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Models Simulations and Representations

Models  Simulations  and Representations Author Chairman Department of Philosophy Paul Humphreys
ISBN-10 9781136668500
Release 2013-03-01
Pages 306
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Although scientific models and simulations differ in numerous ways, they are similar in so far as they are posing essentially philosophical problems about the nature of representation. This collection is designed to bring together some of the best work on the nature of representation being done by both established senior philosophers of science and younger researchers. Most of the pieces, while appealing to existing traditions of scientific representation, explore new types of questions, such as: how understanding can be developed within computational science; how the format of representations matters for their use, be it for the purpose of research or education; how the concepts of emergence and supervenience can be further analyzed by taking into account computational science; or how the emphasis upon tractability--a particularly important issue in computational science--sheds new light on the philosophical analysis of scientific reasoning.



The Logical Foundations of Scientific Theories

The Logical Foundations of Scientific Theories Author Decio Krause
ISBN-10 9781315535203
Release 2016-07-15
Pages 162
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This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicates and the "da Costa and Chuaqui" approach. This book engages with important discussions of the nature of scientific theories and will be a useful resource for researchers and upper-level students working in philosophy of science.



The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science Author Commonwealth Professor of Philosophy and Co-Director of the Center for the Study of Knowledge and Data Paul Humphreys
ISBN-10 9780199368815
Release 2016-09-01
Pages 944
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This handbook provides both an overview of state-of-the-art scholarship in philosophy of science, as well as a guide to new directions in the discipline. Section I contains broad overviews of the main lines of research and the state of established knowledge in six principal areas of the discipline, including computational, physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, as well as general philosophy of science. Section II covers what are considered to be the traditional topics in the philosophy of science, such as causation, probability, models, ethics and values, and explanation. Section III identifies new areas of investigation that show promise of becoming important areas of research, including the philosophy of astronomy and astrophysics, data, complexity theory, neuroscience, simulations, post-Kuhnian philosophy, post-empiricist epistemology, and emergence. Most chapters are accessible to scientifically educated non-philosophers as well as to professional philosophers, and the contributors - all leading researchers in their field -- bring diverse perspectives from the North American, European, and Australasian research communities. This volume is an essential resource for scholars and students.



Emergence in Science and Philosophy

Emergence in Science and Philosophy Author Antonella Corradini
ISBN-10 9781136955112
Release 2010-06-18
Pages 328
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The concept of emergence has seen a significant resurgence in philosophy and the sciences, yet debates regarding emergentist and reductionist visions of the natural world continue to be hampered by imprecision or ambiguity. Emergent phenomena are said to arise out of and be sustained by more basic phenomena, while at the same time exerting a "top-down" control upon those very sustaining processes. To some critics, this has the air of magic, as it seems to suggest a kind of circular causality. Other critics deem the concept of emergence to be objectionably anti-naturalistic. Objections such as these have led many thinkers to construe emergent phenomena instead as coarse-grained patterns in the world that, while calling for distinctive concepts, do not "disrupt" the ordinary dynamics of the finer-grained (more fundamental) levels. Yet, reconciling emergence with a (presumed) pervasive causal continuity at the fundamental level can seem to deflate emergence of its initially profound significance. This basic problematic is mirrored by similar controversy over how best to characterize the opposite systematizing impulse, most commonly given an equally evocative but vague term, "reductionism." The original essays in this volume help to clarify the alternatives: inadequacies in some older formulations and arguments are exposed and new lines of argument on behalf the two visions are advanced.



Scientific Explanation and Methodology of Science

Scientific Explanation and Methodology of Science Author Guichun Guo
ISBN-10 9789814596657
Release 2014-03-18
Pages 268
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This volume contains the contributed papers of invitees to SEMS 2012 who have also given talks at the conference. The invitees are experts in philosophy of science and technology from Asia (besides China), Australia, Europe, Latin America, North America, as well as from within China. The papers in this volume represent the latest work of each researcher in his or her expertise; and as a result, they give a good representation of the cutting-edge researches in diverse areas in different parts of the world. Contents:The Directedness of Time in Classical Cosmology (Andreas Bartels and Daniel Wohlfarth)Explanation, Special Relativity, and Presentism (Katherine Brading)A Muse of Fire (James Robert Brown)SSK or ESW? — The Bloor-Lynch Debate Revisited (Kai-Yuan Cheng)Model Error and Ensemble Forecasting: A Cautionary Tale (Seamus Bradley, Roman Frigg, Hailiang Du, and Leonard A Smith)The Contextualist Basis of Scientific Explanation (Guichun Guo)On a Bottom-Up Approach to Scientific Discovery (Xiang Huang)The New Ignorance (Janet A Kourany)Models, Fiction, and Fictional Models (Chuang Liu)A Contextualist Interpretation of Mathematics (Jie Liu)Understanding as Integration of Heterogeneous Representations (Sergio F Martínez)Approximation of Laws (Ilkka Niniluoto)Science, Sex, and Pictures: Reflections on van Fraassen's Use of Perspectival Representations (Kathleen Okruhlik)Bayesianism versus Confirmation (Michael Strevens)The Equivalent Transformation Between Non-Truth-Function and Truth-Function (Xiao-Long Wan and Ming-Yi Chen)Mechanism and Productive Event (Zhu Xu)Social Science and the Bayesian Probability Explanation Model (Jie Yin and Lei Zhao)Choice of Units and the Causal Markov Condition (Jiji Zhang and Peter Spirtes) Readership: Graduate science students, professional scientists, and researchers. Keywords:Science Explanation;Scientific Method;Climate Models;Idealization;Relativity Theory;Cosmology



The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science Author Martin Curd
ISBN-10 9781135011093
Release 2013-07-24
Pages 736
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The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science is an indispensable reference source and guide to the major themes, debates, problems and topics in philosophy of science. It contains sixty-two specially commissioned entries by a leading team of international contributors. Organized into four parts it covers:historical and philosophical context debates concepts the individual sciences. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science addresses all of the essential topics.



The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information Author Luciano Floridi
ISBN-10 9781317633495
Release 2016-06-17
Pages 446
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Information and communication technology occupies a central place in the modern world, with society becoming increasingly dependent on it every day. It is therefore unsurprising that it has become a growing subject area in contemporary philosophy, which relies heavily on informational concepts. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information is an outstanding reference source to the key topics and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors the Handbook is divided into four parts: basic ideas quantitative and formal aspects natural and physical aspects human and semantic aspects. Within these sections central issues are examined, including probability, the logic of information, informational metaphysics, the philosophy of data and evidence, and the epistemic value of information. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information is essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy, computer science and communication studies.



Theory and Method of Evolutionary Political Economy

Theory and Method of Evolutionary Political Economy Author Hardy Hanappi
ISBN-10 9781315470191
Release 2017-01-12
Pages 278
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The world is in turmoil, the dynamics of political economy seem to have entered a phase where a ‘return to normal’ cannot be expected. Since the financial crisis, conventional economic theory has proven itself to be rather helpless and political decision makers have become suspicious about this type of economic consultancy. This book offers a different approach. It promises to describe political and economic dynamics as interwoven as they are in real life and it adds to that an evolutionary perspective. The latter allows for a long-run view, which makes it possible to discuss the emergence and exit of social institutions. The essays in this volume explore the theoretical and methodological aspects of evolutionary political economy. In part one, the authors consider the foundational contributions of some of the great economists of the past, while the second part demonstrates the benefits of adopting the methods of computer simulation and agent-based modelling. Together, the contributions to this volume demonstrate the richness, diversity and great explanatory potential of evolutionary political economy. This volume is extremely useful for social scientists in the fields of economics, politics, and sociology who are interested to learn what evolutionary political economy is, how it proceeds and what it can provide.



Complexity and Postmodernism

Complexity and Postmodernism Author Paul Cilliers
ISBN-10 9781134743292
Release 2002-09-11
Pages 176
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In Complexity and Postmodernism, Paul Cilliers explores the idea of complexity in the light of contemporary perspectives from philosophy and science. Cilliers offers us a unique approach to understanding complexity and computational theory by integrating postmodern theory (like that of Derrida and Lyotard) into his discussion. Complexity and Postmodernism is an exciting and an original book that should be read by anyone interested in gaining a fresh understanding of complexity, postmodernism and connectionism.



Energy Accounts

Energy Accounts Author Dan Willis
ISBN-10 9781317428787
Release 2016-06-23
Pages 290
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How does one tell the story of energy production, use, or conservation in a manner sufficiently convincing to influence policy, behavior, and design? Energy Accounts explores potential answers to this question through compelling images, data visualizations, narratives, and other examples of accounting for energy. Organized into a collection containing both examples of best practices and critiques, this impressive array of projects and contributors combines text and graphic material to explore different representations of energy data. Including work from Kieran Timberlake, SHoP, AMO, Lateral Office, WOHA, and many more, the book boasts a unique graphic design which supports and enhances its role as a valuable resource for professionals and students in architecture, engineering, and urban design.



International Handbook of the Learning Sciences

International Handbook of the Learning Sciences Author Frank Fischer
ISBN-10 9781317208358
Release 2018-04-19
Pages 552
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The International Handbook of the Learning Sciences is a comprehensive collection of international perspectives on this interdisciplinary field. In more than 50 chapters, leading experts synthesize past, current, and emerging theoretical and empirical directions for learning sciences research. The three sections of the handbook capture, respectively: foundational contributions from multiple disciplines and the ways in which the learning sciences has fashioned these into its own brand of use-oriented theory, design, and evidence; learning sciences approaches to designing, researching, and evaluating learning broadly construed; and the methodological diversity of learning sciences research, assessment, and analytic approaches. This pioneering collection is the definitive volume of international learning sciences scholarship and an essential text for scholars in this area.



Mathematical Modelling of Waves in Multi Scale Structured Media

Mathematical Modelling of Waves in Multi Scale Structured Media Author Alexander B. Movchan
ISBN-10 9781351651424
Release 2017-11-09
Pages 248
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Mathematical Modelling of Waves in Multi-Scale Structured Media presents novel analytical and numerical models of waves in structured elastic media, with emphasis on the asymptotic analysis of phenomena such as dynamic anisotropy, localisation, filtering and polarisation as well as on the modelling of photonic, phononic, and platonic crystals.



Reconstructing Reality

Reconstructing Reality Author Margaret Morrison
ISBN-10 9780199380275
Release 2015
Pages 334
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This text examines issues related to the way modelling and simulation enable us to reconstruct aspects of the world we are investigating. It also investigates the processes by which we extract concrete knowledge from those reconstructions and how that knowledge is legitimated.



Immersive Sound

Immersive Sound Author Agnieszka Roginska
ISBN-10 9781317480105
Release 2017-10-13
Pages 456
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Immersive Sound: The Art and Science of Binaural and Multi-Channel Audio provides a comprehensive guide to multichannel sound. With contributions from leading recording engineers, researchers, and industry experts, Immersive Sound includes an in-depth description of the physics and psychoacoustics of spatial audio as well as practical applications. Chapters include the history of 3D sound, binaural reproduction over headphones and loudspeakers, stereo, surround sound, height channels, object-based audio, soundfield (ambisonics), wavefield synthesis, and multichannel mixing techniques. Knowledge of the development, theory, and practice of spatial and multichannel sound is essential to those advancing the research and applications in the rapidly evolving fields of 3D sound recording, augmented and virtual reality, gaming, film sound, music production and post-production. A companion website (www.routledge.com/cw/9781138900004) that contains audio examples, videos, animations, and additional material, is the perfect companion to this authoritative resource.



Platonism Naturalism and Mathematical Knowledge

Platonism  Naturalism  and Mathematical Knowledge Author James Robert Brown
ISBN-10 9781136580376
Release 2013-06-17
Pages 194
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This study addresses a central theme in current philosophy: Platonism vs Naturalism and provides accounts of both approaches to mathematics, crucially discussing Quine, Maddy, Kitcher, Lakoff, Colyvan, and many others. Beginning with accounts of both approaches, Brown defends Platonism by arguing that only a Platonistic approach can account for concept acquisition in a number of special cases in the sciences. He also argues for a particular view of applied mathematics, a view that supports Platonism against Naturalist alternatives. Not only does this engaging book present the Platonist-Naturalist debate over mathematics in a comprehensive fashion, but it also sheds considerable light on non-mathematical aspects of a dispute that is central to contemporary philosophy.



Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science

Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science Author Daniela M. Bailer-Jones
ISBN-10 9780822971238
Release 2009-09-13
Pages 248
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Scientists have used models for hundreds of years as a means of describing phenomena and as a basis for further analogy. In Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science, Daniela Bailer-Jones assembles an original and comprehensive philosophical analysis of how models have been used and interpreted in both historical and contemporary contexts. Bailer-Jones delineates the many forms models can take (ranging from equations to animals; from physical objects to theoretical constructs), and how they are put to use. She examines early mechanical models employed by nineteenth-century physicists such as Kelvin and Maxwell, describes their roots in the mathematical principles of Newton and others, and compares them to contemporary mechanistic approaches. Bailer-Jones then views the use of analogy in the late nineteenth century as a means of understanding models and to link different branches of science. She reveals how analogies can also be models themselves, or can help to create them. The first half of the twentieth century saw little mention of models in the literature of logical empiricism. Focusing primarily on theory, logical empiricists believed that models were of temporary importance, flawed, and awaiting correction. The later contesting of logical empiricism, particularly the hypothetico-deductive account of theories, by philosophers such as Mary Hesse, sparked a renewed interest in the importance of models during the 1950s that continues to this day. Bailer-Jones analyzes subsequent propositions of: models as metaphors; Kuhn's concept of a paradigm; the Semantic View of theories; and the case study approaches of Cartwright and Morrison, among others. She then engages current debates on topics such as phenomena versus data, the distinctions between models and theories, the concepts of representation and realism, and the discerning of falsities in models.



Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory

Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory Author David HERMAN
ISBN-10 9781134458400
Release 2010-06-10
Pages 720
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The past several decades have seen an explosion of interest in narrative, with this multifaceted object of inquiry becoming a central concern in a wide range of disciplinary fields and research contexts. As accounts of what happened to particular people in particular circumstances and with specific consequences, stories have come to be viewed as a basic human strategy for coming to terms with time, process, and change. However, the very predominance of narrative as a focus of interest across multiple disciplines makes it imperative for scholars, teachers, and students to have access to a comprehensive reference resource.