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Models of Brain and Mind

Models of Brain and Mind Author Rahul Banerjee
ISBN-10 0080557198
Release 2008-02-14
Pages 350
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The phenomenon of consciousness has always been a central question for philosophers and scientists. Emerging in the past decade are new approaches to the understanding of consciousness in a scientific light. This book presents a series of essays by leading thinkers giving an account of the current ideas prevalent in the scientific study of consciousness. The value of the book lies in the discussion of this interesting though complex subject from different points of view ranging from physics and computer science to the cognitive sciences. Reviews of controversial ideas related to the philosophy of mind from western and eastern sources including classical Indian first person methodologies provide a breadth of coverage that has seldom been attempted in a book before. Additionally, chapters relating to the new approaches in computational modeling of higher order cognitive function and consciousness are included. The book is of great value for established as well as young researchers from a wide cross-section of interdisciplinary scientific backgrounds, aiming to pursue research in this field, as well as an informed public. * Presents the latest developments in the scientific study of consciousness * Critically reviews different theoretical and philosophical explanations related to the subject * An important book for both students and researchers in designing research projects on consciousness



Consciousness and Neural Plasticity

Consciousness and Neural Plasticity Author Morten Overgaard
ISBN-10 9782889190072
Release 2012-01-01
Pages
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In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies. If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather a dynamic entity, which physical structure changes according to its use and environment. This change may take the form of growth of new neurons, the creation of new networks and structures, and change within network structures, that is, changes in synaptic strengths. Plasticity raises questions about the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can have direct consequences for a theory about consciousness. For instance, theories of strict identity between consciousness and structure may face the serious dilemma to either accept that, say, the experience of the colour red is fundamentally different in one individual over time due to cortical changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is, something that is stable over time. Considering neural plasticity, this is not necessarily so. The NCC might change and hence literally change the way a person is conscious. What it is about the NCC that can and might change is, even though it can be relevant for the relation between the brain and consciousness is, still an unanswered question. There are, hence, a lot of questions that might shed light upon the relevant but unknown relations between consciousness and the brain. Therefore, We hereby propose to do a Research Topic on consciousness and neural plasticity to shed light on these underestimated issues.In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies. If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather a dynamic entity, which physical structure changes according to its use and environment. This change may take the form of growth of new neurons, the creation of new networks and structures, and change within network structures, that is, changes in synaptic strengths. Plasticity raises questions about the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can have direct consequences for a theory about consciousness. For instance, theories of strict identity between consciousness and structure may face the serious dilemma to either accept that, say, the experience of the colour red is fundamentally different in one individual over time due to cortical changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is, something that is stable over time. Considering neural plasticity, this is not necessarily so. The NCC might change and hence literally change the way a person is conscious. What it is about the NCC that can and might change is, even though it can be relevant for the relation between the brain and consciousness is, still an unanswered question. There are, hence, a lot of questions that might shed light upon the relevant but unknown relations between consciousness and the brain. Therefore, We hereby propose to do a Research Topic on consciousness and neural plasticity to shed light on these underestimated issues.



Computational Neurostimulation

Computational Neurostimulation Author
ISBN-10 9780444635471
Release 2015-11-16
Pages 316
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Computational Neurostimulation, the latest volume in the Progress in Brain Research series provides an introduction to a nascent field with contributions from leading researchers. In addition, it addresses a very timely and relevant issue which has long been known to require more treatment. Part of a well-established international series that examines major areas of basic and clinical research within neuroscience, as well as emerging subfields Provides an introduction to a nascent field with contributions from leading researchers



Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience

Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience Author
ISBN-10 9780080453965
Release 2010-06-03
Pages 1816
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Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists



Music Neurology and Neuroscience Evolution the Musical Brain Medical Conditions and Therapies

Music  Neurology  and Neuroscience  Evolution  the Musical Brain  Medical Conditions  and Therapies Author
ISBN-10 9780444635525
Release 2015-03-02
Pages 292
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Did you ever ask whether music makes people smart, why a Parkinson patient's gait is improved with marching tunes, and whether Robert Schumann was suffering from schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease? This broad but comprehensive book deals with history and new discoveries about music and the brain. It provides a multi-disciplinary overview on music processing, its effects on brain plasticity, and the healing power of music in neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this context, the disorders the plagued famous musicians and how they affected both performance and composition are critically discussed, and music as medicine, as well as music as a potential health hazard are examined. Among the other topics covered are: how music fit into early conceptions of localization of function in the brain, the cultural roots of music in evolution, and the important roles played by music in societies and educational systems. Topic: Music is interesting to almost everybody Orientation: This book looks at music and the brain both historically and in the light of the latest research findings Comprehensiveness: This is the largest and most comprehensive volume on "music and neurology" ever written! Quality of authors: This volume is written by a unique group of real world experts representing a variety of fields, ranging from history of science and medicine to neurology and musicology



Ageing Cognition and Neuroscience

Ageing  Cognition  and Neuroscience Author Soledad Ballesteros
ISBN-10 1848727070
Release 2009
Pages 472
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Developed nations are experiencing enormous increases in the number of elderly people in the population. Ageing is a universal complex multifaceted process that profoundly affects mind and brain of all individuals. Important discoveries are being made at different levels of research on cognitive aging: from the molecular/genetic level, to the cell, the network, and the processing of information at the cognitive level. The aim of this special issue is to examine new breakthroughs of the aging mind and brain and how to use this knowledge to promote interdisciplinary research in normal and pathological aging.



Cultural Neuroscience Cultural Influences on Brain Function

Cultural Neuroscience  Cultural Influences on Brain Function Author Juan Y. Chiao
ISBN-10 9780080952215
Release 2009-11-25
Pages 328
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This volume presents recent empirical advances using neuroscience techniques to investigate how culture influences neural processes underlying a wide range of human abilities, from perception and scene processing to memory and social cognition. It also highlights the theoretical and methodological issues with conducting cultural neuroscience research. Section I provides diverse theoretical perspectives on how culture and biology interact are represented. Sections II –VI is to demonstrate how cultural values, beliefs, practices and experience affect neural systems underlying a wide range of human behavior from perception and cognition to emotion, social cognition and decision-making. The final section presents arguments for integrating the study of culture and the human brain by providing an explicit articulation of how the study of culture can inform the study of the brain and vice versa.



Thinking in Complexity

Thinking in Complexity Author Klaus Mainzer
ISBN-10 9783662132142
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 363
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This new edition also treats smart materials and artificial life. A new chapter on information and computational dynamics takes up many recent discussions in the community.



Understanding Consciousness

Understanding Consciousness Author Max Velmans
ISBN-10 9781134095247
Release 2009-03-26
Pages 408
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Understanding Consciousness, 2nd Edition provides a unique survey and evaluation of consciousness studies, along with an original analysis of consciousness that combines scientific findings, philosophy and common sense. Building on the widely praised first edition, this new edition adds fresh research, and deepens the original analysis in a way that reflects some of the fundamental changes in the understanding of consciousness that have taken place over the last 10 years. The book is divided into three parts; Part one surveys current theories of consciousness, evaluating their strengths and weaknesses. Part two reconstructs an understanding of consciousness from first principles, starting with its phenomenology, and leading to a closer examination of how conscious experience relates to the world described by physics and information processing in the brain. Finally, Part three deals with some of the fundamental issues such as what consciousness is and does, and how it fits into to the evolving universe. As the structure of the book moves from a basic overview of the field to a successively deeper analysis, it can be used both for those new to the subject and for more established researchers. Understanding Consciousness tells a story with a beginning, middle and end in a way that integrates the philosophy of consciousness with the science. Overall, the book provides a unique perspective on how to address the problems of consciousness and as such, will be of great interest to psychologists, philosophers, neuroscientists and other professionals concerned with mind/body relationships, and all who are interested in this subject.



The Cognitive Neurosciences

The Cognitive Neurosciences Author Michael S. Gazzaniga
ISBN-10 9780262013413
Release 2009-09-18
Pages 1294
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The fourth edition of the work that defines the field of cognitive neuroscience, offering completely new material.



The Cambridge Handbook of Human Affective Neuroscience

The Cambridge Handbook of Human Affective Neuroscience Author Jorge Armony
ISBN-10 9781107310704
Release 2013-01-21
Pages
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Neuroscientific research on emotion has developed dramatically over the past decade. The cognitive neuroscience of human emotion, which has emerged as the new and thriving area of 'affective neuroscience', is rapidly rendering existing overviews of the field obsolete. This handbook provides a comprehensive, up-to-date and authoritative survey of knowledge and topics investigated in this cutting-edge field. It covers a range of topics, from face and voice perception to pain and music, as well as social behaviors and decision making. The book considers and interrogates multiple research methods, among them brain imaging and physiology measurements, as well as methods used to evaluate behavior and genetics. Editors Jorge Armony and Patrik Vuilleumier have enlisted well-known and active researchers from more than twenty institutions across three continents, bringing geographic as well as methodological breadth to the collection. This timely volume will become a key reference work for researchers and students in the growing field of neuroscience.



Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science Author Jay Friedenberg
ISBN-10 9781452236131
Release 2011-07-14
Pages 544
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Substantially revised, this Second Edition includes the latest breakthroughs in this fast-moving field. The authors present emerging areas of network science, dynamical systems theory, behavioral economics, and animal intelligence and tie each area to discoveries in psychology, neuroscience, and cognition. Major findings are placed in the context of the theories and models of cognition and critically evaluated. Providing a unifying framework, pedagogical features help students understand the different methodologies and perspectives in cognitive science.



Computational Neuroscience and Cognitive Modelling

Computational Neuroscience and Cognitive Modelling Author Britt Anderson
ISBN-10 9781446297377
Release 2014-01-06
Pages 240
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"For the neuroscientist or psychologist who cringes at the sight of mathematical formulae and whose eyes glaze over at terms like differential equations, linear algebra, vectors, matrices, Bayes’ rule, and Boolean logic, this book just might be the therapy needed." - Anjan Chatterjee, Professor of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania "Anderson provides a gentle introduction to computational aspects of psychological science, managing to respect the reader’s intelligence while also being completely unintimidating. Using carefully-selected computational demonstrations, he guides students through a wide array of important approaches and tools, with little in the way of prerequisites...I recommend it with enthusiasm." - Asohan Amarasingham, The City University of New York This unique, self-contained and accessible textbook provides an introduction to computational modelling neuroscience accessible to readers with little or no background in computing or mathematics. Organized into thematic sections, the book spans from modelling integrate and firing neurons to playing the game Rock, Paper, Scissors in ACT-R. This non-technical guide shows how basic knowledge and modern computers can be combined for interesting simulations, progressing from early exercises utilizing spreadsheets, to simple programs in Python. Key Features include: Interleaved chapters that show how traditional computing constructs are simply disguised versions of the spread sheet methods. Mathematical facts and notation needed to understand the modelling methods are presented at their most basic and are interleaved with biographical and historical notes for contex. Numerous worked examples to demonstrate the themes and procedures of cognitive modelling. An excellent text for postgraduate students taking courses in research methods, computational neuroscience, computational modelling, cognitive science and neuroscience. It will be especially valuable to psychology students.



The Neuroscience of Religious Experience

The Neuroscience of Religious Experience Author Patrick McNamara
ISBN-10 9781139483568
Release 2009-11-06
Pages
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Technical advances in the life and medical sciences have revolutionised our understanding of the brain, while the emerging disciplines of social, cognitive, and affective neuroscience continue to reveal the connections of the higher cognitive functions and emotional states associated with religious experience to underlying brain states. At the same time, a host of developing theories in psychology and anthropology posit evolutionary explanations for the ubiquity and persistence of religious beliefs and the reports of religious experiences across human cultures, while gesturing toward physical bases for these behaviours. What is missing from this literature is a strong voice speaking to these behavioural and social scientists - as well as to the intellectually curious in the religious studies community - from the perspective of a brain scientist.



The World in My Mind My Mind in the World

The World in My Mind  My Mind in the World Author Igor Aleksander
ISBN-10 9781845406066
Release 2013-11-19
Pages 201
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Not consciousness, but knowledge of consciousness: that is what this book communicates in a fascinating way. Consciousness is the thread that links the disappearing gorilla with the octopus suffering from a stomach ache, and the person under anaesthetic with a new born baby. How these are different, yet illustrative of consciousness, is revealed in this accessible book by one of the world's leading thinkers and neural computing engineers. Igor Aleksander addresses this enigmatic topic, by making us understand the difference between what happens to us when thinking consciously and when sort of thinking when dreaming or when not conscious at all, as when sleeping, anaesthetised or knocked out by a blow on the head. The book also tackles the larger topics of free will, choice, God, Freud (what is 'the unconscious'?), inherited traits and individuality, while exploding the myths and misinformation of many earlier mind-hijackers. He shares the journey towards building a new model of consciousness, with an invitation to understand 5 axioms or basic ideas, which we easily recognise in ourselves.



Attention and Implicit Learning

Attention and Implicit Learning Author Luis Jiménez
ISBN-10 9789027296405
Release 2003-01-30
Pages 385
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Attention and Implicit Learning provides a comprehensive overview of the research conducted in this area. The book is conceived as a multidisciplinary forum of discussion on the question of whether implicit learning may be depicted as a process that runs independently of attention. The volume also deals with the complementary question of whether implicit learning affects the dynamics of attention, and it addresses these questions from perspectives that range from functional to neuroscientific and computational approaches. The view of implicit learning that arises from these pages is not that of a mysterious faculty, but rather that of an elementary ability of the cognitive systems to extract the structure of their environment as it appears directly through experience, and regardless of any intention to do so. Implicit learning, thus, is taken to be a process that may shape not only our behavior, but also our representations of the world, our attentional functions, and even our conscious experience. (Series B)



The Ego Tunnel

The Ego Tunnel Author Thomas Metzinger
ISBN-10 9781458759160
Release 2010-05-21
Pages 490
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We're used to thinking about the self as an independent entity, something that we either have or are. In The Ego Tunnel, philosopher Thomas Metzinger claims otherwise: No such thing as a self exists. The conscious self is the content of a model created by our brain - an internal image, but one we cannot experience as an image. Everything we experience is ''a virtual self in a virtual reality.'' But if the self is not ''real,'' why and how did it evolve? How does the brain construct it? Do we still have souls, free will, personal autonomy, or moral accountability? In a time when the science of cognition is becoming as controversial as evolution, The Ego Tunnel provides a stunningly original take on the mystery of the mind.