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Neighborhoods Crime

Neighborhoods   Crime Author Bursik
ISBN-10 9780669246315
Release 2012-07-10
Pages 240
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This book is an excellent resource in examining the influence that community control can have on crime.



Disorder and Decline

Disorder and Decline Author Wesley G. Skogan
ISBN-10 0520076931
Release 1992
Pages 218
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"Crime, disorder, and decay symbolize the decline of America's inner cities. Skogan's book is theoretically acute, methodologically sophisticated, and politically astute. It should be required reading for every urban sociologist, policy planner, and public official."--Jerome H. Skolnick, University of California, Berkeley "Panhandling, graffiti, prostitution, abandoned cars and buildings, and junk-filled lots are evidence of neighborhood disorder and decline. In this absorbing and valuable study, Skogan discusses the implications of disorder and skillfully analyzes experimental efforts undertaken to confront it in several American cities."--Gilbert Geis, University of California, Irvine "This timely book not only documents the relationship between disorder and neighborhood decline, but provides a cogent analysis of the currently favored solutions to problems such as community policing and citizen self-help."--Dr. Thomas A. Reppetto, President, Citizens Crime Commission of New York City



Communities and Crime

Communities and Crime Author Pamela Wilcox
ISBN-10 9781592139743
Release 2017-12
Pages 273
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Social scientists have long argued over the links between crime and place. The authors of Communities and Crime provide an intellectual history that traces how varying images of community have evolved over time and influenced criminological thinking and criminal justice policy. The authors outline the major ideas that have shaped the development of theory, research, and policy in the area of communities and crime. Each chapter examines the problem of the community through a defining critical or theoretical lens: the community as social disorganization; as a system of associations; as a symptom of larger structural forces; as a result of criminal subcultures; as a broken window; as crime opportunity; and as a site of resilience. Focusing on these changing images of community, the empirical adequacy of these images, and how they have resulted in concrete programs to reduce crime, Communities and Crime theorizes about and reflects upon why some neighborhoods produce so much crime. The result is a tour of the dominant theories of place in social science today.



Control Balance

Control Balance Author Charles R Tittle
ISBN-10 9780429980954
Release 2018-02-02
Pages 336
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A major contribution to the field of crime/deviance, this volume by noted criminologist Charles R. Tittle puts forth an integrated theory of deviance?control balance. Its central premise is that the total amount of control people are subjected to, relative to the control they can exercise, will affect the probability and type of their deviant behavior.In developing control balance, Tittle critically reviews other general theories such as anomie, Marxian conflict, social control, differential association/social learning, labelling, and routine activities and offers reasons why those theories are insufficient. Using real-world examples to illustrate his argument, he contends that deviance results from the convergence of four variables, each of which represents an interactive nexus of several inputs, including most prominently a control imbalance. The variables are predisposition, motivation, opportunity, and constraint. Control balance theory also explains six basic types of deviance, ranging from predation, defiance, and submissiveness on one end of a control ratio continuum to exploitation, plunder, and decadence on the other.Tittle conceives of control balance as a continuation, or temporary culmination, of the collective efforts of crime/deviance scholars who have gone before, presenting it as a vehicle for trying to achieve a fully adequate general theory of deviance.



Crime and Everyday Life

Crime and Everyday Life Author Marcus Felson
ISBN-10 9781483384702
Release 2015-01-29
Pages 240
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Crime and Everyday Life, Fifth Edition, offers a bold approach to crime theory and crime reduction. The text shows how crime opportunity is a necessary condition for illegal acts to occur. The authors offer realistic, often common-sense, ways to reduce or eliminate crime and criminal behavior in specific settings by removing the opportunity to complete the act. Using a clear and engaging writing style, author Marcus Felson and new co-author Mary Eckert talk directly to the student about criminal behavior, the routine activity approach, and specific crime reduction ideas. The authors emphasize how routine daily activities set the stage for illegal acts -- offering fascinating new ideas and examples not presented in earlier editions. Most importantly, this book teaches the student how to think about crime, and then do something about it.



Social Learning and Social Structure

Social Learning and Social Structure Author Ronald Akers
ISBN-10 9781351490146
Release 2017-07-28
Pages 469
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The social learning theory of crime integrates Edwin H. Sutherland's diff erential association theory with behavioral learning theory. It is a widely accepted and applied approaches to criminal and deviant behavior. However, it is also widely misinterpreted, misstated, and misapplied.This is the fi rst single volume, in-depth, authoritative discussion of the background, concepts, development, modifications, and empirical tests of social learning theory. Akers begins with a personal account of Sutherland's involvement in criminology and the origins of his infl uential perspective. He then traces the intellectual history of Sutherland's theory as well as social learning theory, providing a comprehensive explanation of how each theory approaches illegal behavior. Akers reviews research on various correlates and predictors of crime and delinquency that may be used as operational measures of differential association, reinforcement, and other social learning concepts.Akers proposes a new, integrated theory of social learning and social structure that links group diff erences in crime to individual conduct. He concludes with a cogent discussion of the implications of social learning theory for criminology and public policy. Now available in paperback, with a new introduction by the author, this volume will be invaluable to professionals and for use in courses in criminology and deviance.



The Routledge International Handbook of Rural Criminology

The Routledge International Handbook of Rural Criminology Author Joseph F Donnermeyer
ISBN-10 9781317628514
Release 2016-04-28
Pages 464
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49% of the world’s population lives in small towns, villages and farms, yet until recent years criminological scholarship has focused almost exclusively on urban crimes. The Routledge International Handbook of Rural Criminology is the first major publication to bring together this growing body of scholarship under a single cover. For many years rural criminology has remained marginalized and often excluded from the mainstream, with precedence given to urban criminology: this volume intends to address that imbalance. Pioneering in scope, this book brings together leading international scholars from fourteen different countries to offer an authoritative synthesis of theoretical and empirical literature. This handbook is divided in to seven parts, each addressing a different aspect of rural criminology: Rurality and crime Criminological dimensions of food and agriculture Violence and rurality Drug use, production and trafficking in the rural context Intersections between rural and green criminology Policing, justice and rurality Teaching rural criminology Edited by a world renowned scholar of rural criminology, this book explores rural crime issues in over thirty-five countries including Japan, Sweden, Brazil, Australia, Tanzania, the US, and the UK. This is the first Handbook dedicated to rural criminology and is an essential resource for criminologists, sociologists and social geographers engaged with rural studies and crime.



The Challenge of Community Policing

The Challenge of Community Policing Author Dennis P. Rosenbaum
ISBN-10 9780803954441
Release 1994-04-08
Pages 320
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Providing a clear picture of trends amongst progressive police authorities, researchers from North America and the United Kingdom address the fundamental question - whether community policing is set to fulfil its many promises. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the authors present a thorough evaluation of the social and organizational processes involved in planning and implementing community policing as well as the effects of such programmes and policies on the police and the community itself.



Code of the Street Decency Violence and the Moral Life of the Inner City

Code of the Street  Decency  Violence  and the Moral Life of the Inner City Author Elijah Anderson
ISBN-10 0393070387
Release 2000-09-17
Pages 352
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Unsparing and important. . . . An informative, clearheaded and sobering book.—Jonathan Yardley, Washington Post (1999 Critic's Choice) Inner-city black America is often stereotyped as a place of random violence, but in fact, violence in the inner city is regulated through an informal but well-known code of the street. This unwritten set of rules—based largely on an individual's ability to command respect—is a powerful and pervasive form of etiquette, governing the way in which people learn to negotiate public spaces. Elijah Anderson's incisive book delineates the code and examines it as a response to the lack of jobs that pay a living wage, to the stigma of race, to rampant drug use, to alienation and lack of hope.



Space Time and Crime

Space  Time  and Crime Author Kim Michelle Lersch
ISBN-10 1611636612
Release 2015-08-01
Pages 446
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Interest in the spatial distribution of crime and criminals has experienced a virtual explosion over the past several years. In Space, Time, and Crime, the authors provide an overview of the various theoretical explanations, crime control policies, and practical investigative tools used to identify high crime places, spaces, and times. Throughout the text, Lersch and Hart strive to provide a highly readable, informative discussion of the important issues surrounding the geography of crime, providing real world examples as well as illustrations from previously published research. Space, Time, and Crime provides a basic overview of the more popular theories that have been used to explain the concentration of crime in certain places and times. Each theory is carefully and clearly developed from its historical roots to contemporary applications, with solid research cited throughout the discussions. The reader is then moved from theory into practice, where a summary and critique of a number of various theoretically-driven practical policy applications are presented. The basic elements of crime analysis and crime mapping, both very popular crime fighting tools for police agencies and place managers, are presented. Finally, the book closes with a strong Marxist-based critique of the various theories, policies, and tools, leaving the reader with some troubling questions to ponder. The new edition includes dozens of figures and images that help visualize criminological research, essentially bringing the real world of research to the reader and into the classroom. It also includes new sections on some of the most recent advancements in the study of space, time, and crime, including new sections on Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) and Situational Action Theory (SAT), while also incorporating scholarship from over 50 new/updated sources so that the reader is introduced to the most up-to-date topics discussed by the authors.



Fixing Broken Windows

Fixing Broken Windows Author George L. Kelling
ISBN-10 9780684837383
Release 1997
Pages 319
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Cites successful examples of community-based policing



Imprisoning Communities How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse

Imprisoning Communities   How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse Author City University of New York Todd R Clear Distinguished Professor John Jay College of Criminal Justice
ISBN-10 9780198041672
Release 2007-06-29
Pages 280
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At no time in history, and certainly in no other democratic society, have prisons been filled so quickly and to such capacity than in the United States. And nowhere has this growth been more concentrated than in the disadvantaged--and primarily minority--neighborhoods of America's largest urban cities. In the most impoverished places, as much as 20% of the adult men are locked up on any given day, and there is hardly a family without a father, son, brother, or uncle who has not been behind bars. While the effects of going to and returning home from prison are well-documented, little attention has been paid to the impact of removal on neighborhoods where large numbers of individuals have been imprisoned. In the first detailed, empirical exploration of the effects of mass incarceration on poor places, Imprisoning Communities demonstrates that in high doses incarceration contributes to the very social problems it is intended to solve: it breaks up family and social networks; deprives siblings, spouses, and parents of emotional and financial support; and threatens the economic and political infrastructure of already struggling neighborhoods. Especially at risk are children who, research shows, are more likely to commit a crime if a father or brother has been to prison. Clear makes the counterintuitive point that when incarceration concentrates at high levels, crime rates will go up. Removal, in other words, has exactly the opposite of its intended effect: it destabilizes the community, thus further reducing public safety. Demonstrating that the current incarceration policy in urban America does more harm than good, from increasing crime to widening racial disparities and diminished life chances for youths, Todd Clear argues that we cannot overcome the problem of mass incarceration concentrated in poor places without incorporating an idea of community justice into our failing correctional and criminal justice systems.



The Process and Structure of Crime

The Process and Structure of Crime Author Leslie Kennedy
ISBN-10 9781351327060
Release 2018-04-24
Pages 317
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Criminology has developed strong methodological tools over the past decades, establishing itself as a competitive, sophisticated, and independent social science. Perhaps because of its emphasis on matters of design, methodology, and quantitative analysis, criminology has had few significant advances in theory. Advances in Criminological Theory is the first series exclusively dedicated to the dissemination of original work on criminological theory.The Process and Structure of Crime, the ninth volume in this landmark series, is a thorough overview of the conceptual and empirical issues raised by the adoption of a criminal event perspective, which takes into account the multifaceted character of human behavior. This book is divided into three sections: conceptual bases of criminal events, the criminal event perspective itself, and responses to criminal events. Contributors analyze and explore a wide range of topics, including: how interpersonal routines are structured through past experience; the influence of social context on interpersonal routines; criminal opportunity and its impact on criminal events; the significance of neighborhood context; the effect of victimization and fear; how problem-oriented policing efforts need to be informed by and reflect the problems of repeat offenders, repeat victims, and hot spots of crime; and finally, how changes in the physical environment constrain or limit criminal opportunities. This fascinating work will be beneficial to criminologists, sociologists, and scholars of legal studies.Contributors to this volume include: Leslie W. Kennedy, Erin Gibbs Van Brunschot, Robert F. Meier, Mark Warr, Christopher Birkbeck, Luis Gerardo Gabaldon, Kriss A. Drass, Terance D. Miethe, Julie Horney, Jeffrey Fagan, Deanna L. Wilkinson, Robert J. Buskirk, Jr., Vincent F. Sacco, Ross Macmillan, John E. Eck, Paul J. Brantingham, and Pat Brantingham.



Handbook of Research on Urban Politics and Policy in the United States

Handbook of Research on Urban Politics and Policy in the United States Author Ronald K. Vogel
ISBN-10 0313291667
Release 1997
Pages 453
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A comprehensive reference work that summarizes major issues in urban politics and policy in the United States.



Crime and Public Policy

Crime and Public Policy Author James Q. Wilson
ISBN-10 9780199315048
Release 2011-01-25
Pages 656
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Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.



The Last Neighborhood Cops

The Last Neighborhood Cops Author Fritz Umbach
ISBN-10 9780813552354
Release 2011-01-05
Pages 272
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In recent years, community policing has transformed American law enforcement by promising to build trust between citizens and officers. Today, three-quarters of American police departments claim to embrace the strategy. But decades before the phrase was coined, the New York City Housing Authority Police Department (HAPD) had pioneered community-based crime-fighting strategies. The Last Neighborhood Cops reveals the forgotten history of the residents and cops who forged community policing in the public housing complexes of New York City during the second half of the twentieth century. Through a combination of poignant storytelling and historical analysis, Fritz Umbach draws on buried and confidential police records and voices of retired officers and older residents to help explore the rise and fall of the HAPD's community-based strategy, while questioning its tactical effectiveness. The result is a unique perspective on contemporary debates of community policing and historical developments chronicling the influence of poor and working-class populations on public policy making.



The Psychology of Criminal Conduct

The Psychology of Criminal Conduct Author James Bonta
ISBN-10 9781317387411
Release 2016-11-10
Pages 450
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The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Sixth Edition, provides a psychological and evidence-informed perspective of criminal behavior that sets it apart from many criminological and mental health explanations of criminal behavior. Drawing upon the General Personality and Cognitive Social Learning theory, James Bonta and Donald Andrews provide an overview of the theoretical context and major knowledge base of the psychology of criminal conduct, discuss the eight major risk/need factors of criminal conduct, examine the prediction and classification of criminal behavior along with prevention and rehabilitation, and summarize the major issues in understanding criminal conduct. This book also offers the Risk/Need/Responsivity (RNR) model of offender assessment and treatment that has guided developments in the subject throughout the world. In this edition, the first since Andrews' death, Bonta carefully maintains the book's original contributions while presenting these core concepts succinctly, clearly, and elegantly. Appropriate for advanced undergraduates and graduate students as well as for scholars, researchers, and practitioners, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Sixth Edition, further extends and refines the authors' body of work.