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Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems

Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems Author Zahid Amjad
ISBN-10 9781466568686
Release 2013-10-26
Pages 450
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Soluble and insoluble impurities present in water used for domestic and industrial applications can lead to the deposition of unwanted materials on equipment surfaces. Impurities such as dissolved minerals, natural organic compounds, and suspended particles can impact various processes and systems including boiling and cooling processes, desalination, geothermal power generation, milk pasteurization, oil and gas refining, the pulp and paper industry, and biological systems. Understanding the mechanisms of scale inhibition and dispersion is important in addressing the resulting challenges. Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems presents developments in mineral scale formation and control in a variety of industrial and biological systems, providing in-depth discussions on topics important to academic researchers and industrial technologists. With contributions from experts in their respective fields, this book comprises 22 chapters in 5 parts. It begins by addressing precipitation and inhibition of various scale-forming salts—such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium fluoride, and calcium phosphate—in various industrial systems, including boilers, cooling, and high-pressure and high-temperature applications. Part II describes the precipitation and inhibition of salts encountered in sugar refining and geothermal power generation. Part III describes mineral scales that are important in biological systems. Part IV deals with the control of suspended matter in industrial water systems. Part V examines analytical techniques commonly used to characterize mineral scales and deposits during in-house evaluation of new products and deposit samples received for characterization from industrial installations, as well as product failure analyses. Covering the broad scope of mineral scales, this book both reviews current concepts and presents new information, with detailed discussions on fundamental and mechanistic aspects of mineral scale formation and inhibition.



Mineral Scales and Deposits

Mineral Scales and Deposits Author Zahid Amjad
ISBN-10 9780444627520
Release 2015-05-21
Pages 784
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Mineral Scales and Deposits: Scientific and Technological Approaches presents, in an integrated way, the problem of scale deposits (precipitation/crystallization of sparingly-soluble salts) in aqueous systems, both industrial and biological. It covers several fundamental aspects, also offering an applications’ perspective, with the ultimate goal of helping the reader better understand the underlying mechanisms of scale formation, while also assisting the user/reader to solve scale-related challenges. It is ideal for scientists/experts working in academia, offering a number of crystal growth topics with an emphasis on mechanistic details, prediction modules, and inhibition/dispersion chemistry, amongst others. In addition, technologists, consultants, plant managers, engineers, and designers working in industry will find a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation. Provides a unique, detailed focus on scale deposits, includes the basic science and mechanisms of scale formation Present a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation Correlates chemical structure to performance Provides guidelines for easy assessment of a particular case, also including solutions Includes an extensive list of industrial case studies for reference



Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition

Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition Author Z. Amjad
ISBN-10 9781489914002
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 354
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This book documents the proceedings of the symposium, "Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition," held at the American Chemical Society Annual Meeting August 21 to 26, 1994, in Washington, D. C. The symposium, sponsored by the Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, was held in honor of Professor George H. Nancollas for his pioneering work in the field of crystal growth from solution. A total of 30 papers were presented by a wide spectrum of scientists. This book also includes papers that were not presented but were in the symposium program. The separation of a solid by crystallization is one of the oldest and perhaps the most frequently used operations in chemistry. Because of its widespread applicability, in recent years there has been considerable interest exhibited by academic and industrial scientists in understanding the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble salts. The salt systems of great interest in industrial water treatment area (i. e. , cooling and boiler) include carbon ates, sulfates, phosphates, and phosphonates of alkaline earth metals. Although not as common as calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate, barium and strontium sulfates have long plagued oil field and gas production operations. The build-up of these sparingly soluble salts on equipment surfaces results in lower heat transfer efficiency, increased corrosion rates, increased pumping costs, etc. In the laundry application, insoluble calcium carbonate tends to accumulate on washed fabrics and washing equipment parts, resulting in undesirable fabric-encrustation or scaling.



Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems

Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems Author Zahid Amjad
ISBN-10 9781461555179
Release 2013-11-27
Pages 515
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Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Calcium Phosphates in Biological and Industrial Systems book for free.



Mineral Scales and Deposits

Mineral Scales and Deposits Author Zahid Amjad
ISBN-10 9780444627520
Release 2015-05-21
Pages 784
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Mineral Scales and Deposits: Scientific and Technological Approaches presents, in an integrated way, the problem of scale deposits (precipitation/crystallization of sparingly-soluble salts) in aqueous systems, both industrial and biological. It covers several fundamental aspects, also offering an applications’ perspective, with the ultimate goal of helping the reader better understand the underlying mechanisms of scale formation, while also assisting the user/reader to solve scale-related challenges. It is ideal for scientists/experts working in academia, offering a number of crystal growth topics with an emphasis on mechanistic details, prediction modules, and inhibition/dispersion chemistry, amongst others. In addition, technologists, consultants, plant managers, engineers, and designers working in industry will find a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation. Provides a unique, detailed focus on scale deposits, includes the basic science and mechanisms of scale formation Present a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation Correlates chemical structure to performance Provides guidelines for easy assessment of a particular case, also including solutions Includes an extensive list of industrial case studies for reference



The Science and Technology of Industrial Water Treatment

The Science and Technology of Industrial Water Treatment Author Zahid Amjad
ISBN-10 9781420071450
Release 2010-04-05
Pages 530
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Mineral scale deposits, corrosion, suspended matter, and microbiological growth are factors that must be controlled in industrial water systems. Research on understanding the mechanisms of these problems has attracted considerable attention in the past three decades as has progress concerning water treatment additives to ameliorate these concerns. The Science and Technology of Industrial Water Treatment provides a comprehensive discussion on the topic from specialists in industry and academia. The book begins with an overview of water chemistry and covers the characteristics of commonly encountered mineral scales. It addresses the formation and control of different scales in various systems and examines new developments in membrane-based separation processes. Next, it provides a detailed account on the operational challenges of reverse osmosis systems and scale control in thermal distillation processes. The text explores corrosion control in cooling, boiler, geothermal, and desalination systems and it discusses the interactions of polyelectrolytes with suspended matter. Includes coverage of a range of bacterial species, including Legionella The book examines bacterial species commonly encountered in water supplies, the mechanisms of biofouling, approaches to control it, and criteria for selecting biocides for water treatment applications. An entire chapter is devoted to Legionella in water systems. Contributors describe various analytical techniques for identifying mineral scales and deposits. They also examine applications of polymers for treating industrial and wastewater systems and give an account of analytical approaches for monitoring various operational parameters and chemicals used to treat industrial water systems. A valuable addition to the library of academic researchers, this volume will also prove useful to those working not only in the water treatment industry, but also to those in petroleum, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and other areas where purity processes are a significant concern.



Models of Life

Models of Life Author Kim Sneppen
ISBN-10 9781107061903
Release 2014-10-02
Pages 350
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An overview of current models of biological systems, reflecting the major advances that have been made over the past decade.



Biotreatment of Industrial Effluents

Biotreatment of Industrial Effluents Author Mukesh Doble
ISBN-10 9780080456218
Release 2005-04-07
Pages 336
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With increasing government regulation of pollution, as well as willingness to levy punitive fines for transgressions, treatment of industrial waste is a important subject. This book is a single source of information on treatment procedures using biochemical means for all types of solid, liquid and gaseous contaminants generated by various chemical and allied industries. This book is intended for practicing environmental engineers and technologists from any industry as well as researchers and professors. The topics covered include the treatment of gaseous, liquid and solid waste from a large number of chemical and allied industries that include dye stuff, chemical, alcohol, food processing, pesticide, pharmaceuticals, paint etc. Information on aerobic and anaerobic reactors and modeling and simulation of waste treatment systems are also discussed. * Compares chemical and biochemical means of industrial waste treatment * Provides details of technology (i.e. reactors, operating conditions etc) with regard to the biochemistry aspects. * Can be used as a teaching aid for graduate courses and a reference material by practicing environmental scientists and engineers. * Researchers can extract synergy between treatment procedures and various effluents.



Microbiology for Minerals Metals Materials and the Environment

Microbiology for Minerals  Metals  Materials and the Environment Author Abhilash
ISBN-10 9781482257304
Release 2015-02-25
Pages 608
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Better Understand the Connection between Microbiology and the Inorganic World Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment links chemical, metallurgical, and other metal inherent systems with microbes, and analyzes the interdependence between them. Specifically intended to underscore the importance of microbes in environmental remediation in the mining industries, this text offers a basic and conceptual understanding of the role of microbes, and provides an extensive exploration of microbiology and metals. Each chapter is written by experts from research, industry and academia. The authors expand on the whole scale of microbiology applications relevant to minerals, metal, material, and environment. They elicit the applications of microbes for metal extraction (including mechanisms and methods) from primary ores/minerals and mining wastes, biomining and related concepts of microbial diversity and various operations, and molecular biology of microbes involved in such systems (extremophiles). They also address in detail biohydrometallurgy, biomineralisation, bioleaching, biobeneficiation, biosynthesis, and bioremediation and other related areas. This book: Includes bacterial leaching, hybrid leaching, and biosynthesis related to different metals Covers recent developments in alternative procedures with the use of extremophiles and leaching bacteria Explains the imperative importance of bacteria in minerals and metals sector Addresses microbial interventions for waste cleanup and upgradation of minerals Compares existing processes with the new ones to elicit their importance Provides case studies on all respective topics by eminent researchers A resource for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals involved in chemical/mining/metallurgical engineering/environmental science/microbiology, Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment skillfully explains the symbiotic relationship between microbiology and minerals-metals-materials, and utilizes experts from across the globe.



Nutrient Delivery

Nutrient Delivery Author Alexandru Grumezescu
ISBN-10 9780128043752
Release 2016-08-12
Pages 850
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Nutrient Delivery: Nanotechnology in the Agri-Food Industry, Volume Five, discusses the fabrication, merits, demerits, applications, and bioavailability enhancement mechanisms of various nanodelivery systems. Recent developments in various nanodelivery systems are also highlighted. Volume 5 contains twenty chapters, prepared by outstanding international researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Croatia, India, Iran, Ireland, México, Pakistan, Portugal, Serbia, Sri Lanka, and the United States. In recent years, the delivery of micronutrients at nanoscale has been widely studied as these systems have the potential to improve bioavailability, enable controlled release and enhance stability of food bioactives to a greater extent. The nanodelivery systems typically consist of the food bioactive compound encapsulated and stabilized in food grade ingredients such as lipids, proteins or polysaccharides with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 1000 nm. Among these, the lipid based delivery systems such as nanoemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanoliposomes and micelles are widely studied for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive compounds. These delivery vehicles improve the solubility, permeability, stability and bioavailability of the lipophilic compounds thereby enhancing their potential for oral delivery and functional food development. On the other hand, the hydrophilic bioactives are delivered through protein, polysaccharide or biopolymer based colloidal nanosystems such as hydrogels, nanogels and polymer nanoparticles. The major concern other than solubility is the intestinal permeability of the micronutrients. For instance, the delivery system for compounds with poor intestinal permeability and low solubility need to be carefully designed using suitable lipids and surfactants. Offers updated material for undergraduate and postgraduate students in food science, biotechnology, and related engineering fields Provides a valuable resource of recent scientific progress, along with most known applications of nanomaterials in the food industry for researchers, engineers, and academics Includes novel opportunities and ideas for developing or improving technologies in the food industry



Bio Geotechnologies for Mine Site Rehabilitation

Bio Geotechnologies for Mine Site Rehabilitation Author M.N.V. Prasad
ISBN-10 9780128129876
Release 2018-01-10
Pages 730
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Bio-Geotechnologies for Mine Site Rehabilitation deals with the biological, physical, chemical, and engineering approaches necessary for the reclamation of mine waste. As mining has negative effects on natural resources and deteriorates the quality of the surrounding environment, this book provides coverage across different types of mining industries, which are currently creating industrial deserts overloaded with technogenic waste. The book offers cost-effective strategies and approaches for contaminated sites, along with remediation and rehabilitation methods for contaminated soils and waste dumps. It is an essential resource for students and academics, but is also ideal for applied professionals in environmental geology, mineral geologists, biotechnologists and policymakers. Deals with global and holistic approaches of abandoned mine land rehabilitation Includes mine waste rehabilitation case studies from around the world Covers integrated technologies, such as bioremediation of metalliferous soil Provide strategies for sustainable ecosystems on mine spoil dumps Offers novel methods for the remediation of acid mine drainage



The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems

The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Author Braden R. Allenby
ISBN-10 NAP:00081
Release 1994-01-01
Pages 259
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Explores the emerging framework for making environmental factors an integral part of economic and business decision making



Porous Media

Porous Media Author Kambiz Vafai
ISBN-10 1420065424
Release 2010-08-24
Pages 632
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Presenting state-of-the-art research advancements, Porous Media: Applications in Biological Systems and Biotechnology explores innovative approaches to effectively apply existing porous media technologies to biomedical applications. In each peer-reviewed chapter, world-class scientists and engineers collaborate to address significant problems and discuss exciting research in biological systems. The book begins with discussions on bioheat transfer equations for blood flows and surrounding biological tissue, the concept of electroporation, hydrodynamic modeling of tissue-engineered material, and the resistance of microbial biofilms to common modalities of antibiotic treatments. It examines how biofilms influence porous media hydrodynamics, describes the modeling of flow changes in cerebral aneurysms, and highlights recent advances in Lagrangian particles methods. The text also covers passive mass transport processes in cellular membranes and their biophysical implications, the modeling and treatment of mass transport through skin, the use of porous media in marine microbiology, the transport of large biological molecules in deforming tissues, and applications of magnetic stabilized beds for protein purification and adsorption, antibody removal, and more. The final chapters present potential in situ characterization techniques for studying porous media and conductive membranes and explain the development of bioconvection patterns generated by populations of gravitactic microorganisms in porous media. Using a common nomenclature throughout and with contributions from top experts, this cohesive book illustrates the role of porous media in addressing some of the most challenging issues in biomedical engineering and biotechnology. The book contains sophisticated porous media models that can be used to improve the accuracy of modeling a variety of biological processes.



Introduction to Ore Forming Processes

Introduction to Ore Forming Processes Author Laurence Robb
ISBN-10 9781118687574
Release 2013-05-03
Pages 384
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Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes is the first senior undergraduate – postgraduate textbook to focus specifically on the multiplicity of geological processes that result in the formation of mineral deposits. Opens with an overview of magmatic ore-forming processes Moves systematically through hydrothermal and sedimentary metallogenic environments, covering as it does the entire gamut of mineral deposit types, including the fossil fuels and supergene ores The final chapter relates metallogeny to global tectonics by examining the distribution of mineral deposits in space and time Boxed examples of world famous ore deposits are featured throughout providing context and relevance to the process-oriented descriptions of ore genesis Brings the discipline of economic geology back into the realm of conventional mainstream earth science by emphasizing the fact that mineral deposits are simply one of the many natural wonders of geological process and evolution. Artwork from the book is available to instructors at www.blackwellpublishing.com/robb.



Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System

Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System Author Ernst-Detlef Schulze
ISBN-10 0080507409
Release 2001-08-10
Pages 350
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The interactions of biogeochemical cycles influence and maintain our climate system. Land use and fossil fuel emissions are currently impacting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur on land, in the atmosphere, and in the oceans. This edited volume brings together 27 scholarly contributions on the state of our knowledge of earth system interactions among the oceans, land, and atmosphere. A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic and paleobiotic context for investigating these complex interrelationships. * Eight-page colour insert to highlight the latest research * A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic context for investigating these complex interrelationships.



Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients

Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients Author Seid Mahdi Jafari
ISBN-10 9780128097410
Release 2017-05-25
Pages 500
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Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients: Principles and Applications brings different nanoencapsulated food bioactive ingredients, their structure, applications, preparation, formulations and encapsulation methodologies, covering a wide range of compounds and giving detailed examples of the issues faced in their nano-encapsulation. The book addresses findings related to the study of natural food colorants, vitamins, antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, flavors, essential oils, fish oil and essential fatty acids, and other related ingredients. As a definitive manual for researchers and industry personnel working, or interested in, various branches of encapsulation for food ingredients and nutraceutical purposes, users will find this a great reference. Explains different categories of nanoencapsulated food ingredients, covering their applications, nanoencapsulation techniques, release mechanisms and characterization methods Addresses findings related to the study of natural food colorants, vitamins, antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, flavors and essential oils Provides a deep understanding and potential of nanoencapsulated food ingredients, as well as their novel applications in functional foods and nutraceutical systems



Microencapsulation in the Food Industry

Microencapsulation in the Food Industry Author Anilkumar G. Gaonkar
ISBN-10 9780124047358
Release 2014-06-30
Pages 590
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Microencapsulation is being used to deliver everything from improved nutrition to unique consumer sensory experiences. It’s rapidly becoming one of the most important opportunities for expanding brand potential. Microencapsulation in the Food Industry: A Practical Implementation Guide is written for those who see the potential benefit of using microencapsulation but need practical insight into using the technology. With coverage of the process technologies, materials, testing, regulatory and even economic insights, this book presents the key considerations for putting microencapsulation to work. Application examples as well as online access to published and issued patents provide information on freedom to operate, building an intellectual property portfolio, and leveraging ability into potential in licensing patents to create produce pipeline. This book bridges the gap between fundamental research and application by combining the knowledge of new and novel processing techniques, materials and selection, regulatory concerns, testing and evaluation of materials, and application-specific uses of microencapsulation. Practical applications based on the authors’ more than 50 years combined industry experience Focuses on application, rather than theory Includes the latest in processes and methodologies Provides multiple "starting point" options to jump-start encapsulation use