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Noise in Semiconductor Devices

Noise in Semiconductor Devices Author Fabrizio Bonani
ISBN-10 9783662045305
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 213
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Provides an overview of the physical basis of noise in semiconductor devices, and a detailed treatment of numerical noise simulation in small-signal conditions. It presents innovative developments in the noise simulation of semiconductor devices operating in large-signal quasi-periodic conditions.



Low Dielectric Constant Materials for IC Applications

Low Dielectric Constant Materials for IC Applications Author Paul S. Ho
ISBN-10 3540678190
Release 2003
Pages 309
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Low dielectric materials are an important component of microelectronic devices. In this carefully edited volume the leading researchers give an introduction to and a survey of the various fields of dielectrics for IC integration. The book appeals to materials reserachers, electrical engineers and advanced students.



High Frequency Bipolar Transistors

High Frequency Bipolar Transistors Author Michael Reisch
ISBN-10 354067702X
Release 2003-03-05
Pages 658
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This book provides a rather comprehensive presentation of the physics and modeling of high-frequency bipolar transistors with particular emphasis given to silicon-based devices. I hope it will be found useful by those who do as well as by those who intend to work in the field, as it compiles and extends material presented in numerous publications in a coherent fashion. I've worked on this project for years and did my best to avoid errors. De spite all efforts it is possible that "something" has been overlooked during copy-editing and proof-reading. If you find a mistake please let me know. Michael Reisch Kempten, December 2002 Notation It is intended here to use the most widely employed notation, in cases where the standard textbook notation is different from the SPICE notation, the latter is used. In order to make formulas more readable, model parameters represented in SPICE by a series of capital letters are written here as one capital letter with the rest in the form of a subscript (e.g. XCJC is used here instead of the XCJC used in the SPICE input). Concerning the use of lower-case and capital letters, the following rules are applied: • Time-dependent large-signal quantities are represented by lower-case let ters. The variables 't, v and p therefore denote time-dependent current, voltage and power values.



Current Sense Amplifiers for Embedded SRAM in High Performance System on a Chip Designs

Current Sense Amplifiers for Embedded SRAM in High Performance System on a Chip Designs Author Bernhard Wicht
ISBN-10 9783662064429
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 164
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System-on-a-chip (SoC) designs result in a wide range of high-complexity, high-value semiconductor products. As the technology scales towards smaller feature sizes and chips grow larger, a speed limitation arises due to an in creased RC delay associated with interconnection wires. Innovative circuit techniques are required to achieve the speed needed for high-performance signal processing. Current sensing is considered as a promising circuit class since it is inherently faster than conventional voltage sense amplifiers. How ever, especially in SRAM, current sensing has rarely been used so far. Practi cal implementations are challenging because they require sophisticated analog circuit techniques in a digital environment. The objective of this book is to provide a systematic and comprehen sive insight into current sensing techniques. Both theoretical and practical aspects are covered. Design guidelines are derived by systematic analysis of different circuit principles. Innovative concepts like compensation of the bit line multiplexer and auto-power-down will be explained based on theory and experimental results. The material will be interesting for design engineers in industry as well as researchers who want to learn about and apply current sensing techniques. The focus is on embedded SRAM but the material presented can be adapted to single-chip SRAM and to any other current-providing memory type as well. This includes emerging memory technologies like magnetic RAM (MRAM) and Ovonic Unified Memory (OUM). Moreover, it is also applicable to array like structures such as CMOS camera chips and to circuits for signal trans mission along highly capacitive busses.



Logic Synthesis for Asynchronous Controllers and Interfaces

Logic Synthesis for Asynchronous Controllers and Interfaces Author Jordi Cortadella
ISBN-10 9783642559891
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 273
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This book is the result of a long friendship, of a broad international co operation, and of a bold dream. It is the summary of work carried out by the authors, and several other wonderful people, during more than 15 years, across 3 continents, in the course of countless meetings, workshops and discus sions. It shows that neither language nor distance can be an obstacle to close scientific cooperation, when there is unity of goals and true collaboration. When we started, we had very different approaches to handling the mys terious, almost magical world of asynchronous circuits. Some were more theo retical, some were closer to physical reality, some were driven mostly by design needs. In the end, we all shared the same belief that true Electronic Design Automation research must be solidly grounded in formal models, practically minded to avoid excessive complexity, and tested "in the field" in the form of experimental tools. The results are this book, and the CAD tool petrify. The latter can be downloaded and tried by anybody bold (or desperate) enough to tread into the clockless (but not lawless) domain of small-scale asynchronicity. The URL is http://www.lsi. upc. esr j ordic/petrify. We believe that asynchronous circuits are a wonderful object, that aban dons some of the almost militaristic law and order that governs synchronous circuits, to improve in terms of simplicity, energy efficiency and performance.



Nanoscale Transistors

Nanoscale Transistors Author Mark Lundstrom
ISBN-10 9780387280035
Release 2006-06-18
Pages 218
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To push MOSFETs to their scaling limits and to explore devices that may complement or even replace them at molecular scale, a clear understanding of device physics at nanometer scale is necessary. Nanoscale Transistors provides a description on the recent development of theory, modeling, and simulation of nanotransistors for electrical engineers, physicists, and chemists working on nanoscale devices. Simple physical pictures and semi-analytical models, which were validated by detailed numerical simulations, are provided for both evolutionary and revolutionary nanotransistors. After basic concepts are reviewed, the text summarizes the essentials of traditional semiconductor devices, digital circuits, and systems to supply a baseline against which new devices can be assessed. A nontraditional view of the MOSFET using concepts that are valid at nanoscale is developed and then applied to nanotube FET as an example of how to extend the concepts to revolutionary nanotransistors. This practical guide then explore the limits of devices by discussing conduction in single molecules



Computational Electronics

Computational Electronics Author Dragica Vasileska
ISBN-10 9781420064841
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 782
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Starting with the simplest semiclassical approaches and ending with the description of complex fully quantum-mechanical methods for quantum transport analysis of state-of-the-art devices, Computational Electronics: Semiclassical and Quantum Device Modeling and Simulation provides a comprehensive overview of the essential techniques and methods for effectively analyzing transport in semiconductor devices. With the transistor reaching its limits and new device designs and paradigms of operation being explored, this timely resource delivers the simulation methods needed to properly model state-of-the-art nanoscale devices. The first part examines semiclassical transport methods, including drift-diffusion, hydrodynamic, and Monte Carlo methods for solving the Boltzmann transport equation. Details regarding numerical implementation and sample codes are provided as templates for sophisticated simulation software. The second part introduces the density gradient method, quantum hydrodynamics, and the concept of effective potentials used to account for quantum-mechanical space quantization effects in particle-based simulators. Highlighting the need for quantum transport approaches, it describes various quantum effects that appear in current and future devices being mass-produced or fabricated as a proof of concept. In this context, it introduces the concept of effective potential used to approximately include quantum-mechanical space-quantization effects within the semiclassical particle-based device simulation scheme. Addressing the practical aspects of computational electronics, this authoritative resource concludes by addressing some of the open questions related to quantum transport not covered in most books. Complete with self-study problems and numerous examples throughout, this book supplies readers with the practical understanding required to create their own simulators.



Open Source TCAD EDA for Compact Modeling

Open Source TCAD EDA for Compact Modeling Author Wladyslaw Grabinski
ISBN-10 9402410899
Release 2018-04-13
Pages
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The aim of this book is to highlight the benefits of a higher interoperability between Technology Computer-Aided Design and Electronic Design Automation, focusing on specifically selected open source tools for compact modeling. Due to the tremendous developments in semiconductor technology in recent years, device level modelling and integrated circuit design have become intimately related. However, they have been traditionally disconnected up to the circuit level. This book consists of a set of extended user manuals guiding the reader from the usual software, from multidimensional numerical process and device simulations, through compact model development and its Verilog-A standardization to carefully selected IC designs for analog, radio frequency and digital applications. Bringing together contributions from academic and industrial researchers and engineers, the book forms a valuable reference for students and those working in the field.



High Permittivity Gate Dielectric Materials

High Permittivity Gate Dielectric Materials Author Samares Kar
ISBN-10 9783642365355
Release 2013-06-25
Pages 489
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"The book comprehensively covers all the current and the emerging areas of the physics and the technology of high permittivity gate dielectric materials, including, topics such as MOSFET basics and characteristics, hafnium-based gate dielectric materials, Hf-based gate dielectric processing, metal gate electrodes, flat-band and threshold voltage tuning, channel mobility, high-k gate stack degradation and reliability, lanthanide-based high-k gate stack materials, ternary hafnia and lanthania based high-k gate stack films, crystalline high-k oxides, high mobility substrates, and parameter extraction. Each chapter begins with the basics necessary for understanding the topic, followed by a comprehensive review of the literature, and ultimately graduating to the current status of the technology and our scientific understanding and the future prospects." .



The Monte Carlo Method for Semiconductor Device Simulation

The Monte Carlo Method for Semiconductor Device Simulation Author Carlo Jacoboni
ISBN-10 3211821104
Release 1989-10-30
Pages 359
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This volume presents the application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of semiconductor devices, reviewing the physics of transport in semiconductors, followed by an introduction to the physics of semiconductor devices.



Variation Aware Adaptive Voltage Scaling for Digital CMOS Circuits

Variation Aware Adaptive Voltage Scaling for Digital CMOS Circuits Author Martin Wirnshofer
ISBN-10 9789400761964
Release 2013-02-15
Pages 83
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Increasing performance demands in integrated circuits, together with limited energy budgets, force IC designers to find new ways of saving power. One innovative way is the presented adaptive voltage scaling scheme, which tunes the supply voltage according to the present process, voltage and temperature variations as well as aging. The voltage is adapted “on the fly” by means of in-situ delay monitors to exploit unused timing margin, produced by state-of-the-art worst-case designs. This book discusses the design of the enhanced in-situ delay monitors and the implementation of the complete control-loop comprising the monitors, a control-logic and an on-chip voltage regulator. An analytical Markov-based model of the control-loop is derived to analyze its robustness and stability. Variation-Aware Adaptive Voltage Scaling for Digital CMOS Circuits provides an in-depth assessment of the proposed voltage scaling scheme when applied to an arithmetic and an image processing circuit. This book is written for engineers interested in adaptive techniques for low-power CMOS circuits.



Evolution of Thin Film Morphology

Evolution of Thin Film Morphology Author Matthew Pelliccione
ISBN-10 9780387751092
Release 2008-01-29
Pages 206
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The focus of this book is on modeling and simulations used in research on the morphological evolution during film growth. The authors emphasize the detailed mathematical formulation of the problem. The book will enable readers themselves to set up a computational program to investigate specific topics of interest in thin film deposition. It will benefit those working in any discipline that requires an understanding of thin film growth processes.



Nanoscaled Semiconductor on Insulator Structures and Devices

Nanoscaled Semiconductor on Insulator Structures and Devices Author S. Hall
ISBN-10 9781402063800
Release 2007-09-04
Pages 369
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This book offers combined views on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanoscaled electronics from experts in the fields of materials science, device physics, electrical characterization and computer simulation. Coverage analyzes prospects of SOI nanoelectronics beyond Moore’s law and explains fundamental limits for CMOS, SOICMOS and single electron technologies.



CMOS Circuits for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

CMOS Circuits for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters Author Thorsten Hehn
ISBN-10 9789401792882
Release 2014-07-30
Pages 204
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This book deals with the challenge of exploiting ambient vibrational energy which can be used to power small and low-power electronic devices, e.g. wireless sensor nodes. Generally, particularly for low voltage amplitudes, low-loss rectification is required to achieve high conversion efficiency. In the special case of piezoelectric energy harvesting, pulsed charge extraction has the potential to extract more power compared to a single rectifier. For this purpose, a fully autonomous CMOS integrated interface circuit for piezoelectric generators which fulfills these requirements is presented. Due to these key properties enabling universal usage, other CMOS designers working in the field of energy harvesting will be encouraged to use some of the shown structures for their own implementations. The book is unique in the sense that it highlights the design process from scratch to the final chip. Hence, it gives the designer a comprehensive guide of how to (i) setup an appropriate harvester model to get realistic simulation results, (ii) design the integrated circuits for low power operation, (iii) setup a laboratory measurement environment in order to extensively characterize the chip in combination with the real harvester and finally, (iv) interpret the simulation/measurement results in order to improve the chip performance. Since the dimensions of all devices (transistors, resistors etc.) are given, readers and other designers can easily re-use the presented circuit concepts.



Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics

Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics Author Francis Balestra
ISBN-10 9781475733181
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 262
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Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics is a first in reviewing the performance and physical mechanisms of advanced devices and circuits at cryogenic temperatures that can be used for many applications. The first two chapters cover bulk silicon and SOI MOSFETs. The electronic transport in the inversion layer, the influence of impurity freeze-out, the special electrical properties of SOI structures, the device reliability and the interest of a low temperature operation for the ultimate integration of silicon down to nanometer dimensions are described. The next two chapters deal with Silicon-Germanium and III-V Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors, as well as III-V High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT). The basic physics of the SiGe HBT and its unique cryogenic capabilities, the optimization of such bipolar devices, and the performance of SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology at liquid nitrogen temperature are examined. The physical effects in III-V semiconductors at low temperature, the HEMT and HBT static, high frequency and noise properties, and the comparison of various cooled III-V devices are also addressed. The next chapter treats quantum effect devices made of silicon materials. The major quantum effects at low temperature, quantum wires, quantum dots as well as single electron devices and applications are investigated. The last chapter overviews the performances of cryogenic circuits and their applications. The low temperature properties and performance of inverters, multipliers, adders, operational amplifiers, memories, microprocessors, imaging devices, circuits and systems, sensors and read-out circuits are analyzed. Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics is useful for researchers, engineers, Ph.D. and M.S. students working in the field of advanced electron devices and circuits, new semiconductor materials, and low temperature electronics and physics.



Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers Author Kerstin Schneider
ISBN-10 9783540296140
Release 2006-11-10
Pages 196
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Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-μm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.



CMOS

CMOS Author R. Jacob Baker
ISBN-10 1118038231
Release 2011-01-11
Pages 1208
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The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.