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Next Generation DNA Led Technologies

Next Generation DNA Led Technologies Author Sharada Avadhanam
ISBN-10 9789812876706
Release 2015-10-28
Pages 140
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This brief highlights advances in DNA technologies and their wider applications. DNA is the source of life and has been studied since a generation, but very little is known as yet. Several sophisticated technologies of the current era have laid their foundations on the principle of DNA based mechanisms. DNA based technologies are bringing a new revolution of Advanced Science and Technology. Forensic Investigation, Medical Diagnosis, Paternity Disputes, Individual Identity, Health insurance, Motor Insurance have incorporated the DNA testing and profiling technologies for settling the issues.



Cancer Nanotheranostics

Cancer Nanotheranostics Author P. Gopinath
ISBN-10 9789812874351
Release 2015-03-10
Pages 119
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This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).



Next Generation Sequencing Technologies and Challenges in Sequence Assembly

Next Generation Sequencing Technologies and Challenges in Sequence Assembly Author Sara El-Metwally, M.Sc
ISBN-10 9781493907151
Release 2014-04-19
Pages 118
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The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies resulted in a major transformation in the way scientists extract genetic information from biological systems, revealing limitless insight about the genome, transcriptome and epigenome of any species. However, with NGS, came its own challenges that require continuous development in the sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analysis of the resultant raw data and assembly of the full length genome and transcriptome. Such developments lead to outstanding improvements of the performance and coverage of sequencing and improved quality for the assembled sequences, nevertheless, challenges such as sequencing errors, expensive processing and memory usage for assembly and sequencer specific errors remains major challenges in the field. This book aims to provide brief overviews the NGS field with special focus on the challenges facing the NGS field, including information on different experimental platforms, assembly algorithms and software tools, assembly error correction approaches and the correlated challenges.



Next Generation Sequencing Technologies in Medical Genetics

Next Generation Sequencing Technologies in Medical Genetics Author C. Alexander Valencia
ISBN-10 9781461490326
Release 2013-10-16
Pages 94
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This book introduces readers to Next Generation Sequencing applications in medical genetics. The authors discuss the direct application of next-generation sequencing to medicine, specifically, laboratory medicine or molecular diagnostics. The first part of the book contains chapters on sanger sequencing, NGS technologies, targeted-amplification and capture, and exome sequencing. The second part of the book focuses on genetic disorders diagnoses by NGS, prenatal diagnosis, muscular dystrophies, mitochondrial disorders diagnosis, and challenges in molecular diagnosis. Recent developments and potential future trends in NGS sequencing applications are highlighted, as well.​



Materials that Change Color

Materials that Change Color Author Marinella Ferrara
ISBN-10 9783319002903
Release 2013-11-18
Pages 139
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This book presents a design-driven investigation into smart materials developed by chemists, physicists, materials and chemical engineers, and applied by designers to consumer products. Introducing a class of smart materials, that change colors, the book presents their characteristics, advantages, potentialities and difficulties of applications of this to help understanding what they are, how they work, how they are applied. The books also present a number of case studies: products, projects, concepts and experiments using smart materials, thus mapping out new design territories for these innovative materials. These case studies involve different fields of design, including product, interior, fashion and communication design. Within the context of rising sustainable and human-centered design agendas, the series will demonstrate the role and influence of these new materials and technologies on design, and discuss how they can implement and redefine our objects and spaces to encourage more resilient environments.



Understanding and Modeling F rster type Resonance Energy Transfer FRET

Understanding and Modeling F  rster type Resonance Energy Transfer  FRET Author Pedro Ludwig Hernández Martínez
ISBN-10 9789811018732
Release 2016-08-22
Pages 42
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This Brief presents a complete study of the generalized theory of Förster-type energy transfer in nanostructures with mixed dimensionality. Here the aim is to obtain a generalized theory of FRET including a comprehensive set of analytical equations for all combinations and configurations of nanostructures and deriving generic expressions for the dimensionality involved. In this brief, the modification of FRET mechanism with respect to the nanostructure serving as the donor vs. the acceptor will be included, focusing on the rate’s distance dependency and the role of the effective dielectric function in FRET, which will be a unique, useful source for those who study and model FRET.



Ethics Dumping

Ethics Dumping Author Doris Schroeder
ISBN-10 9783319647319
Release 2017-12-04
Pages 134
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This book is published under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the fore mentioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.



One Dimensional nanostructures

One Dimensional nanostructures Author Zhenyu Li
ISBN-10 9783642364273
Release 2013-03-21
Pages 141
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One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is a comprehensive book depicting the electrospinning technique and related 1D unique electrospun nanofibers. The first part of the book focuses on electrospinning technique, with chapters describing Electrospinning setup, electrospinning theories, and related working parameter. The second part of the book describes in detail specific topics on how to control the electrospun fiber properties such as how to control the fiber direction, how to control the fiber surface morphology, how to control the fiber structure, and how to construct 3D structures by electrospun fibers. The final part of the book depicts the applications of the electrospun nanofibers, with sections describing in detail specific fields such as electrospun nanofiber reinforcement, filtration, electronic devices, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, biomedical field, and so on. One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is designed to bring state-of-the-art on electrospinning together into a single book and will be valuable resource for scientists in the electrospinning field and other scientists involved in biomedical field, mechanical field, materials, and energy field. Dr. Zhenyu Li is an associate professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China. Currently, he also holds the position in Australian Future Fibres Research & Innovation Centre, Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Dr. Ce Wang is a professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.



How to Do Science with Models

How to Do Science with Models Author Axel Gelfert
ISBN-10 9783319279541
Release 2015-12-21
Pages 135
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Taking scientific practice as its starting point, this book charts the complex territory of models used in science. It examines what scientific models are and what their function is. Reliance on models is pervasive in science, and scientists often need to construct models in order to explain or predict anything of interest at all. The diversity of kinds of models one finds in science – ranging from toy models and scale models to theoretical and mathematical models – has attracted attention not only from scientists, but also from philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science. This has given rise to a wide variety of case studies that look at the different uses to which models have been put in specific scientific contexts. By exploring current debates on the use and building of models via cutting-edge examples drawn from physics and biology, the book provides broad insight into the methodology of modelling in the natural sciences. It pairs specific arguments with introductory material relating to the ontology and the function of models, and provides some historical context to the debates as well as a sketch of general positions in the philosophy of scientific models in the process.



Varicocele and Male Infertility

Varicocele and Male Infertility Author Alaa Hamada
ISBN-10 9783319249360
Release 2015-12-07
Pages 107
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This SpringerBrief analyzes varicocele from a novel approach, and provides the reader with a comprehensive view of its scientific and clinical significance. The Brief covers all the important aspects of varicocele related to infertility, from epidemiology to assisted reproduction techniques, contemplating pathophysiology, semen analysis, specialized sperm function tests, and clinical management including all available treatment options form three distinct perspectives, i.e., current concepts, consensus and controversies. Each topic is addressed using the same template, offering the best information from all angles to readers. This SpringerBrief is aimed at both clinicians and scientists involved in the study and care of male and female fertility, and is written by a team of three internationally recognized authors with expertise in andrology and male infertility. The text is the first of its kind, and presents an invaluable tool both for the basic scientists with an interest in reproductive medicine and for clinicians working in the field of infertility.



Teaching Environmental Health to Children

Teaching Environmental Health to Children Author David W. Hursh
ISBN-10 940071811X
Release 2012-01-14
Pages 93
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Every day we are exposed to toxins and toxicants that can impact our health. Yet we rarely teach elementary and secondary students about these exposures and how they can reduce their risk to them. In this book we highlight activities and curriculum developed at nine universities in the United States from a grant funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Our goal is to extend these lessons to a global audience and for classroom teachers of all subjects and age levels to include environmental health in their teaching. ‘An invaluable tool for equipping informed citizens to think about the environment and its human impacts --both the science, and equally important, the social and ethical dimensions’ , Howard Frumkin, M.D., Dr. P.H., Dean, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA



Water Cycle Management

Water Cycle Management Author Xiaochang C. Wang
ISBN-10 9783662458211
Release 2014-12-19
Pages 98
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This book focuses on environmental engineering, and on wastewater treatment and reuse in particular, which is a vital aspect for countries and regions suffering from water shortages. It introduces a new water cycle management concept for designing water systems that mimic the hydrological cycle, where reclaimed water is produced, stored/regulated, supplied and used in a semi-natural manner so that its self-purification capacity and system efficiency can be maximized. To ensure safe water throughout the cycle, emphasis is placed on the control of ecological and pathogenic risks using a series of quality indices associated with bioassays and molecular biological analyses, as well as risk assessments focusing on protecting the environment and human health. Together with theoretical and technological discussions, a real case of a district water system for maximizing water circulation and reuse by means of a sophisticated water cycle is presented. This book introduces readers to essential new concepts and practices and illustrates the future perspectives offered by a new paradigm for design and safety control in the context of wastewater reuse systems.



Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments

Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments Author Noboru Okuda
ISBN-10 9784431541509
Release 2013-10-09
Pages 91
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This book presents the latest topics in ecological and evolutionary research on aquatic biodiversity from bacteria to fishes, with special reference to Lake Biwa, an ancient lake in western Japan. With a geological history of 4 million years, Lake Biwa is the third oldest lake in the world. It is considered a biodiversity hotspot, where 1,769 aquatic species including 61 endemics are recorded, providing a rare opportunity to study the evolutionary diversification of aquatic biota and its ecological consequences. The first chapter introduces the evolutionary history of biodiversity, especially of fish in this lake. In the second chapter, some examples of trophic polymorphism in fish are described. Fish are keystone predators in lake ecosystems, and they can be a major driver for altering biological communities through their top-down trophic cascading effects. An excellent laboratory experiment is presented, demonstrating that functional diversity of fish feeding morphology alters food web properties of plankton prey communities. The third chapter focuses on aquatic microbes, whose abundance and diversity may also be influenced by the diversity of fish through top-down trophic cascades. Aquatic microbes can have a strong impact on ecosystem functioning in lakes, and in this chapter, the latest molecular techniques used to examine genetic and functional diversity of microbial communities are introduced. The final chapter presents theoretical frameworks for predicting how biodiversity has the potential to control the incidence and intensity of human-induced regime shifts. While respecting the precious nature of biodiversity in lakes, it is essential to be aware that modern human activities have brought a crisis of biodiversity loss in lakes worldwide. Throughout this book, readers will learn why biodiversity must be conserved at all levels, from genes to ecosystems.



How Economics Professors Can Stop Failing Us

How Economics Professors Can Stop Failing Us Author Steven Payson
ISBN-10 9780739198346
Release 2017-08-18
Pages 372
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This book provides an eye-opening exposé that reveals the behavior of economics professors based on the highly questionable incentive system they face. It is particularly critical of the theoretical literature they produce as if they were contestants in a superficial publication game—a game where scientific integrity is often ignored.



Biotechnology to Enhance Sugarcane Productivity and Stress Tolerance

Biotechnology to Enhance Sugarcane Productivity and Stress Tolerance Author Kalpana Sengar
ISBN-10 9781351648806
Release 2018-01-12
Pages 298
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Sugarcane is the most important plant source for sugar and alcohol production and is cultivated in more than 80 countries in tropical and subtropical areas. However, environmental factors negatively influence its yield and jeopardize the prospect to meet the increasing demand for sugar, other sugarcane derived by products and bioethanol. The development of stress tolerant plants is fundamental for the maintenance and increase of crop yields. Biotechnology to Enhance Sugarcane Productivity and Stress Tolerance provides a comprehensive account of both theoretical and practical aspects of sugarcane production. It contains extensive coverage of genome mapping and molecular breeding in sugarcane and presents the status of the elucidation and improvement of plant genomes of economic interest. Through 14 chapters written by eminent scientists with global influence, this book examines various methods for sugarcane improvement through biotechnology. The book focuses on genetic and physical mapping, positioning, cloning, and monitoring of desirable genes using biotechnological approaches for high sugarcane productivity and the development of stress tolerance. Additional information includes the bioengineering of sugarcane, procedures to boost productivity, genetics and assessments for resistance to drought and salinity, genetics for high yields, and various topics of research on sugarcane genetics. It serves as a detailed reference source for cane growers, sugar and sugarcane technologists, students, and professors.



Medical Imaging Technology

Medical Imaging Technology Author Mark A Haidekker
ISBN-10 9781461470731
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 129
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Biomedical imaging is a relatively young discipline that started with Conrad Wilhelm Roentgen’s discovery of the x-ray in 1895. X-ray imaging was rapidly adopted in hospitals around the world. However, it was the advent of computerized data and image processing that made revolutionary new imaging modalities possible. Today, cross-sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of the organs inside the human body is possible with unprecedented speed, detail and quality. This book provides an introduction into the principles of image formation of key medical imaging modalities: X-ray projection imaging, x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and radionuclide imaging. Recent developments in optical imaging are also covered. For each imaging modality, the introduction into the physical principles and sources of contrast is provided, followed by the methods of image formation, engineering aspects of the imaging devices, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of the modality. With this book, the reader gains a broad foundation of understanding and knowledge how today’s medical imaging devices operate. In addition, the chapters in this book can serve as an entry point for the in-depth study of individual modalities by providing the essential basics of each modality in a comprehensive and easy-to-understand manner. As such, this book is equally attractive as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate biomedical imaging classes and as a reference and self-study guide for more specialized in-depth studies.



Data Driven Process Discovery and Analysis

Data Driven Process Discovery and Analysis Author Karl Aberer
ISBN-10 9783642340444
Release 2013-11-19
Pages 213
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.