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Modern Theory of Gratings

Modern Theory of Gratings Author Yuriy K. Sirenko
ISBN-10 9781441912008
Release 2010-07-23
Pages 390
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The advances in the theory of diffraction gratings and the applications of these results certainly determine the progress in several areas of applied science and engineering. The polarization converters, phase shifters and filters, quantum and solid-state oscillators, open quasi optical dispersive resonators and power compressors, slow-wave structures and patter forming systems, accelerators and spectrometer; that is still far from being a complete list of devices exploiting the amazing ability of periodic structures to perform controlled frequency, spatial, and polarization selection of signals. Diffraction gratings used to be and still are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The further development of the theory of diffraction gratings, in spite of considerable achievements, is still very important presently. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering present the theory of diffraction gratings with many new problems which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. Just in such way there appeared recently new fields, connected with the analysis, synthesis and definition of equivalent parameters of artificial materials – layers and coatings, having periodic structure and possessing features, which can be found in natural materials only in extraordinary or exceptional situations. In this book the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that may constitute the base of further development of this theory which can meet the challenges provided by the most recent requirements of fundamental and applied science. The following issues will be considered in the book Authentic methods of analytical regularization, that perfectly match the requirements of analysis of resonant scattering of electromagnetic waves by gratings; Spectral theory of gratings, providing a reliable foundation for the analysis of spatial – frequency transformations of electromagnetic fields occurring in open periodic resonators and waveguides; Parametric Fourier method and C-method, that are oriented towards the efficient numerical analysis of transformation properties of fields in the case of arbitrary profile periodic boundary between dielectric media and multilayered conformal arrays; Rigorous methods for analysis of transient processes and time-spatial transformations of electromagnetic waves in resonant situations, based on development and incorporation in standard numerical routines of FDTD of so called explicit absorbing boundary conditions; New approaches to the solution of homogenization problems – the key problem arising in construction of metamaterials and meta surfaces; New physical results about the resonance scattering of pulse and monochromatic waves by periodic structures, including structures with chiral or left-handed materials; Methods and the results of the solutions of several actual applied problems of analysis and synthesis of pattern creating gratings, power compressors, resonance radiators of high capacity short radio pulses, open electromagnetic structures for the systems of resonant quasi optics and absorbing coatings.



Confocal Raman Microscopy

Confocal Raman Microscopy Author Jan Toporski
ISBN-10 9783319753805
Release 2018-03-01
Pages 596
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This second edition provides a cutting-edge overview of physical, technical and scientific aspects related to the widely used analytical method of confocal Raman microscopy. The book includes expanded background information and adds insights into how confocal Raman microscopy, especially 3D Raman imaging, can be integrated with other methods to produce a variety of correlative microscopy combinations. The benefits are then demonstrated and supported by numerous examples from the fields of materials science, 2D materials, the life sciences, pharmaceutical research and development, as well as the geosciences.



Electromagnetic Wave Scattering on Nonspherical Particles

Electromagnetic Wave Scattering on Nonspherical Particles Author Tom Rother
ISBN-10 9783642367458
Release 2013-09-19
Pages 360
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This book gives a detailed overview of the theory of electromagnetic wave scattering on single, homogeneous, but nonspherical particles. Beside the systematically developed Green’s function formalism of the first edition this second and enlarged edition contains additional material regarding group theoretical considerations for nonspherical particles with boundary symmetries, an iterative T-matrix scheme for approximate solutions, and two additional but basic applications. Moreover, to demonstrate the advantages of the group theoretical approach and the iterative solution technique, the restriction to axisymmetric scatterers of the first edition was abandoned.



Ultrafast Optics V

Ultrafast Optics V Author Shuntaro Watanabe
ISBN-10 9780387491196
Release 2010-05-05
Pages 562
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This book brings together in a single volume the most up-to-date results in the field presented at Ultrafast Optics and Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources 2005. The volume contains keynote and invited contributions together with carefully selected regular contributions. The book aims at the highest level of presentation to make it useful as a reference for those working in the field.



Plasmonics Fundamentals and Applications

Plasmonics  Fundamentals and Applications Author Stefan Alexander Maier
ISBN-10 0387378251
Release 2007-05-16
Pages 224
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Considered a major field of photonics, plasmonics offers the potential to confine and guide light below the diffraction limit and promises a new generation of highly miniaturized photonic devices. This book combines a comprehensive introduction with an extensive overview of the current state of the art. Coverage includes plasmon waveguides, cavities for field-enhancement, nonlinear processes and the emerging field of active plasmonics studying interactions of surface plasmons with active media.



Optical Measurement of Surface Topography

Optical Measurement of Surface Topography Author Richard Leach
ISBN-10 3642120121
Release 2011-03-31
Pages 323
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The measurement and characterisation of surface topography is crucial to modern manufacturing industry. The control of areal surface structure allows a manufacturer to radically alter the functionality of a part. Examples include structuring to effect fluidics, optics, tribology, aerodynamics and biology. To control such manufacturing methods requires measurement strategies. There is now a large range of new optical techniques on the market, or being developed in academia, that can measure areal surface topography. Each method has its strong points and limitations. The book starts with introductory chapters on optical instruments, their common language, generic features and limitations, and their calibration. Each type of modern optical instrument is described (in a common format) by an expert in the field. The book is intended for both industrial and academic scientists and engineers, and will be useful for undergraduate and postgraduate studies.



Nonlinearities in Periodic Structures and Metamaterials

Nonlinearities in Periodic Structures and Metamaterials Author Cornelia Denz
ISBN-10 9783642020667
Release 2010-03-11
Pages 292
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Optical information processing of the future is associated with a new generation of compact nanoscale optical devices operating entirely with light. Moreover, adaptive features such as self-guiding, reconfiguration and switching become more and more important. Nonlinear devices offer an enormous potential for these applications. Consequently, innovative concepts for all-optical communication and information technologies based on nonlinear effects in photonic-crystal physics and nanoscale devices as metamaterials are of high interest. This book focuses on nonlinear optical phenomena in periodic media, such as photonic crystals, optically-induced, adaptive lattices, atomic lattices or metamaterials. The main purpose is to describe and overview new physical phenomena that result from the interplay between nonlinearities and structural periodicities and is a guide to actual and future developments for the expert reader in optical information processing, as well as in the physics of cold atoms in optical lattices.



Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings

Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings Author R. Petit
ISBN-10 9783642815003
Release 2013-03-12
Pages 286
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When I was a student, in the early fifties, the properties of gratings were generally explained according to the scalar theory of optics. The grating formula (which pre dicts the diffraction angles for a given angle of incidence) was established, exper imentally verified, and intensively used as a source for textbook problems. Indeed those grating properties, we can call optical properties, were taught'in a satisfac tory manner and the students were able to clearly understand the diffraction and dispersion of light by gratings. On the other hand, little was said about the "energy properties", i. e. , about the prediction of efficiencies. Of course, the existence of the blaze effect was pointed out, but very frequently nothing else was taught about the efficiency curves. At most a good student had to know that, for an eche lette grating, the efficiency in a given order can approach unity insofar as the diffracted wave vector can be deduced from the incident one by a specular reflexion on the large facet. Actually this rule of thumb was generally sufficient to make good use of the optical gratings available about thirty years ago. Thanks to the spectacular improvements in grating manufacture after the end of the second world war, it became possible to obtain very good gratings with more and more lines per mm. Nowadays, in gratings used in the visible region, a spacing small er than half a micron is common.



International Trends in Optics and Photonics

International Trends in Optics and Photonics Author Toshimitsu Asakura
ISBN-10 9783540488866
Release 2013-06-05
Pages 428
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This book gives a broad and authoritative overview of research currently underway in the fields of optical science and engineering throughout the world. The contributions, which are written by internationally renowned scientists, are of particular interest to specialists and nonspecialists in the many disciplines covered. They are less formal than the standard technical reviews found in academic journals and this is what makes the book accessible to readers who are not specialists in optical science and engineering.



Optical Coatings

Optical Coatings Author Olaf Stenzel
ISBN-10 9783642540639
Release 2014-04-29
Pages 378
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Optical coatings, i.e. multilayer stacks composed from a certain number of thin individual layers, are an essential part of any optical system necessary to tailor the properties of the optical surfaces. Hereby, the performance of any optical coating is defined by a well-balanced interplay between the properties of the individual coating materials and the geometrical parameters (such as film thickness) which define their arrangement. In all scientific books dealing with the performance of optical coatings, the main focus is on optimizing the geometrical coating parameters, particularly the number of individual layers and their thickness. At the same time, much less attention is paid to another degree of freedom in coating design, namely the possibility to tailor optical material properties to an optimum relevant for the required specification. This book, on the contrary, concentrates on the material aside of the problem. After a comprehensive review of the basics of thin film theory, traditional optical coating material properties and their relation to the efficiency of coating design methods, emphasis is placed on novel results concerning the application of material mixtures and nanostructured coatings in optical coating theory and practice, including porous layers, dielectric mixtures as well as metal island films for different applications.



Optical Interference Coatings

Optical Interference Coatings Author Norbert Kaiser
ISBN-10 9783540363866
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 503
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Designed to give a concise but complete overview of the field, this book features contributions written by leading experts in the various areas. Topics include design, materials, film growth, deposition including large area, characterization and monitoring, and mechanical stress.



Fibre Optic Communication

Fibre Optic Communication Author Herbert Venghaus
ISBN-10 9783319423678
Release 2017-03-01
Pages 847
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The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of current research as well as expected future components.



Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Author Sergio Musazzi
ISBN-10 9783642450853
Release 2014-07-08
Pages 565
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This book deals with the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) a widely used atomic emission spectroscopy technique for elemental analysis of materials. It is based on the use of a high-power, short pulse laser excitation. The book is divided into two main sections: the first one concerning theoretical aspects of the technique, the second one describing the state of the art in applications of the technique in different scientific/technological areas. Numerous examples of state of the art applications provide the readers an almost complete scenario of the LIBS technique. The LIBS theoretical aspects are reviewed. The book helps the readers who are less familiar with the technique to understand the basic principles. Numerous examples of state of the art applications give an almost complete scenario of the LIBS technique potentiality. These examples of applications may have a strong impact on future industrial utilization. The authors made important contributions to the development of this field.



Engineering Optics

Engineering Optics Author Keigo Iizuka
ISBN-10 9780387757230
Release 2009-04-01
Pages 532
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Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.



Optics and Lasers in Biomedicine and Culture

Optics and Lasers in Biomedicine and Culture Author Costas Fotakis
ISBN-10 3540666486
Release 2000-01-01
Pages 356
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Following the previous OWLS conferences devoted to optics in life sciences, the 5th Conference focused on recent achievements in applying lasers & optics in biomedicine & in the preservation of our cultural heritage. Particular attention is thus paid to laser diagnostics in medicine, interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue, & the development of new systems for these studies. The contributors to this volume cover such international research activities as photon migration in tissue, fibre optics, lasers in dermatology, ENT, cardiology, & in art conservation, imaging techniques in archaeology, laser technologies in contemporary art, & new laser & opto-electronic systems for biomedical & art-related studies.



Strong Field Laser Physics

Strong Field Laser Physics Author Thomas Brabec
ISBN-10 9780387347554
Release 2008-08-17
Pages 592
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Due to the rapid progress in laser technology a wealth of novel fundamental and applied applications of lasers in atomic and plasma physics have become possible. This book focuses on the interaction of high intensity lasers with matter. It reviews the state of the art of high power laser sources, intensity laser-atom and laser-plasma interactions, laser matter interaction at relativistic intensities, and QED with intense lasers.



Epioptics

Epioptics Author John F. McGilp
ISBN-10 9783642798207
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 230
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The study of condensed matter using optical techniques, where photons act as both probe and signal, has a long history. It is only recently, however, that the extraction of surface and interface information, with submonolayer resolution, has been shown to be possible using optical techniques (where "optical" applies to electromagnetic radiation in and around the visible region of the spectrum). This book describes these "epioptic" techniques, which have now been quite widely applied to semiconductor surfaces and interfaces. Particular emphasis in the book is placed on recent studies of submonolayer growth on well-characterised semiconductor surfaces, many of which have arisen from CEC DGJGII ESPRIT Basic Research Action No. 3177 "EPIOPTIC", and CEU DGIII ESPRIT Basic Research Action No. 6878 "EASI". Techniques using other areas of the spectrum such as the infra-red region (IR spectroscopy, in its various surface configurations), and the x-ray region (surface x-ray diffraction, x-ray standing wave), are omitted. The optical techniques described use simple lamp or small laser sources and are thus, in principle, easily accessible. Epioptic probes can provide new information on solid-gas, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces. They are particularly suited to growth monitoring. Emerging process technologies for fabricating submicron and nanoscale semiconductor devices and novel multilayer materials, whether based on silicon or compound semiconductors, all require extremely precise control of growth at surfaces. In situ, non-destructive, real-time monitoring and characterisation of surfaces under growth conditions is needed for further progress. Both atomic scale resolution, and non-destructive characterisation of buried structures, are required.