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Mixture Toxicity

Mixture Toxicity Author Cornelis A. M. van Gestel
ISBN-10 1439830096
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 320
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In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.



Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology

Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology Author Jerry L. Farris
ISBN-10 1420042858
Release 2006-11-16
Pages 408
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Responding to the growing need for an aggressive yet conservative approach to evaluating mussel populations, Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology provides a collective review of the techniques and approaches for assessing contaminant impact on freshwater ecosystems. The editors incorporate coverage of research topics and management issues from a cross-section of scientists in the field. They explore current advances in general monitoring of population responses to stressors, fundamental concepts of ecotoxicology specific to burrowing bivalves, and useful insights that offer direction and priority for resolving specific problems challenging protection and conservation efforts. This book lays the groundwork with discussions of topics such as impact assessment, toxicokinetics, biomarkers, and pollution tolerance. The authors then explore fundamental concepts surrounding responses measured in freshwater bivalves as a consequence of chemical exposures or accumulated contaminants in target organs or tissues. They highlight the difficulties encountered with the laboratory culture of these organisms for toxicity testing or other controlled experiments, and examine the use of surrogate test organisms to relate sensitivities of response and reduce pressure on already impacted fauna. The book also reviews innovative field research using in situ bivalve toxicity testing, discusses effects-oriented tissue contaminant assessment, and concludes with threefour specific laboratory or combined field/laboratory ecotoxicology studies. A summary of methods from more than 75 laboratory toxicity studies conducted with freshwater mussels, the book provides an overview of a standardized method for conducting water-only acute and chronic laboratory toxicity tests with glochidia juvenile freshwater mussels. It focuses on studies that report measured contaminant treatments, had robust experimental designs, including replication of control and contaminant treatments, and were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The resulting array of viewpoints provides a framework that can be used to establish priorities in the rehabilitation and management of freshwater ecosystems.



Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators

Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators Author David Fischer
ISBN-10 9781118852699
Release 2014-04-29
Pages 330
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Pollinators play a vital role in ecosystem health and are essential to ensuring food security. With declines in both managed and wild pollinator populations in recent years, scientists and regulators have sought answers to this problem and have explored implementing steps to protect pollinator populations now and for the future. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators focuses on the role pesticides play in impacting bee populations and looks to develop a risk assessment process, along with the data to inform that process, to better assess the potential risks that can accompany the use of pesticide products. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators opens with two chapters that provide a biological background of both Apis and non-Apis species of pollinators. Chapters then present an overview of the general regulatory risk assessment process and decision-making processes. The book then discusses the core elements of a risk assessment, including exposure estimation, laboratory testing, and field testing. The book concludes with chapters on statistical and modeling tools, and proposed additional research that may be useful in developing the ability to assess the impacts of pesticide use on pollinator populations. Summarizing the current state of the science surrounding risk assessment for Apis and non-Apis species, Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators is a timely work that will be of great use to the environmental science and agricultural research communities. Assesses pesticide risk to native and managed pollinators Summarizes the state of the science in toxicity testing and risk assessment Provides valuable biological overviews of both Apis and non-Apis pollinators Develops a plausible overall risk assessment framework for regulatory decision making Looks towards a globally harmonized approach for pollinator toxicity and risk assessment



Environmental Life Cycle Costing

Environmental Life Cycle Costing Author David Hunkeler
ISBN-10 9781420054736
Release 2008-05-29
Pages 232
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Balances Scientific and Economic Points of View to Thoroughly Address Management Issues Responding to the need for clarification and benchmarks, Environmental Life Cycle Costing provides the fundamental basis on which to establish a definitive methodology. Clearly defining environmental LCC, this book balances scientific and economic points of view and thoroughly addresses the management perspective. Demonstrates the Process From Problem Definition to Analysis, to Presentation The book focuses on environmental LCC but also analyzes conventional LCC and societal LCC, providing case studies for each. It presents the link between life cycle costing and life cycle assessment and then explores public, private, and societal options. The book also explains all components of the method using the cross-cutting example of a washing machine. It also provides categorizations that permit the method to be adapted or streamlined as a function of the time available to the practitioner. Case study boxes demonstrate the process for carrying out an LCC, from problem definition to analysis and ultimate presentation to the decision maker. Experts Integrate Conventional Thinking with Emerging Ideas Environmental LCC summarizes all costs associated with the life cycle of a product regardless of who bears those costs. It includes present and future money flows as well as those to be internalized in the decision relevant future. A collaboration of experts at the forefront of research, this book ties conventional thinking on life cycle costs into emerging theory and practice by including environmental and social cost analyses and linking LCC to the environmental and social pillars of sustainability.



Soil Ecotoxicology

Soil Ecotoxicology Author Joseph Tarradellas
ISBN-10 1566701341
Release 1996-12-23
Pages 400
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Soils are receptacles for a wide range of hazardous chemicals generated by human activities. Whether or not this contamination is deliberate, accurate toxicity assessments are important for health and economic reasons. Soil Ecotoxicology discusses the sources, fate, and transport of hazardous chemicals in soils. The fate (biodegradation and modeling) and the potential impacts of pesticides on soil ecosystems are emphasized, and methodologies for performing toxicity assessments are provided.



Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment

Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment Author Peter M. Chapman
ISBN-10 9781439826782
Release 2010-05-06
Pages 368
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Based on the work and contributions of 46 scientists, managers, and policymakers, Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment documents the state of the science and explores how to use this information when assessing and managing the environmental effects of Se. A focused discussion on the fate and effects of Se in aquatic ecosystems, the book reviews: Past and current problems related to Se in aquatic environments, together with lessons learned, and provides a generalized conceptual model Environmental partitioning, in particular Se speciation leading to its entry into the food chain, and provides conceptual models specific to environmental partitioning. Se bioaccumulation and trophic transfer from the physical environment (i.e., water-column particulates), and from primary producers to herbivores to carnivores, including the influence of modifying ecological factors Toxic effects from Se, in particular body burdens and their relationship to toxicity Filled with practical guidance and concise information on how to conduct selenium risk assessments in the aquatic environment, the book contains the latest information on assessment techniques, elucidates the current state of contamination in industrialized countries, and raises awareness for developing nations. Written by leading experts, it describes best practices for designing experiments to collect information on aquatic effects and trophic transfer of selenium for risk assessments, presents numerous case studies both domestic and international, and gives insight as to how current and future ecosystems may or may not be affected.



Handbook of Ecotoxicology Second Edition

Handbook of Ecotoxicology  Second Edition Author David J. Hoffman
ISBN-10 9781420032505
Release 2002-11-13
Pages 1312
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Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition focuses on toxic substances and how they affect ecosystems worldwide. It presents methods for quantifying and measuring ecotoxicological effects in the field and in the lab, as well as methods for estimating, predicting, and modeling in ecotoxicology studies. Completely revised and updated with 18 new chapters, this second edition includes contributions from over 75 international experts. Also, a Technical Review Board reviewed all manuscripts for accuracy and currency. This authoritative work is the definitive reference for students, researchers, consultants, and other professionals in the environmental sciences, toxicology, chemistry, biology, and ecology - in academia, industry, and government.



Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105122661015
Release 2007
Pages
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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry book for free.



Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment

Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment Author Robert A. Pastorok
ISBN-10 9781420032321
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 328
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Toxic chemicals can exert effects on all levels of the biological hierarchy, from cells to organs to organisms to populations to entire ecosystems. However, most risk assessment models express their results in terms of effects on individual organisms, without corresponding information on how populations, groups of species, or whole ecosystems may respond to chemical stressors. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment: Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes takes a new approach by compiling and evaluating models that can be used in assessing risk at the population, ecosystem, and landscape levels. The authors give an overview of the current process of ecological risk assessment for toxic chemicals and of how modeling of populations, ecosystems, and landscapes could improve the status quo. They present a classification of ecological models and explain the differences between population, ecosystem, landscape, and toxicity-extrapolation models. The authors describe the model evaluation process and define evaluation criteria. Finally, the results of the model evaluations are presented in a concise format with recommendations on modeling approaches to use now and develop further. The authors present and evaluate various models on the basis of their realism and complexity, prediction of relevant assessment endpoints, treatment of uncertainty, regulatory acceptance, resource efficiency, and other criteria. They provide models that will improve the ecological relevance of risk assessments and make data collection more cost-effective. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment serves as a reference for selecting and applying the best models when performing a risk assessment.



Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment Author Committee on Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment
ISBN-10 9780309064194
Release 2000-01-03
Pages 452
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Some investigators have hypothesized that estrogens and other hormonally active agents found in the environment might be involved in breast cancer increases and sperm count declines in humans as well as deformities and reproductive problems seen in wildlife. This book looks in detail at the science behind the ominous prospect of "estrogen mimics" threatening health and well-being, from the level of ecosystems and populations to individual people and animals. The committee identifies research needs and offers specific recommendations to decisionmakers. This authoritative volume: Critically evaluates the literature on hormonally active agents in the environment and identifies known and suspected toxicologic mechanisms and effects of fish, wildlife, and humans. Examines whether and how exposure to hormonally active agents occurs--in diet, in pharmaceuticals, from industrial releases into the environment--and why the debate centers on estrogens. Identifies significant uncertainties, limitations of knowledge, and weaknesses in the scientific literature. The book presents a wealth of information and investigates a wide range of examples across the spectrum of life that might be related to these agents.



Population Level Ecological Risk Assessment

Population Level Ecological Risk Assessment Author Lawrence W. Barnthouse
ISBN-10 1420053337
Release 2007-09-25
Pages 376
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Most ecological risk assessments consider the risk to individual organisms or organism-level attributes. From a management perspective, however, risks to population-level attributes and processes are often more relevant. Despite many published calls for population risk assessment and the abundance of available scientific research and technical tools assessing risks to populations, risk assessors worldwide still have difficulty determining how population level considerations can be integrated into environmental decision-making. Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment establishes a framework for goals, methods, and data needs for different assessment applications and for integrating population-level risk assessment into risk management decisions. Beginning with a summary of legal, regulatory, business, and other contexts, the book presents population-level ecological risk assessment as an internationally recognized, science-based tool and offers specific recommendations for using this tool to support environmental management decisions. It gives clear, explicit, operational population assessment definitions and explains the relevance of density dependence, genetics, and spatial considerations, as well as applicable lessons from conservation biology and natural resource management. The authors provide a "tool box" of empirical and modeling methods and describe the general approaches, assumptions, data requirements, strengths, and limitations of each method. They establish a working foundation for designing and conducting population-level ecological risk assessments consistent with North American, European, and Japanese risk management approaches. The book concludes by highlighting key considerations needed to improve the scientific quality and interpretation of assessments. Detailed appendices include examples of population-level assessment approaches applicable to specific environmental management contexts, a modeling case study, and a supplemental reading list.



Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Life Cycle Impact Assessment Author Michael Z. Hauschild
ISBN-10 9789401797443
Release 2015-03-24
Pages 339
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This book offers a detailed presentation of the principles and practice of life cycle impact assessment. As a volume of the LCA compendium, the book is structured according to the LCIA framework developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)passing through the phases of definition or selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models (Classification): calculation of category indicator results (Characterisation); calculating the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference information (Normalisation); and converting indicator results of different impact categories by using numerical factors based on value-choices (Weighting). Chapter one offers a historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment and presents the boundary conditions and the general principles and constraints of characterisation modelling in LCA. The second chapter outlines the considerations underlying the selection of impact categories and the classification or assignment of inventory flows into these categories. Chapters three through thirteen exploreall the impact categories that are commonly included in LCIA, discussing the characteristics of each followed by a review of midpoint and endpoint characterisation methods, metrics, uncertainties and new developments, and a discussion of research needs. Chapter-length treatment is accorded to Climate Change; Stratospheric Ozone Depletion; Human Toxicity; Particulate Matter Formation; Photochemical Ozone Formation; Ecotoxicity; Acidification; Eutrophication; Land Use; Water Use; and Abiotic Resource Use. The final two chapters map out the optional LCIA steps of Normalisation and Weighting.



Chemicals Without Harm

Chemicals Without Harm Author Ken Geiser
ISBN-10 9780262012522
Release 2015-05-29
Pages 456
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A proposal for a new chemicals strategy: that we work to develop safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals rather than focusing exclusively on controlling them.



Demography in Ecotoxicology

Demography in Ecotoxicology Author Jan Kammenga
ISBN-10 0471490024
Release 2000-12-19
Pages 318
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Demography in Ecotoxicology focuses on the interface between toxicology, life history and demographic theory. This comprehensive book examines the different ways of adequately assessing the potential impact of toxic stress on populations and discusses how to obtain an insight into the underlying physiological and genetic mechanisms. The theory is illustrated with empiricial observations on a number of species and organisational levels and the book incorporates: * case studies; * real data; * life history models; * methodologies; and, * recommendations for risk assessment Written by an international team of researchers, Demography in Ecotoxicology will be invaluable to ecotoxicologists, ecologists and wildlife conservationists in academia, industry and regulatory bodies wishing to gain a greater understanding into the prediction and effects of natural and man-made toxicants on populations.



Exposure Science in the 21st Century

Exposure Science in the 21st Century Author Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century
ISBN-10 9780309264686
Release 2012-09-28
Pages 196
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From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.



Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments

Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments Author Richard J. Wenning
ISBN-10 9781880611715
Release 2005
Pages 783
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Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments book for free.



Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology Author Michael C. Newman
ISBN-10 1420005014
Release 2007-12-13
Pages 880
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Integrating ecotoxicological concepts across a range of hierarchical levels, Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment focuses on the paradigms and fundamental themes of ecotoxicology while providing the detail and practical application of concepts often found in more specialized books. By synthesizing the best qualities of a general textbook and the narrower, more specific scope of a technical reference, the authors create a volume flexible enough to cover a variety of instructional vantages and thorough enough to engender a respect for the importance of understanding and integrating concepts from all levels of biological organization. Divided into six sections, the book builds progressively from the biomolecular level toward a discussion of effects on the global biosphere. It begins with the fundamentals of hierarchical ecotoxicology and vantages for exploring ecotoxicological issues. The second section introduces organismal ecotoxicology and examines effects to biochemicals, cells, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms, and bioaccumulation and bioavailability of contaminants. Population ecotoxicology, section three, places the discussion in the larger context of entire populations by analyzing epidemiology, population dynamics, demographics, genetics, and natural selection. Section four encompasses issues of community ecotoxicology. This section presents biotic and abiotic factors influencing communities, biomonitoring and community response, and the application of multimetric and multivariate approaches. Section five evaluates the entire ecosystem by describing assessment approaches, identifying patterns, analyzing relationships between species, and reviewing the effects of global atmospheric stressors. A detailed conclusion integrating the concepts discussed and promoting a balanced assessment of the overarching paradigms rounds out the coverage in section six.