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Non Equilibrium Social Science and Policy

Non Equilibrium Social Science and Policy Author Jeffrey Johnson
ISBN-10 9783319424248
Release 2017-01-20
Pages 232
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The overall aim of this book, an outcome of the European FP7 FET Open NESS project, is to contribute to the ongoing effort to put the quantitative social sciences on a proper footing for the 21st century. A key focus is economics, and its implications on policy making, where the still dominant traditional approach increasingly struggles to capture the economic realities we observe in the world today - with vested interests getting too often in the way of real advances. Insights into behavioral economics and modern computing techniques have made possible both the integration of larger information sets and the exploration of disequilibrium behavior. The domain-based chapters of this work illustrate how economic theory is the only branch of social sciences which still holds to its old paradigm of an equilibrium science - an assumption that has already been relaxed in all related fields of research in the light of recent advances in complex and dynamical systems theory and related data mining. The other chapters give various takes on policy and decision making in this context. Written in nontechnical style throughout, with a mix of tutorial and essay-like contributions, this book will benefit all researchers, scientists, professionals and practitioners interested in learning about the 'thinking in complexity' to understand how socio-economic systems really work.

Marx and Non Equilibrium Economics

Marx and Non Equilibrium Economics Author Alan Freeman
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105018468624
Release 1996
Pages 303
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This volume deserves the attention of Marxist economists because, despite the considerable diversity of the contributors, these essays put forward a more or less unified version of Marxian value theory that offers unconventional and creatively new insights. Bruce Roberts, Science and Society . . . this volume represents a significant contribution to the rejuvenation of Marxist Value theory. The views expressed in it are novel and thought-provoking. . . Stavros Mavroudeas, Capital and Class This provocative collection has a definite attitude ; no reader will fail to note the authors intention to claim a place at the table where Marx and value theory are debated. And one need not endorse their arguments in every particular to agree that that place is deserved. This volume deserves the attention of Marxist economists because, despite the considerable diversity of the contributors, these essays put forward a more or less unified vision of Marxian value theory that offers unconventional and creatively new insights. Bruce Roberts, Science and Society I was pleasantly surprised to find a fresh, frank defense of Marx s explanation of what moved capitalism and why. The contributors argue, in their treatments of several different issues, that Marx s analysis of capitalism is not logically unsound as claimed by his critics. Instead, the logical deficiency arises only when Marx s analysis is forced into a general equilibrium framework of simultaneous equations in which markets instantly clears and Say s Law holds. . . this collection is a good read. W.M. Dugger, Southern Economic Journal The contributions of this volume to the reading of Marx s theory of value are solid and considerable. Duncan Foley, Eastern Economic Journal . . . a provocative book. John E. King, Economic Record This volume will be of interest to graduate students and faculty. A. Balinky, Choice This major volume develops a rigorous equilibrium-free political economy based on labour values. Rooted in a non-dualistic approach restoring money to its central role in a commodity economy, Marx and Non-Equilibrium Economics is the fruit of extensive international collaboration reflecting a profound critical reappraisal of Marx's theoretical work and its relation to modern economics. This major book reconstructs classical Marxist explanations for many of the most important phenomena of the day, including mass poverty, unequal development, and endemic economic crisis. The authors vindicate Marx's most contentious propositions, showing how the profit rate falls despite continuous technical innovation and how values are transformed into prices, preserving his famous 'two equalities'. Destined to become a reference text for both Marxists and non-Marxists dissatisfied with the neoclassical synthesis, Marx and Non-Equilibrium Economics is a decisive break with the economic conventions of the Twentieth Century.

Handbook of Research Methods in Complexity Science

Handbook of Research Methods in Complexity Science Author Eve Mitleton-Kelly
ISBN-10 9781785364426
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This comprehensive Handbook is aimed at both academic researchers and practitioners in the field of complexity science. The book’s 26 chapters, specially written by leading experts, provide in-depth coverage of research methods based on the sciences of complexity. The research methods presented are illustratively applied to practical cases and are readily accessible to researchers and decision makers alike.

Introduction to Non equilibrium Physical Chemistry

Introduction to Non equilibrium Physical Chemistry Author R. P. Rastogi
ISBN-10 0080551807
Release 2007-10-16
Pages 356
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Introduction to Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry presents a critical and comprehensive account of Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry from theoretical and experimental angle. It covers a wide spectrum of non-equilibrium phenomena from steady state close to equilibrium to non-linear region involving transition to bistability, temporal oscillations, spatio-temporal oscillations and finally to far from equilibrium phenomena such as complex pattern formation, dynamic instability at interfaces, Chaos and complex growth phenomena (fractals) in Physico-chemical systems. Part I of the book deals with theory and experimental studies concerning transport phenomena in membranes (Thermo-osmosis,Electroosmotic ) and in continuous systems (Thermal diffusion,Soret effect) close to equilibrium Experimental tests provide insight into the domain of validity of Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics ,which is the major theoretical tool for this region. Later developments in Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics and Non-equilibrium Molecular dynamics have been discussed in the Appendix. Part II deals with non-linear steady states and bifurcation to multistability, temporal and spatio- temporal oscillations (Chemical waves). Similarly Part II deals with more complex phenomena such as Chaos and fractal growth occurring in very far from equilibrium region. Newer mathematical techniques for investigating such phenomena along with available experimental studies. Part IV deals with analogous non-equilibrium phenomena occurring in the real systems (Socio-political, Finance and Living systems etc.) for which physico-chemical systems discussed in earlier chapters provide a useful model for development of theories based on non-linear science and science of complexity. The book provides a critical account of theoretical studies on non-equilibrium phenomenon from region close to equilibrium to far equilibrium Experimental studies have been reported which provide test of the theories and their limitations Impacts of the concepts developed in non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry in sociology, economics and other social science and living systems has been discussed

Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics

Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics Author Roberto Livi
ISBN-10 9781108364041
Release 2017-10-05
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Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.

Non equilibrium Processing of Materials

Non equilibrium Processing of Materials Author C. Suryanarayana
ISBN-10 0080537626
Release 1999-07-22
Pages 437
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The rapid technological developments during the later half of the 20th century have demanded materials that are stronger, capable of use at much higher temperatures, more corrosion-resistant, and much less expensive than those currently used. These demands become even more significant on the threshold of the new century and the millennium. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under far-from-equilibrium (or non-equilibrium) conditions. Several new processing technologies have been developed during the past few decades including, rapid solidification, spray forming, mechanical alloying, ion mixing, vapor deposition, laser processing and plasma processing. Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of these processes used to synthesize, characterize, and apply these materials processed under non-equilibrium conditions. Some of these techniques have evolved from laboratory curiosity to commercial-scale manufacturing in just a few years. In other cases, industrial necessity prompted development of the technology, and the science followed later. The chapters in this book have been written by people who are world-recognized experts in their respective fields. Each chapter describes the principles, processing techniques, special features of the materials produced, and their applications. An extensive list of references is provided at the end of each chapter that will facilitate location of additional information on specific aspects of any technique.

Non Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Foods

Non Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Foods Author Bhesh R. Bhandari
ISBN-10 9780081003350
Release 2016-11-10
Pages 514
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Non-equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Foods: Processing Effects and Product Specific Implications presents the tactics needed to understand and control non-equilibrium states and glass transitions in food, an essential element in maintaining the shelf-life and quality of foods. After brief introductory chapters introduce the science behind non-equilibrium states and glass transitions in foods, the book details how glass transition temperature is affected by composition and the ways it influences processability and physico-chemical changes during the storage of foods, also exploring how these effects can be controlled. The second section looks at individual foods, highlighting the implications of non-equilibrium states and glass transitions within these foods. Maintaining and improving the quality of food is of upmost importance to food companies who have to ensure that the shelf life of their products is as long as possible. A large amount of research has been performed into glass transitions in food over the last few years, however there has not been a comprehensive review. This book fills that gap. Provides the only book on the market that covers non-equilibrium states and glass transitions in food from a practical standpoint Presents food industry professionals in the area of food quality with essential information on the effects of glass transitions and non-equilibrium states on the shelf life of specific products Edited by global leaders in glass transition technology in foods

Nonequilibrium Ecology

Nonequilibrium Ecology Author Klaus Rohde
ISBN-10 113944851X
Release 2006-01-19
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Ecology has long been shaped by ideas that stress the sharing of resources and the competition for those resources, and by the assumption that populations and communities typically exist under equilibrium conditions in habitats saturated with both individuals and species. However, much evidence contradicts these assumptions and it is likely that nonequilibrium is much more widespread than might be expected. This book is unique in focusing on nonequilibrium aspects of ecology, providing evidence for nonequilibrium and equilibrium in populations (and metapopulations), in extant communities and in ecological systems over evolutionary time, including nonequilibrium due to recent and present mass extinctions. The assumption that competition is of overriding importance is central to equilibrium ecology, and much space is devoted to its discussion. As communities of some taxa appear to be shaped more by competition than others, an attempt is made to find an explanation for these differences.

Policy Implications of Recent Advances in Evolutionary and Institutional Economics

Policy Implications of Recent Advances in Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Author Claudius Gräbner
ISBN-10 9781317500445
Release 2016-05-12
Pages 238
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This collection is inspired by the coming retirement of Professor Wolfram Elsner. It presents cutting-edge economic research relevant to economic policies and policy-making, placing a strong focus on innovative perspectives. In a changing world that has been shaken by economic, social, financial, and ecological crises, it becomes increasingly clear that new approaches to economics are needed for both theoretical and empirical research; for applied economics as well as policy advice. At this point, it seems necessary to develop new methods, to reconsider theoretical foundations and especially to take into account the theoretical alternatives that have been advocated within the field of economics for many years. This collection seeks to accomplish this by including institutionalist, evolutionary, complexity, and other innovative perspectives. It thereby creates a unique selection of methodological and empirical approaches ranging from game theory to economic dynamics to empirical and historical-theoretical analyses. The interested reader will find careful reconsiderations of the historical development of institutional and evolutionary theories, enlightening theoretical contributions, interdisciplinary ideas, as well as insightful applications. The collection serves to highlight the common ground and the synergies between the various approaches and thereby to contribute to an emerging coherent framework of alternative theories in economics. This book is of interest to those who study political economy, economic theory and philosophy, as well as economic policy.

Punctuated Equilibrium and the Dynamics of U S Environmental Policy

Punctuated Equilibrium and the Dynamics of U S  Environmental Policy Author Robert Repetto
ISBN-10 0300129742
Release 2008-10-01
Pages 304
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Although many environmental policy issues remain deadlocked for decades with little movement, sometimes breakthroughs occur abruptly. Why do deadlocks persist? Why do major policy shifts occur infrequently? Is it possible to judge when policies are ripe for change?This book presents new empirical evidence that the punctuated equilibrium theory of policy dynamics fits the facts of environmental policy change and can explain how stable policies can suddenly unravel in discontinuous change. The distinguished contributors to the volume apply the theory to a wide range of important environmental and resource issues and assess case histories in water, forestry, fisheries, public lands, energy and climate some of which resulted in breakthroughs, others in stalemate. They offer insights into the political conditions and tactics that are likely to produce these disparate outcomes. Every professional, activist, and student concerned with promoting (or resisting) change in environmental and natural resources policies will find this up-to-date book an invaluable guide.

Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences

Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences Author Murray Webster
ISBN-10 0080546145
Release 2007-07-03
Pages 576
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Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences is the only book providing core information for researchers about the ways and means to conduct experiments. Its comprehensive regard for laboratory experiments encompasses “how-to explanations, investigations of philosophies and ethics, explorations of experiments in specific social science disciplines, and summaries of both the history and future of social science laboratories. No other book offers such a direct avenue to enlarging our knowledge in the social sciences. This collection of original chapters combines instructions and advice about the design of laboratory experiments in the social sciences with the array of other issues. While there are books on experimental design and chapters in more general methods books on design, theory, and ethical issues, no other book attempts to discuss the fundamental ideas of the philosophy of science or lays out the methods comprehensively or in such detail. Experimentation has recently prospered because of increasing interest in cross-disciplinary syntheses, and this book of advice, guidelines, and observations underline its potential and increasing importance. · Provides a comprehensive summary of issues in social science experimentation, from ethics to design, management, and financing · Offers "how-to" explanations of the problems and challenges faced by everyone involved in social science experiments · Pays attention to both practical problems and to theoretical and philosophical arguments · Defines commonalities and distinctions within and among experimental situations across the social sciences

Non equilibrium Soft Matter Physics

Non equilibrium Soft Matter Physics Author Shigeyuki Komura
ISBN-10 9789814360623
Release 2012
Pages 422
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This volume contains a collection of review articles on the current topics of non-equilibrium soft matter physics written by leading experts in the field. It deals with topics such as evaporation, structual rheology, and active matter.

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Author Phil Attard
ISBN-10 9780199662760
Release 2012-10-04
Pages 462
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This title builds from basic principles to advanced techniques, and covers the major phenomena, methods, and results of time-dependent systems. It is a pedagogic introduction, a comprehensive reference manual, and an original research monograph--

Quantum Gases

Quantum Gases Author Nick Proukakis
ISBN-10 9781848168121
Release 2013
Pages 554
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This volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics.

Critical Dynamics

Critical Dynamics Author Uwe C. Täuber
ISBN-10 9780521842235
Release 2014-03-06
Pages 488
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A comprehensive and unified introduction to describing and understanding complex interacting systems.

Simulating Social Complexity

Simulating Social Complexity Author Bruce Edmonds
ISBN-10 9783319669489
Release 2017-11-24
Pages 838
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This volume examines all aspects of using agent or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes this "social" is that it can represent an observed society. Social systems include all those systems where the components have individual agency but also interact with each other. This includes human societies and groups, but also increasingly socio-technical systems where the internet-based devices form the substrate for interaction. These systems are central to our lives, but are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible but, on the other hand, natural language approaches are also inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. This is why individual and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. This handbook marks the maturation of this new field. It brings together summaries of the best thinking and practices in this area from leading researchers in the field and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances can be judged. This second edition adds new chapters on different modelling purposes and applying software engineering methods to simulation development. Revised existing content will keep the book up-to-date with recent developments. This volume will help those new to the field avoid "reinventing the wheel" each time, and give them a solid and wide grounding in the essential issues. It will also help those already in the field by providing accessible overviews of current thought. The material is divided into four sections: Introduction, Methodology, Mechanisms, and Applications. Each chapter starts with a very brief section called ‘Why read this chapter?’ followed by an abstract, which summarizes the content of the chapter. Each chapter also ends with a section on ‘Further Reading’. Whilst sometimes covering technical aspects, this second edition of Simulating Social Complexity is designed to be accessible to a wide range of researchers, including both those from the social sciences as well as those with a more formal background. It will be of use as a standard reference text in the field and also be suitable for graduate level courses.

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Philosophy of Complex Systems Author
ISBN-10 0080931227
Release 2011-05-23
Pages 952
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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included