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Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis Author Reza Razeghifard
ISBN-10 9781118659755
Release 2013-08-23
Pages 488
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This technical book explores current and future applications of solar power as an unlimited source of energy that earth receives every day. Photosynthetic organisms have learned to utilize this abundant source of energy by converting it into high-energy biochemical compounds. Inspired by the efficient conversion of solar energy into an electron flow, attempts have been made to construct artificial photosynthetic systems capable of establishing a charge separation state for generating electricity or driving chemical reactions. Another important aspect of photosynthesis is the CO2 fixation and the production of high energy compounds. Photosynthesis can produce biomass using solar energy while reducing the CO2 level in air. Biomass can be converted into biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Under certain conditions, photosynthetic organisms can also produce hydrogen gas which is one of the cleanest sources of energy.



Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis Author Katharina Brinkert
ISBN-10 9783319779805
Release 2018-03-16
Pages 127
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This book discusses the basic principles and processes of solar energy conversion in natural photosynthesis. It then directly compares them with recent developments and concepts currently being pursued in artificial photosynthetic systems that are capable of utilizing sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into a chemical fuel. In this regard, the main focus is on photoelectrochemical cells, in which semiconducting photoanodes and -cathodes modified with (electro-) catalysts are used to oxidize water, produce hydrogen and reduce carbon dioxide in a monolithic device. The fundamental photochemical and photophysical processes involved are presented and discussed, along with protection mechanisms and efficiency calculations for both natural and artificial photosynthesis. In turn, key parameters that are crucial for the efficient operation of natural photosynthesis are identified. Lastly, their validity and applicability in the design of artificial solar-driven water-splitting systems are examined.



Current challenges in photosynthesis From natural to artificial

Current challenges in photosynthesis  From natural to artificial Author Harvey J.M. Hou
ISBN-10 9782889192861
Release 2014-10-03
Pages
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Jules Verne (1828-1905), author of Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) and Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), wrote in 1875 “I believe that water will one day be used as a fuel, because the hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used separately or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light. I therefore believe that, when coal (oil) deposits are oxidised, we will heat ourselves by means of water. Water is the fuel of the future” Solar energy is the only renewable energy source that has sufficient capacity for the global energy need; it is the only one that can address the issues of energy crisis and global climate change. A vast amount of solar energy is harvested and stored via photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria since over 3 billion years. Today, it is estimated that photosynthesis produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which would be equivalent to a hundred times the weight of the total human population on our planet at the present time, and equal to a global energy storage rate of about 100 TW. The solar power is the most abundant source of renewable energy, and oxygenic photosynthesis uses this energy to power the planet using the amazing reaction of water splitting. During water splitting, driven ultimately by sunlight, oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and this, along with food production by photosynthesis, supports life on our earth. The other product of water oxidation is “hydrogen” (proton and electron). This ‘hydrogen’ is not normally released into the atmosphere as hydrogen gas but combined with carbon dioxide to make high energy containing organic molecules. When we burn fuels we combine these organic molecules with oxygen. The design of new solar energy systems must adhere to the same principle as that of natural photosynthesis. For us to manipulate it to our benefit, it is imperative that we completely understand the basic processes of natural photosynthesis, and chemical conversion, such as light harvesting, excitation energy transfer, electron transfer, ion transport, and carbon fixation. Equally important, we must exploit application of this knowledge to the development of fully synthetic and/or hybrid devices. Understanding of photosynthetic reactions is not only a satisfying intellectual pursuit, but it is important for improving agricultural yields and for developing new solar technologies. Today, we have considerable knowledge of the working of photosynthesis and its photosystems, including the water oxidation reaction. Recent advances towards the understanding of the structure and the mechanism of the natural photosynthetic systems are being made at the molecular level. To mimic natural photosynthesis, inorganic chemists, organic chemists, electrochemists, material scientists, biochemists, biophysicists, and plant biologists must work together and only then significant progress in harnessing energy via “artificial photosynthesis” will be possible. This Research Topic provides recent advances of our understanding of photosynthesis, gives to our readers recent information on photosynthesis research, and summarizes the characteristics of the natural system from the standpoint of what we could learn from it to produce an efficient artificial system, i.e., from the natural to the artificial. This topic is intended to include exciting breakthroughs, possible limitations, and open questions in the frontiers in photosynthesis research.



Biomass and Biofuels from Microalgae

Biomass and Biofuels from Microalgae Author Navid Reza Moheimani
ISBN-10 9783319166407
Release 2015-04-11
Pages 373
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This comprehensive book details the most recent advances in the microalgae biological sciences and engineering technologies for biomass and biofuel production in order to meet the ongoing need for new and affordable sources of food, chemicals and energy for future generations. The chapters explore new microalgae cultivation techniques, including solid (biofilm) systems, and heterotrophic production methods, while also critically investigating topics such as combining wastewater as a source of nutrients, the effect of CO2 on growth, and converting biomass to methane through anaerobic digestion. The book highlights innovative bioproduct optimization and molecular genetic techniques, applications of genomics and metabolomics, and the genetic engineering of microalgae strains targeting biocrude production. The latest developments in microalgae harvesting and dewatering technologies, which combine biomass production with electricity generation, are presented, along with detailed techno-economic modeling. This extensive volume was written by respected experts in their fields and is intended for a wide audience of researchers and engineers.



Molecular Solar Fuels

Molecular Solar Fuels Author Thomas John Wydrzynski
ISBN-10 9781849730341
Release 2011
Pages 553
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Written by experts, this book presents the latest knowledge and chemical prospects in developing hydrogen as a solar fuel.



Progress in Clean Energy Volume 2

Progress in Clean Energy  Volume 2 Author Ibrahim Dincer
ISBN-10 9783319170312
Release 2015-10-28
Pages 1184
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This expansive reference provides readers with the broadest available single-volume coverage of leading-edge advances in the development and optimization of clean energy technologies. From innovative biofuel feed stocks and processing techniques, to novel solar materials with record-breaking efficiencies, remote-sensing for offshore wind turbines to breakthroughs in high performance PEM fuel cell electrode manufacturing, phase change materials in green buildings to bio sorption of pharmaceutical pollutants, the myriad exciting developments in green technology described in this book will provide inspiration and information to researchers, engineers and students working in sustainability around the world.



Renewable Energy Technology

Renewable Energy Technology Author Source Wikipedia
ISBN-10 1230592970
Release 2013-09
Pages 66
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 45. Chapters: 3M, Aquanator, Artificial photosynthesis, CETO, Dysprosium, Evopod, H-Bio, Hybrid renewable energy system, IEEE Smart Grid, Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, NExBTL, Oyster wave energy converter, Pelamis Wave Energy Converter, Renewable energy power station, Renewable heat, Saltire Prize, Soft energy technology, Solar fuel, Solar power in Australia, Spider9, Vegetable oil refining, Wells turbine. Excerpt: Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. The term is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel (a solar fuel). Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into protons (and eventually hydrogen) and oxygen, and is a main research area in artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another studied process, replicating natural carbon fixation. Research developed in this field encompasses design and assembly of devices (and their components) for the direct production of solar fuels, photoelectrochemistry and its application in fuel cells, and engineering of enzymes and photoautotrophic microorganisms for microbial biofuel and biohydrogen production from sunlight. Many, if not most, of the artificial approaches are bio-inspired, i.e., they rely on biomimetics. The photosynthetic reaction can be divided into two half-reactions (oxidation and reduction), both of which are essential to producing fuel. In plant photosynthesis, water molecules are photo-oxidized to release oxygen and protons. The second stage of plant photosynthesis (also known as the Calvin-Benson cycle) is a light-independent reaction that converts carbon dioxide into glucose. Researchers of...



Artificial Photosynthesis

Artificial Photosynthesis Author
ISBN-10 9780128033258
Release 2016-06-13
Pages 260
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Artificial Photosynthesis, the latest edition in the Advances in Botanical Research series, which publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in the plant sciences features several reviews by recognized experts on all aspects of plant genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, physiology, and ecology. Publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in plant sciences Presents the latest information on artificial photosynthesis Features a wide range of reviews by recognized experts on all aspects of plant genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, physiology, and ecology



Photochemistry

Photochemistry Author Angelo Albini
ISBN-10 9781849734370
Release 2012-10-05
Pages 322
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Compiled by teams of leading authorities this Specialist Periodical Report on Photochemistry aims to provide an annual review of photo-induced processes.



Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis

Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis Author Michael Gratzel
ISBN-10 9780323145145
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 588
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Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis reviews the state of the art in the development of energy conversion devices based on catalytic and photochemical reactions. The focus is on catalysis of redox reactions and their application to the photocleavage of water, reduction of carbon dioxide, and fixation of nitrogen. Some fundamental aspects of catalysis as it relates to processes of light energy harvesting and charge separation in photochemical or photoelectrochemical conversion systems are also discussed. This monograph is comprised of 16 chapters covering light-induced redox reactions and reaction dynamics in organized assemblies such as micelles, colloidal metals, or semiconductors, together with strategies for molecular engineering of artificial photosynthetic devices. The principles of electrochemical conversion of light energy via semiconductor electrodes or semiconducting particles are also considered. Furthermore, thermodynamic characteristics for some reactions that can be utilized for storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy are examined. The remaining chapters look at the role of porphyrins in natural and artificial photosynthesis; the use of semiconductor powders and particulate systems for photocatalysis and photosynthesis; and hydrogen-generating solar cells based on platinum-group metal activated photocathodes. This text will be a useful resource for scientists and policymakers concerned with finding alternative sources of energy.



Alternative Fuels and the Environment

Alternative Fuels and the Environment Author Frances S. Sterrett
ISBN-10 0873719786
Release 1994-10-12
Pages 288
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Alternative Fuels and the Environment evaluates the timely issue of renewable, alternative resources to fossil fuels and nuclear energy, such as solar, anemoelectric, hydroelectric, and geothermal energy. These alternative power sources not only have the advantage of being renewable, but they are also economically attractive and have minimal adverse environmental impact, such as the waste emission of SO2, NOx, or greenhouse gases. This book analyzes the harnessing of the sun's energy by photochemical reactions, artificial photosynthesis, and photovoltaic electric power generation. It further discusses how hydrogen as fuel is produced by solar photoelectrolysis of water and how wind turbines generate electricity, while ocean thermal energy produces electric power and fresh water. Geothermal energy and hydroelectric power are also renewable sources of electricity. Biofuels and biomass are useful as energy sources, and surplus land is usable for woody, herbaceous, high-yield energy crop production. The book also investigates reformulated gasoline with oxygenated fuels, such as ethanol or methanol.



Photosynthesis Structures Mechanisms and Applications

Photosynthesis  Structures  Mechanisms  and Applications Author Harvey J.M. Hou
ISBN-10 9783319488738
Release 2017-06-02
Pages 417
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To address the environmental, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues associated with increasing global human energy consumption, technologies for utilizing renewable carbon-free or carbon-neutral energy sources must be identified and developed. Among renewable sources, solar energy is quite promising as it alone is sufficient to meet global human demands well into the foreseeable future. However, it is diffuse and diurnal. Thus effective strategies must be developed for its capture, conversion and storage. In this context, photosynthesis provides a paradigm for large-scale deployment. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and has evolved over 3 billion years. The process of photosynthesis currently produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which equates to a global energy storage rate of ~100 TW. Recently, detailed structural information on the natural photosynthetic systems has been acquired at the molecular level, providing a foundation for comprehensive functional studies of the photosynthetic process. Likewise, sophisticated spectroscopic techniques have revealed important mechanistic details. Such accomplishments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to construct artificial systems for solar energy transduction that are inspired by their biological counterparts. The book contains articles written by experts and world leaders in their respective fields and summarizes the exciting breakthroughs toward understanding the structures and mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus as well as efforts toward developing revolutionary new energy conversion technologies. The topics/chapters will be organized in terms of the natural sequence of events occurring in the process of photosynthesis, while keeping a higher-order organization of structure and mechanism as well as the notion that biology can inspire human technologies. For example, the topic of light harvesting, will be followed by charge separation at reaction centers, followed by charge stabilization, followed by chemical reactions, followed by protection mechanisms, followed by other more specialized topics and finally ending with artificial systems and looking forward. As shown in the table of contents (TOC), the book includes and integrates topics on the structures and mechanisms of photosynthesis, and provides relevant information on applications to bioenergy and solar energy transduction.



The Switch

The Switch Author Chris Goodall
ISBN-10 9781782832485
Release 2016-07-07
Pages 175
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How will the world be powered in ten years' time? Not by fossil fuels. Energy experts are all saying the same thing: solar photovoltaics (PV) is our future. Reports from universities, investment banks, international institutions and large investors agree. It's not about whether the switch from fossil fuels to solar power will happen, but when. Solar panels are being made that will last longer than ever hoped; investors are seeing the benefits of the long-term rewards provided by investing in solar; in the Middle East, a contractor can now offer solar-powered electricity far cheaper than that of a coal-fired power station. The Switch tracks the transition away from coal, oil and gas to a world in which the limitless energy of the sun provides much of the energy the 10 billion people of this planet will need. It examines both the solar future and how we will get there, and the ways in which we will provide stored power when the sun isn't shining. We learn about artificial photosynthesis from a start-up in the US that is making petrol from just CO2 and sunlight; ideas on energy storage are drawn from a company in Germany that makes batteries for homes; in the UK, a small company in Swindon has the story of wind turbines; and in Switzerland, a developer shows how we can use hydrogen to make 'renewable' natural gas for heating. Told through the stories of entrepreneurs, inventors and scientists from around the world, and using the latest research and studies, The Switch provides a positive solution to the climate change crisis, and looks to a brighter future ahead.



Solar Energy

Solar Energy Author Gerard M Crawley
ISBN-10 9789814689519
Release 2016-04-14
Pages 436
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Concerns about energy resources and the environmental impact of energy use will continue to be important globally. World Scientific's unique series of books on Current Energy Issues is intended, in part, as an expansion and update of the material contained in the World Scientific Handbook of Energy. Each volume will focus on related energy resources or issues and will contain a broader range of topics with more explanatory text. This Solar Energy volume covers a variety of approaches to the use of solar energy. These include large scale photovoltaic production of electricity as well as more local applications in the home and businesses. Similarly, there is an extensive discussion of large scale solar thermal electricity production and smaller scale uses such as solar water heating, home heating and cooling plus crop drying. There is also discussion of more forward-looking technologies including the production of fuels using artificial photosynthesis and the production of biomass. Contents:Introduction to Solar Energy (R Corkish, W Lipiński and Robert Patterson)Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Cells and Systems (Ignacio Rey-Stolle)Large-Scale Solar Thermal Plants (CSP) (Manfred Becker, Robert Pitz-Paal and Wes Stein)Large Scale Photovoltaic Power Plants (G Almonacid Puche, P G Vidal and E Muñoz-Cerón)Biomass (Anthony Turhollow)Artificial Photosynthesis (Nathan Skillen and Peter K J Robertson)Small Scale PV Applications in Home and Business (Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Miguel Ángel Egido and Jorge Solórzano)Low Temperature Solar Thermal Applications (Brian Norton, Hans Martin Henning and Daniel Mugnier)Solar Thermochemical Processes (Roman Bader and Wojciech Lipiński) Readership: Researchers, academics, professionals and graduate students in energy studies/research and environmental/energy economics.



Taming the Sun

Taming the Sun Author Varun Sivaram
ISBN-10 9780262037686
Release 2018-02-23
Pages 392
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Solar energy, once a niche application for a limited market, has become the cheapest and fastest-growing power source on earth. What's more, its potential is nearly limitless -- every hour the sun beams down more energy than the world uses in a year. But in Taming the Sun, energy expert Varun Sivaram warns that the world is not yet equipped to harness erratic sunshine to meet most of its energy needs. And if solar's current surge peters out, prospects for replacing fossil fuels and averting catastrophic climate change will dim. Innovation can brighten those prospects, Sivaram explains, drawing on firsthand experience and original research spanning science, business, and government. Financial innovation is already enticing deep-pocketed investors to fund solar projects around the world, from the sunniest deserts to the poorest villages. Technological innovation could replace today's solar panels with coatings as cheap as paint and employ artificial photosynthesis to store intermittent sunshine as convenient fuels. And systemic innovation could add flexibility to the world's power grids and other energy systems so they can dependably channel the sun's unreliable energy. Unleashing all this innovation will require visionary public policy: funding researchers developing next-generation solar technologies, refashioning energy systems and economic markets, and putting together a diverse clean energy portfolio. Although solar can't power the planet by itself, it can be the centerpiece of a global clean energy revolution. A Council on Foreign Relations Book



Applied Science

Applied Science Author
ISBN-10
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Applied Science has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Applied Science also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Applied Science book for free.



Artificial Photosynthesis

Artificial Photosynthesis Author Anthony F. Collings
ISBN-10 9783527606917
Release 2007-09-24
Pages 339
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Since the events crucial to plant photosynthesis are now known in molecular detail, this process is no longer nature's secret, but can for the first time be mimicked by technology. Broad in its scope, this book spans the basics of biological photosynthesis right up to the current approaches for its technical exploitation, making it the most complete resource on artificial photosynthesis ever published. The contents draw on the expertise of the Australian Artificial Photosynthesis Network, currently the world's largest coordinated research effort to develop effective photosynthesis technology. This is further backed by expert contributions from around the globe, providing an authoritative overview of current research worldwide.