and ecological interest. Provides a detailed and comprehensive coverage of the chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology of Trichoderma, fungi present in soil and plants Includes most important current and potential applications of Trichoderma in bioengineering, bioprocess technology including bioenergy & biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, secondary metabolites and protein engineering Includes the most recent research advancements made on Trichoderma applications in plant biotechnology and ecology and environment