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Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis Author Reza Razeghifard
ISBN-10 9781118659755
Release 2013-08-23
Pages 488
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This technical book explores current and future applications of solar power as an unlimited source of energy that earth receives every day. Photosynthetic organisms have learned to utilize this abundant source of energy by converting it into high-energy biochemical compounds. Inspired by the efficient conversion of solar energy into an electron flow, attempts have been made to construct artificial photosynthetic systems capable of establishing a charge separation state for generating electricity or driving chemical reactions. Another important aspect of photosynthesis is the CO2 fixation and the production of high energy compounds. Photosynthesis can produce biomass using solar energy while reducing the CO2 level in air. Biomass can be converted into biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Under certain conditions, photosynthetic organisms can also produce hydrogen gas which is one of the cleanest sources of energy.

Artificial Photosynthesis

Artificial Photosynthesis Author Anthony F. Collings
ISBN-10 9783527606917
Release 2007-09-24
Pages 339
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Since the events crucial to plant photosynthesis are now known in molecular detail, this process is no longer nature's secret, but can for the first time be mimicked by technology. Broad in its scope, this book spans the basics of biological photosynthesis right up to the current approaches for its technical exploitation, making it the most complete resource on artificial photosynthesis ever published. The contents draw on the expertise of the Australian Artificial Photosynthesis Network, currently the world's largest coordinated research effort to develop effective photosynthesis technology. This is further backed by expert contributions from around the globe, providing an authoritative overview of current research worldwide.

Current challenges in photosynthesis From natural to artificial

Current challenges in photosynthesis  From natural to artificial Author Harvey J.M. Hou
ISBN-10 9782889192861
Release 2014-10-03
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Jules Verne (1828-1905), author of Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) and Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), wrote in 1875 “I believe that water will one day be used as a fuel, because the hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used separately or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light. I therefore believe that, when coal (oil) deposits are oxidised, we will heat ourselves by means of water. Water is the fuel of the future” Solar energy is the only renewable energy source that has sufficient capacity for the global energy need; it is the only one that can address the issues of energy crisis and global climate change. A vast amount of solar energy is harvested and stored via photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria since over 3 billion years. Today, it is estimated that photosynthesis produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which would be equivalent to a hundred times the weight of the total human population on our planet at the present time, and equal to a global energy storage rate of about 100 TW. The solar power is the most abundant source of renewable energy, and oxygenic photosynthesis uses this energy to power the planet using the amazing reaction of water splitting. During water splitting, driven ultimately by sunlight, oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and this, along with food production by photosynthesis, supports life on our earth. The other product of water oxidation is “hydrogen” (proton and electron). This ‘hydrogen’ is not normally released into the atmosphere as hydrogen gas but combined with carbon dioxide to make high energy containing organic molecules. When we burn fuels we combine these organic molecules with oxygen. The design of new solar energy systems must adhere to the same principle as that of natural photosynthesis. For us to manipulate it to our benefit, it is imperative that we completely understand the basic processes of natural photosynthesis, and chemical conversion, such as light harvesting, excitation energy transfer, electron transfer, ion transport, and carbon fixation. Equally important, we must exploit application of this knowledge to the development of fully synthetic and/or hybrid devices. Understanding of photosynthetic reactions is not only a satisfying intellectual pursuit, but it is important for improving agricultural yields and for developing new solar technologies. Today, we have considerable knowledge of the working of photosynthesis and its photosystems, including the water oxidation reaction. Recent advances towards the understanding of the structure and the mechanism of the natural photosynthetic systems are being made at the molecular level. To mimic natural photosynthesis, inorganic chemists, organic chemists, electrochemists, material scientists, biochemists, biophysicists, and plant biologists must work together and only then significant progress in harnessing energy via “artificial photosynthesis” will be possible. This Research Topic provides recent advances of our understanding of photosynthesis, gives to our readers recent information on photosynthesis research, and summarizes the characteristics of the natural system from the standpoint of what we could learn from it to produce an efficient artificial system, i.e., from the natural to the artificial. This topic is intended to include exciting breakthroughs, possible limitations, and open questions in the frontiers in photosynthesis research.

Molecular Solar Fuels

Molecular Solar Fuels Author Thomas John Wydrzynski
ISBN-10 9781849730341
Release 2011
Pages 553
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Written by experts, this book presents the latest knowledge and chemical prospects in developing hydrogen as a solar fuel.

Taming the Sun

Taming the Sun Author Varun Sivaram
ISBN-10 9780262037686
Release 2018-02-23
Pages 392
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Solar energy, once a niche application for a limited market, has become the cheapest and fastest-growing power source on earth. What's more, its potential is nearly limitless -- every hour the sun beams down more energy than the world uses in a year. But in Taming the Sun, energy expert Varun Sivaram warns that the world is not yet equipped to harness erratic sunshine to meet most of its energy needs. And if solar's current surge peters out, prospects for replacing fossil fuels and averting catastrophic climate change will dim. Innovation can brighten those prospects, Sivaram explains, drawing on firsthand experience and original research spanning science, business, and government. Financial innovation is already enticing deep-pocketed investors to fund solar projects around the world, from the sunniest deserts to the poorest villages. Technological innovation could replace today's solar panels with coatings as cheap as paint and employ artificial photosynthesis to store intermittent sunshine as convenient fuels. And systemic innovation could add flexibility to the world's power grids and other energy systems so they can dependably channel the sun's unreliable energy. Unleashing all this innovation will require visionary public policy: funding researchers developing next-generation solar technologies, refashioning energy systems and economic markets, and putting together a diverse clean energy portfolio. Although solar can't power the planet by itself, it can be the centerpiece of a global clean energy revolution. A Council on Foreign Relations Book

Plant Energetics

Plant Energetics Author Octavian S. Ksenzhek
ISBN-10 0080514014
Release 1998-02-09
Pages 389
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Emphasizing the physical and technological aspects of plant energetics, this comprehensive book covers a significant interdisciplinary research area for a broad range of investigators. Plant Energetics presentsthe thermodynamics of energy processes in plants, their interconnection and arrangement, and the estimation of intrinsic energy needs of the plant connected with performing various physiological functions. The book also demonstrates the role of electrical and electrochemical processes in the plants life cycle. Plant Energetics incorporates such diverse themes as thermodynamics, biophysics, and bioelectrochemistry with applications in horticulture and ecology. It also discusses the roles and mechanisms of both quantum and thermophysical processes of theconversion of solar energy by plants, including photosynthesis and long distance transport. Comprehensive details of value to basic and applied researchers dealing with photosynthesis, agriculture, horticulture, bioenergetics, biophysics, photobiology, and plant physiology make Plant Energetics an informative, one-stop resource that willsave time and energy in your search for the latest information. Plant Energetics incorporates such diverse themes as thermodynamics, biophysics, and bioelectrochemistry with applications in horticulture and ecology. It also discusses the roles and mechanisms of both quantum and thermophysical processes of the conversion of solar energy by plants, including photosynthesis and long-distance transport Extensive details of value to basic and applied researchers dealing with photosynthesis, agriculture, horticulture, bioenergetics, biophysics, photobiology, and plant physiology make Plant Energetics an informative, one-stop resource that will save you time and energy in your search for the latest information

Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis

Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis Author Michael Gratzel
ISBN-10 9780323145145
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 588
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Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis reviews the state of the art in the development of energy conversion devices based on catalytic and photochemical reactions. The focus is on catalysis of redox reactions and their application to the photocleavage of water, reduction of carbon dioxide, and fixation of nitrogen. Some fundamental aspects of catalysis as it relates to processes of light energy harvesting and charge separation in photochemical or photoelectrochemical conversion systems are also discussed. This monograph is comprised of 16 chapters covering light-induced redox reactions and reaction dynamics in organized assemblies such as micelles, colloidal metals, or semiconductors, together with strategies for molecular engineering of artificial photosynthetic devices. The principles of electrochemical conversion of light energy via semiconductor electrodes or semiconducting particles are also considered. Furthermore, thermodynamic characteristics for some reactions that can be utilized for storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy are examined. The remaining chapters look at the role of porphyrins in natural and artificial photosynthesis; the use of semiconductor powders and particulate systems for photocatalysis and photosynthesis; and hydrogen-generating solar cells based on platinum-group metal activated photocathodes. This text will be a useful resource for scientists and policymakers concerned with finding alternative sources of energy.

Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis Author Katharina Brinkert
ISBN-10 9783319779805
Release 2018-03-16
Pages 127
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This book discusses the basic principles and processes of solar energy conversion in natural photosynthesis. It then directly compares them with recent developments and concepts currently being pursued in artificial photosynthetic systems that are capable of utilizing sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into a chemical fuel. In this regard, the main focus is on photoelectrochemical cells, in which semiconducting photoanodes and -cathodes modified with (electro-) catalysts are used to oxidize water, produce hydrogen and reduce carbon dioxide in a monolithic device. The fundamental photochemical and photophysical processes involved are presented and discussed, along with protection mechanisms and efficiency calculations for both natural and artificial photosynthesis. In turn, key parameters that are crucial for the efficient operation of natural photosynthesis are identified. Lastly, their validity and applicability in the design of artificial solar-driven water-splitting systems are examined.

Solar to Chemical Energy Conversion

Solar to Chemical Energy Conversion Author Masakazu Sugiyama
ISBN-10 9783319254005
Release 2016-01-25
Pages 489
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This book explains the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy and its storage. It covers the basic background; interface modeling at the reacting surface; energy conversion with chemical, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical approaches and energy conversion using applied photosynthesis. The important concepts for converting solar to chemical energy are based on an understanding of the reactions’ equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. Since the energy conversion is essentially the transfer of free energy, the process are explained in the context of thermodynamics.

Energy for a Sustainable World

Energy for a Sustainable World Author Vincenzo Balzani
ISBN-10 9783527633616
Release 2010-12-01
Pages 376
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An easy read, balancing the pros and cons, this book surveys the energy issue from a broad scientific perspective while considering environmental, economic, and social factors. It explains the basic concepts, provides a historical overview of energy resources, assesses our unsustainable energy system based on fossil fuels, and shows that the energy crisis is not only a tough challenge, but also an unprecedented opportunity to become more concerned about the world in which we live and the society we have built up. By outlining the alternatives for today and the future, it gives an extensive overview on nuclear energy, solar thermal and photovoltaics, solar fuels, wind power, ocean energies and other renewables, highlighting the increasing importance of electricity and the long-term perspectives of a hydrogen-based economy. An excellent source of updated and carefully documented information on the entangled aspects of the energy issue, this book is a guide for scientists, students and teachers looking for ways out of the energy and climate crisis, and the problems and disparities generated during the fossil fuel era.

Physics of Solar Energy

Physics of Solar Energy Author C. Julian Chen
ISBN-10 1118044592
Release 2011-08-15
Pages 326
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The definitive guide to the science of solar energy You hold in your hands the first, and only, truly comprehensive guide to the most abundant and most promising source of alternative energy—solar power. In recent years, all major countries in the world have been calling for an energy revolution. The renewable energy industry will drive a vigorous expansion of the global economy and create more "green" jobs. The use of fossil fuels to power our way of living is moving toward an inevitable end, with sources of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being fiercely depleted. Solar energy offers a ubiquitous, inexhaustible, clean, and highly efficient way of meeting the energy needs of the twenty-first century. This book is designed to give the reader a solid footing in the general and basic physics of solar energy, which will be the basis of research and development in new solar engineering technologies in the years to come. As solar technologies like solar cells, solar thermal power generators, solar water heaters, solar photochemistry applications, and solar space heating-cooling systems become more and more prominent, it has become essential that the next generation of energy experts—both in academia and industry—have a one-stop resource for learning the basics behind the science, applications, and technologies afforded by solar energy. This book fills that need by laying the groundwork for the projected rapid expansion of future solar projects.

The Difference Engine

The Difference Engine Author William Gibson
ISBN-10 9780345532589
Release 2011-07-26
Pages 512
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1855: The Industrial Revolution is in full and inexorable swing, powered by steam-driven cybernetic Engines. Charles Babbage perfects his Analytical Engine and the computer age arrives a century ahead of its time. And three extraordinary characters race toward a rendezvous with history—and the future: Sybil Gerard—a fallen woman, politician’s tart, daughter of a Luddite agitator Edward “Leviathan” Mallory—explorer and paleontologist Laurence Oliphant—diplomat, mystic, and spy. Their adventure begins with the discovery of a box of punched Engine cards of unknown origin and purpose. Cards someone wants badly enough to kill for…. Part detective story, part historical thriller, The Difference Engine is the collaborative masterpiece by two of the most acclaimed science fiction authors writing today. Provocative, compelling, intensely imagined, it is a startling extension of Gibson’s and Sterling’s unique visions—and the beginning of movement we know today as “steampunk!” From the Paperback edition.

Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability

Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Author David S. Ginley
ISBN-10 9781139502689
Release 2011-11-30
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How will we meet rising energy demands? What are our options? Are there viable long-term solutions for the future? Learn the fundamental physical, chemical and materials science at the heart of: • Renewable/non-renewable energy sources • Future transportation systems • Energy efficiency • Energy storage Whether you are a student taking an energy course or a newcomer to the field, this textbook will help you understand critical relationships between the environment, energy and sustainability. Leading experts provide comprehensive coverage of each topic, bringing together diverse subject matter by integrating theory with engaging insights. Each chapter includes helpful features to aid understanding, including a historical overview to provide context, suggested further reading and questions for discussion. Every subject is beautifully illustrated and brought to life with full color images and color-coded sections for easy browsing, making this a complete educational package. Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability will enable today's scientists and educate future generations.

The Burning Answer

The Burning Answer Author Keith Barnham
ISBN-10 1780225334
Release 2015-07-02
Pages 320
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Our civilisation stands on the brink of catastrophe. In three generations we have consumed half the world's oil produced over eight million generations. With threats from global warming, fossil fuel depletion and nuclear disaster, we are running out of options. Solar power, Keith Barnham argues, is the only solution. He explains how Einstein's famous equation E=mc2 led to the widespread use of nuclear energy, while another of Einstein's equations, one that has given us the laptop and the mobile phone, has been largely overlooked. It is this equation that holds the key to exploiting energy generated by the sun. A fascinating guide to renewable technology and a critique of the energy industry, The Burning Answer is, above all, an impassioned call-to-arms to join the solar revolution now, before it's too late.

Solar Energy

Solar Energy Author Gerard M Crawley
ISBN-10 9789814689519
Release 2016-04-14
Pages 436
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Concerns about energy resources and the environmental impact of energy use will continue to be important globally. World Scientific's unique series of books on Current Energy Issues is intended, in part, as an expansion and update of the material contained in the World Scientific Handbook of Energy. Each volume will focus on related energy resources or issues and will contain a broader range of topics with more explanatory text. This Solar Energy volume covers a variety of approaches to the use of solar energy. These include large scale photovoltaic production of electricity as well as more local applications in the home and businesses. Similarly, there is an extensive discussion of large scale solar thermal electricity production and smaller scale uses such as solar water heating, home heating and cooling plus crop drying. There is also discussion of more forward-looking technologies including the production of fuels using artificial photosynthesis and the production of biomass. Contents:Introduction to Solar Energy (R Corkish, W Lipiński and Robert Patterson)Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Cells and Systems (Ignacio Rey-Stolle)Large-Scale Solar Thermal Plants (CSP) (Manfred Becker, Robert Pitz-Paal and Wes Stein)Large Scale Photovoltaic Power Plants (G Almonacid Puche, P G Vidal and E Muñoz-Cerón)Biomass (Anthony Turhollow)Artificial Photosynthesis (Nathan Skillen and Peter K J Robertson)Small Scale PV Applications in Home and Business (Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Miguel Ángel Egido and Jorge Solórzano)Low Temperature Solar Thermal Applications (Brian Norton, Hans Martin Henning and Daniel Mugnier)Solar Thermochemical Processes (Roman Bader and Wojciech Lipiński) Readership: Researchers, academics, professionals and graduate students in energy studies/research and environmental/energy economics.

Photosynthesis Structures Mechanisms and Applications

Photosynthesis  Structures  Mechanisms  and Applications Author Harvey J.M. Hou
ISBN-10 9783319488738
Release 2017-06-02
Pages 417
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To address the environmental, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues associated with increasing global human energy consumption, technologies for utilizing renewable carbon-free or carbon-neutral energy sources must be identified and developed. Among renewable sources, solar energy is quite promising as it alone is sufficient to meet global human demands well into the foreseeable future. However, it is diffuse and diurnal. Thus effective strategies must be developed for its capture, conversion and storage. In this context, photosynthesis provides a paradigm for large-scale deployment. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and has evolved over 3 billion years. The process of photosynthesis currently produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which equates to a global energy storage rate of ~100 TW. Recently, detailed structural information on the natural photosynthetic systems has been acquired at the molecular level, providing a foundation for comprehensive functional studies of the photosynthetic process. Likewise, sophisticated spectroscopic techniques have revealed important mechanistic details. Such accomplishments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to construct artificial systems for solar energy transduction that are inspired by their biological counterparts. The book contains articles written by experts and world leaders in their respective fields and summarizes the exciting breakthroughs toward understanding the structures and mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus as well as efforts toward developing revolutionary new energy conversion technologies. The topics/chapters will be organized in terms of the natural sequence of events occurring in the process of photosynthesis, while keeping a higher-order organization of structure and mechanism as well as the notion that biology can inspire human technologies. For example, the topic of light harvesting, will be followed by charge separation at reaction centers, followed by charge stabilization, followed by chemical reactions, followed by protection mechanisms, followed by other more specialized topics and finally ending with artificial systems and looking forward. As shown in the table of contents (TOC), the book includes and integrates topics on the structures and mechanisms of photosynthesis, and provides relevant information on applications to bioenergy and solar energy transduction.

From Molecules to Materials

From Molecules to Materials Author Elena A. Rozhkova
ISBN-10 9783319138008
Release 2015-04-06
Pages 321
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This interdisciplinary book focuses on the various aspects transformation of the energy from sunlight into the chemical bonds of a fuel, known as the artificial photosynthesis, and addresses the emergent challenges connected with growing societal demands for clean and sustainable energy technologies. The editors assemble the research of world-recognized experts in the field of both molecular and materials artificial systems for energy production. Contributors cover the full scope of research on photosynthesis and related energy processes.