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Molten Salts Chemistry

Molten Salts Chemistry Author Frederic Lantelme
ISBN-10 9780124017221
Release 2013-08-14
Pages 592
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Molten salts and fused media provide the key properties and the theory of molten salts, as well as aspects of fused salts chemistry, helping you generate new ideas and applications for fused salts. Molten Salts Chemistry: From Lab to Applications examines how the electrical and thermal properties of molten salts, and generally low vapour pressure are well adapted to high temperature chemistry, enabling fast reaction rates. It also explains how their ability to dissolve many inorganic compounds such as oxides, nitrides, carbides and other salts make molten salts ideal as solvents in electrometallurgy, metal coating, treatment of by-products and energy conversion. This book also reviews newer applications of molten salts including materials for energy storage such as carbon nano-particles for efficient super capacitors, high capacity molten salt batteries and for heat transport and storage in solar plants. In addition, owing to their high thermal stability, they are considered as ideal candidates for the development of safer nuclear reactors and for the treatment of nuclear waste, especially to separate actinides from lanthanides by electrorefining. Explains the theory and properties of molten salts to help scientists understand these unique liquids Provides an ideal introduction to this expanding field Illustrated text with key real-life applications of molten salts in synthesis, energy, nuclear, and metal extraction



Molten Salts Chemistry

Molten Salts Chemistry Author Frederic Lantelme
ISBN-10 0123985382
Release 2013
Pages 573
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"In recent years, molecular modelling has become an indispensable tool for studying the structure and dynamics of molten salts. In this chapter we first provide a short description of the state-of-the-art models and methods used for modelling molten salts at the atomic scale. In particular, we discuss the importance of polarization effects for obtaining accurate results. We then give some examples of the structure of several molten salts, as yielded by the simulations. We finish by describing how the transport properties, which encompass the diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivities, viscosities and thermal conductivities, are computed. By comparing the values given by the simulations to reference experimental data, we show that this technique can now be considered as highly predictive"--



Molten Salt Chemistry

Molten Salt Chemistry Author Gleb Mamantov
ISBN-10 9789400938632
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 525
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Molten salts are of considerable significance to chemical technology. Applications range from the established ones, such as the production of aluminum, magnesium, sodium and fluorine, to those as yet to be fully exploited, such as molten salt batteries and fuel cells, catalysis, and solar energy. Molten salts are investigated for different purposes by many diverse techniques. There is a need to keep investigators working in different areas, such as metal production, power sources, and glass industry, aware of progress in various specialties, as well as to familiarize new research workers with the fundamental aspects of the broad field of molten salt _ chemistry. This volume constitutes the plenary lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molten Salt Chemistry, Camerino, Italy, August 3-15, 1986. The fundamentals and several selected applications of molten salt chemistry were addressed. The major fundamental topics covered at this ASI were the structure of melts, thermodynamics of molten salt mixtures, theoretical and experimental studies of transport processes, metal-metal salt solutions, solvent properties of melt systems, acid-base effects in molten salt chemistry, electronic absorption, vibrational, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt systems, electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry in molten salts, and organic chemistry in molten salts. The applied aspects of molten salt chemistry included the chemistry of aluminum production, electrodeposition using molten salts, and molten salt batteries and fuel cells.



Molten Salts Chemistry and Technology

Molten Salts Chemistry and Technology Author Marcelle Gaune-Escard
ISBN-10 9781118448823
Release 2014-05-12
Pages 632
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Both high temperature molten salts and room temperature ionic liquids (collectively termed liquid salts) have unique properties, including good heat capacity, good electrical conductivity and, in some cases, chemical catalytic properties. They are critical for the efficient production and processing of many different materials, for example the electrolytic extraction and refining of aluminium and silicon, particularly important in the post fossil fuel era. Other industrial applications range from solvents and fuel cells to alloy heat treatments and pyroprocessing in nuclear fuel. With a focus on sustainable processes for the production and processing of materials, this book contains over 60 chapters and is organized into seven areas: Aluminium Electrolysis New Processes for Electrowinning Modeling and Thermodynamics High Temperature Experimental Techniques Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids Nuclear Energy Energy Technology Intended to provide a solid understanding of the properties, experimental methods, theoretical methods and applications of these materials, Molten Salts: Chemistry and Technology is an unrivalled reference for chemists, engineers and materials scientists in academia, research and industry.



Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy

Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy Author Thomas James Dolan
ISBN-10 9780081012437
Release 2017-06-08
Pages 840
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Molten Salt Reactors is a comprehensive reference on the status of molten salt reactor (MSR) research and thorium fuel utilization. There is growing awareness that nuclear energy is needed to complement intermittent energy sources and to avoid pollution from fossil fuels. Light water reactors are complex, expensive, and vulnerable to core melt, steam explosions, and hydrogen explosions, so better technology is needed. MSRs could operate safely at nearly atmospheric pressure and high temperature, yielding efficient electrical power generation, desalination, actinide incineration, hydrogen production, and other industrial heat applications. Coverage includes: Motivation -- why are we interested? Technical issues – reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials, environment, ... Generic designs -- thermal, fast, solid fuel, liquid fuel, ... Specific designs – aimed at electrical power, actinide incineration, thorium utilization, ... Worldwide activities in 23 countries Conclusions This book is a collaboration of 58 authors from 23 countries, written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten Salt Forum. It can serve as a reference for engineers and scientists, and it can be used as a textbook for graduate students and advanced undergrads. Molten Salt Reactors is the only complete review of the technology currently available, making this an essential text for anyone reviewing the use of MSRs and thorium fuel, including students, nuclear researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers. Written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten-Salt Forum Covers MSR-specific issues, various reactor designs, and discusses issues such as the environmental impact, non-proliferation, and licensing Includes case studies and examples from experts across the globe



Fluorinated Materials for Energy Conversion

Fluorinated Materials for Energy Conversion Author Tsuyoshi Nakajima
ISBN-10 0080531784
Release 2005-05-20
Pages 592
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Fluorinated Materials for Energy Conversion offers advanced information on the application of fluorine chemistry to energy conversion materials for lithium batteries, fuel cells, solar cells and so on. Fluorine compounds and fluorination techniques have recently gained important roles in improving the electrochemical characteristics of such energy production devices. The book therefore focuses on new batteries with high performance, the improvements of cell performance and the improvement of electrode and cell characteristics. The authors present new information on the effect of fluorine and how to make use of fluorination techniques and fluorine compounds. With emphasis on recent developments, this book is suitable for students, researchers and engineers working in chemistry, materials science and electrical engineering. Contains practical information, supported by examples Provides an update on recent developments in the field Written by specialists working in fluorine chemistry, electrochemistry, polymer and solid state chemistry



Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds

Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds Author Henri Groult
ISBN-10 9780128037904
Release 2016-11-04
Pages 760
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Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds focuses on the exceptional character of fluorine and fluorinated compounds. This comprehensive work explores examples taken from all classes of fluorine chemistry and illustrates the extreme reactivity of fluorinating media and the peculiar synthesis routes to fluorinated materials. The book provides advanced and updated information on the latest synthesis routes to fluorocompounds and the involved reaction mechanisms. Special attention is given to the unique reactivity of fluorine and fluorinated media, along with the correlation of those properties to valuable applications of fluorinated compounds. Contains quality content edited, and contributed, by leading scholars in the field Presents applied guidance on the preparation of original fluorinated compounds, potentially transferable from the lab scale to industrial applications Provides practical synthesis information for a wide audience interested in fluorine compounds in many branches of chemistry, materials science, and physics



Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors Author Pascal Yvon
ISBN-10 9780081009123
Release 2016-08-27
Pages 684
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Operating at a high level of fuel efficiency, safety, proliferation-resistance, sustainability and cost, generation IV nuclear reactors promise enhanced features to an energy resource which is already seen as an outstanding source of reliable base load power. The performance and reliability of materials when subjected to the higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive higher temperature environments that will be found in generation IV nuclear reactors are essential areas of study, as key considerations for the successful development of generation IV reactors are suitable structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core applications. Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors explores the current state-of-the art in these areas. Part One reviews the materials, requirements and challenges in generation IV systems. Part Two presents the core materials with chapters on irradiation resistant austenitic steels, ODS/FM steels and refractory metals amongst others. Part Three looks at out-of-core materials. Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors is an essential reference text for professional scientists, engineers and postgraduate researchers involved in the development of generation IV nuclear reactors. Introduces the higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive higher temperature environments that will be found in generation IV nuclear reactors and implications for structural materials Contains chapters on the key core and out-of-core materials, from steels to advanced micro-laminates Written by an expert in that particular area



Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry

Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry Author J. Braunstein
ISBN-10 9781461582700
Release 2013-11-21
Pages 469
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The first chapter of this volume deals with computer simulation of molten salt behavior by molecular dynamics calculations. The next four chapters are reviews of experimental work: Chapter 2 deals with the solubility of nonre active gases in molten salts, Chapter 3 with various types of organic reactions in molten tetrachloroaluminates, Chapter 4 with techniques for the study of molten fluorides, and Chapter 5 with the physical and chemical properties of thiocyanate melts. The last chapter is a collection of phase diagrams for binary and ternary fluoride systems. J. B., G. M., G. P. S. v CONTENTS Chapter 1 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS CALCULATIONS ON MOLTEN IONIC SALTS L. V. Woodcock 1. Introduction. . 4 2. Intermolecular Forces in Molten Salts 4 2.1. True and Effective Pair Potentials 2.2. Semiempirical Models 6 3. Computational Techniques 13 3.1. Molecular Dynamics Simulation 13 3.2. The Monte Carlo Method 15 3.3. Electrostatic Summations . . 18 4. Calculation of Physical Properties 23 4.1. Equilibrium Properties . 23 4.2. Transport Coefficients 27 4.3. Spectroscopic Properties 32 5. Applications. . . . . . . . 35 5.1. Studies of Interionic Forces. 35 5.2. Microstructure and Mechanisms 40 5.3. Interpretation of Experimental Observables 50 5.4. Reappraisal of Molten Salt Theories . 64 70 6. Conclusions 7. References. 72 vii Contents viii Chapter 2 GAS SOLUBILITY IN MOLTEN SALTS P. Field 1. Introduction 75 2. Experimental Techniques 78 3. Solution Thermodynamics.



Advanced Fluoride Based Materials for Energy Conversion

Advanced Fluoride Based Materials for Energy Conversion Author Tsuyoshi Nakajima
ISBN-10 9780128007129
Release 2015-04-30
Pages 458
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Advanced Fluoride-Based Materials for Energy Conversion provides thorough and applied information on new fluorinated materials for chemical energy devices, exploring the electrochemical properties and behavior of fluorinated materials in lithium ion and sodium ion batteries, fluoropolymers in fuel cells, and fluorinated carbon in capacitors, while also exploring synthesis applications, and both safety and stability issues. As electronic devices, from cell phones to hybrid and electric vehicles, are increasingly common and prevalent in modern lives and require dependable, stable chemical energy devices with high-level functions are becoming increasingly important. As research and development in this area progresses rapidly, fluorine compounds play a critical role in this rapid progression. Fluorine, with its small size and the highest electronegativity, yields stable compounds under various conditions for utilization as electrodes, electrolytes, and membranes in energy devices. The book is an ideal reference for the chemist, researcher, technician, or academic, presenting valuable, current insights into the synthesis of fluorine compounds and fluorination reactions using fluorinating agents. Provides thorough and applied information on new fluorinated materials for chemical energy devices Describes the emerging role of stable energy devices with high-level functions and the research surrounding the technology Ideal for the chemist, research, technician, or academic seeking current insights into the synthesis of fluorine compounds and fluorination reactions using fluorinating agents



Advances in Molten Slags Fluxes and Salts

Advances in Molten Slags  Fluxes  and Salts Author Ramana Reddy
ISBN-10 9783319487694
Release 2017-01-10
Pages 1373
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This collection focuses on ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy where ionic melts, slags, fluxes, or salts play important roles in industrial growth and economy worldwide. Technical topics included are: thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams and kinetics of slags, fluxes, and salts; physical properties of slags, fluxes, and salts; structural studies of slags; interfacial and process phenomena involving foaming, bubble formation, and drainage; slag recycling, refractory erosion/corrosion, and freeze linings; and recycling and utilization of metallurgical slags and models and their applications in process improvement and optimization. These topics are of interest to not only traditional ferrous and non-ferrous metal industrial processes but also new and upcoming technologies.



Handbook of Electrochemistry

Handbook of Electrochemistry Author Cynthia G. Zoski
ISBN-10 9780444519580
Release 2007
Pages 892
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Electrochemistry plays a key role in a broad range of research and applied areas including the exploration of new inorganic and organic compounds, biochemical and biological systems, corrosion, energy applications involving fuel cells and solar cells, and nanoscale investigations. The Handbook of Electrochemistry serves as a source of electrochemical information, providing details of experimental considerations, representative calculations, and illustrations of the possibilities available in electrochemical experimentation. The book is divided into five parts: Fundamentals, Laboratory Practical, Techniques, Applications, and Data. The first section covers the fundamentals of electrochemistry which are essential for everyone working in the field, presenting an overview of electrochemical conventions, terminology, fundamental equations, and electrochemical cells, experiments, literature, textbooks, and specialized books. Part 2 focuses on the different laboratory aspects of electrochemistry which is followed by a review of the various electrochemical techniques ranging from classical experiments to scanning electrochemical microscopy, electrogenerated chemiluminesence and spectroelectrochemistry. Applications of electrochemistry include electrode kinetic determinations, unique aspects of metal deposition, and electrochemistry in small places and at novel interfaces and these are detailed in Part 4. The remaining three chapters provide useful electrochemical data and information involving electrode potentials, diffusion coefficients, and methods used in measuring liquid junction potentials. * serves as a source of electrochemical information * includes useful electrochemical data and information involving electrode potentials, diffusion coefficients, and methods used in measuring liquid junction potentials * reviews electrochemical techniques (incl. scanning electrochemical microscopy, electrogenerated chemiluminesence and spectroelectrochemistry)



Molten Salt Chemistry

Molten Salt Chemistry Author Gleb Mamantov
ISBN-10 9789400938632
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 525
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Molten salts are of considerable significance to chemical technology. Applications range from the established ones, such as the production of aluminum, magnesium, sodium and fluorine, to those as yet to be fully exploited, such as molten salt batteries and fuel cells, catalysis, and solar energy. Molten salts are investigated for different purposes by many diverse techniques. There is a need to keep investigators working in different areas, such as metal production, power sources, and glass industry, aware of progress in various specialties, as well as to familiarize new research workers with the fundamental aspects of the broad field of molten salt _ chemistry. This volume constitutes the plenary lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molten Salt Chemistry, Camerino, Italy, August 3-15, 1986. The fundamentals and several selected applications of molten salt chemistry were addressed. The major fundamental topics covered at this ASI were the structure of melts, thermodynamics of molten salt mixtures, theoretical and experimental studies of transport processes, metal-metal salt solutions, solvent properties of melt systems, acid-base effects in molten salt chemistry, electronic absorption, vibrational, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt systems, electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry in molten salts, and organic chemistry in molten salts. The applied aspects of molten salt chemistry included the chemistry of aluminum production, electrodeposition using molten salts, and molten salt batteries and fuel cells.



Fundamentals of Ionic Liquids

Fundamentals of Ionic Liquids Author Douglas R. MacFarlane
ISBN-10 9783527339990
Release 2017-12-04
Pages 258
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Written by experts who have been part of this field since its beginnings in both research and academia, this textbook introduces readers to this evolving topic and the broad range of applications that are being explored. The book begins by examining what it is that defines ionic liquids and what sets them apart from other materials. Chapters describe the various types of ionic liquids and the different techniques used to synthesize them, as well as their properties and some of the methods used in their measurement. Further chapters delve into synthetic and electrochemical applications and their broad use as "Green" solvents. Final chapters examine important applications in a wide variety of contexts, including such devices as solar cells and batteries, electrochemistry, and biotechnology. The result is a must-have resource for any researcher beginning to work in this growing field, including senior undergraduates and postgraduates.



The Chemistry of Fusion Technology

The Chemistry of Fusion Technology Author D. Gruen
ISBN-10 9781461345954
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 394
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Nuclear energy obtained from thermonuclear fusion of light nuclei is a goal to which an increasing world-wide effort is being committed. The demands on energy reserves and resources are continually increasing as ever more coun tries achieve modern industrial status. All projections agree that conventional means of energy production must be supplemented and indeed supplanted by new methods. Only the date at which the transition becomes imperative is subject to debate. The promise of fusion energy ultimately to pro vide a clean, cheap, dependable and potentially inexhaustible energy source augurs well for the future of the human race. If there were illusions at the start of the quest for controlled thermonuclear power that solutions would be easily found, the past two decades have dlspelled them. Unwarranted optimism has been replaced by a realistic recognition of the immense scientific and technological challenges that arise in bringing about practical fusion energy. Broadly speaking, problems can be put into two categories--those having to do with heating the fuel to thermonuclear temperatures at high enough particle densities and for sufficiently long confine ment times to yield a net power return and those having to do with the actual construction of a power producing fusion reactor.



Thermal Energy Storage

Thermal Energy Storage Author Ibrahim Dincer
ISBN-10 9781119956624
Release 2011-06-24
Pages 620
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The ability of thermal energy storage (TES) systems to facilitate energy savings, renewable energy use and reduce environmental impact has led to a recent resurgence in their interest. The second edition of this book offers up-to-date coverage of recent energy efficient and sustainable technological methods and solutions, covering analysis, design and performance improvement as well as life-cycle costing and assessment. As well as having significantly revised the book for use as a graduate text, the authors address real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and practical applications of thermal energy storage technology. Beginning with a general summary of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, this book goes on to discuss practical applications with chapters that include TES systems, environmental impact, energy savings, energy and exergy analyses, numerical modeling and simulation, case studies and new techniques and performance assessment methods.



Laboratory techniques in electroanalytical chemistry

Laboratory techniques in electroanalytical chemistry Author Peter T. Kissinger
ISBN-10 UOM:39015031281390
Release 1984
Pages 751
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Laboratory techniques in electroanalytical chemistry has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Laboratory techniques in electroanalytical chemistry also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Laboratory techniques in electroanalytical chemistry book for free.