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Non Equilibrium Social Science and Policy

Non Equilibrium Social Science and Policy Author Jeffrey Johnson
ISBN-10 9783319424248
Release 2017-01-20
Pages 232
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The overall aim of this book, an outcome of the European FP7 FET Open NESS project, is to contribute to the ongoing effort to put the quantitative social sciences on a proper footing for the 21st century. A key focus is economics, and its implications on policy making, where the still dominant traditional approach increasingly struggles to capture the economic realities we observe in the world today - with vested interests getting too often in the way of real advances. Insights into behavioral economics and modern computing techniques have made possible both the integration of larger information sets and the exploration of disequilibrium behavior. The domain-based chapters of this work illustrate how economic theory is the only branch of social sciences which still holds to its old paradigm of an equilibrium science - an assumption that has already been relaxed in all related fields of research in the light of recent advances in complex and dynamical systems theory and related data mining. The other chapters give various takes on policy and decision making in this context. Written in nontechnical style throughout, with a mix of tutorial and essay-like contributions, this book will benefit all researchers, scientists, professionals and practitioners interested in learning about the 'thinking in complexity' to understand how socio-economic systems really work.



Handbook of Research Methods in Complexity Science

Handbook of Research Methods in Complexity Science Author Eve Mitleton-Kelly
ISBN-10 9781785364426
Release
Pages
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This comprehensive Handbook is aimed at both academic researchers and practitioners in the field of complexity science. The book’s 26 chapters, specially written by leading experts, provide in-depth coverage of research methods based on the sciences of complexity. The research methods presented are illustratively applied to practical cases and are readily accessible to researchers and decision makers alike.



Simulating Social Complexity

Simulating Social Complexity Author Bruce Edmonds
ISBN-10 9783319669489
Release 2017-11-24
Pages 838
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This volume examines all aspects of using agent or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes this "social" is that it can represent an observed society. Social systems include all those systems where the components have individual agency but also interact with each other. This includes human societies and groups, but also increasingly socio-technical systems where the internet-based devices form the substrate for interaction. These systems are central to our lives, but are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible but, on the other hand, natural language approaches are also inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. This is why individual and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. This handbook marks the maturation of this new field. It brings together summaries of the best thinking and practices in this area from leading researchers in the field and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances can be judged. This second edition adds new chapters on different modelling purposes and applying software engineering methods to simulation development. Revised existing content will keep the book up-to-date with recent developments. This volume will help those new to the field avoid "reinventing the wheel" each time, and give them a solid and wide grounding in the essential issues. It will also help those already in the field by providing accessible overviews of current thought. The material is divided into four sections: Introduction, Methodology, Mechanisms, and Applications. Each chapter starts with a very brief section called ‘Why read this chapter?’ followed by an abstract, which summarizes the content of the chapter. Each chapter also ends with a section on ‘Further Reading’. Whilst sometimes covering technical aspects, this second edition of Simulating Social Complexity is designed to be accessible to a wide range of researchers, including both those from the social sciences as well as those with a more formal background. It will be of use as a standard reference text in the field and also be suitable for graduate level courses.



Policy Implications of Recent Advances in Evolutionary and Institutional Economics

Policy Implications of Recent Advances in Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Author Claudius Gräbner
ISBN-10 9781317500445
Release 2016-05-12
Pages 238
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This collection is inspired by the coming retirement of Professor Wolfram Elsner. It presents cutting-edge economic research relevant to economic policies and policy-making, placing a strong focus on innovative perspectives. In a changing world that has been shaken by economic, social, financial, and ecological crises, it becomes increasingly clear that new approaches to economics are needed for both theoretical and empirical research; for applied economics as well as policy advice. At this point, it seems necessary to develop new methods, to reconsider theoretical foundations and especially to take into account the theoretical alternatives that have been advocated within the field of economics for many years. This collection seeks to accomplish this by including institutionalist, evolutionary, complexity, and other innovative perspectives. It thereby creates a unique selection of methodological and empirical approaches ranging from game theory to economic dynamics to empirical and historical-theoretical analyses. The interested reader will find careful reconsiderations of the historical development of institutional and evolutionary theories, enlightening theoretical contributions, interdisciplinary ideas, as well as insightful applications. The collection serves to highlight the common ground and the synergies between the various approaches and thereby to contribute to an emerging coherent framework of alternative theories in economics. This book is of interest to those who study political economy, economic theory and philosophy, as well as economic policy.



Evidence Based Counterterrorism Policy

Evidence Based Counterterrorism Policy Author Cynthia Lum
ISBN-10 1461409535
Release 2011-11-06
Pages 388
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In the past eight years, there has been a massive increase in government spending on counterterrorism intervention development and implementation. Given this increase, there are two evidence-based policy questions that are important to address: Is there evidence that any of these programs are effective – in other words, can they be shown to be linked to reducing terrorism, terrorist recruiting, or to improving the response and management of terrorist events? Do these interventions have secondary or collateral effects that may be costly, harmful, illegal, beneficial, or otherwise? As Lum and Kennedy discovered in an evaluation research on counterterrorism interventions, only a minuscule number of empirical studies of terrorism exist and there is an almost complete absence of evaluation research on counter-terrorism strategies. This is startling given the enormous increases in the development and use of counter-terrorism programs, as well as spending on counter-terrorism activity. Even more disconcerting was the nature of the evaluations we did find; some programs were shown to either have no discernible effect on terrorism or lead to increases in terrorism. The emphasis of the need for empirical research in evaluating interventions and informing policy cannot be overstated, and is the primary goal of Evidence-Based Counterterrorism Policy.



Darwinism in Philosophy Social Science and Policy

Darwinism in Philosophy  Social Science and Policy Author Alexander Rosenberg
ISBN-10 0521664071
Release 2000-03-28
Pages 257
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A collection of essays by Alexander Rosenberg, the distinguished philosopher of science. The essays cover three broad areas related to Darwinian thought and naturalism: the first deals with the solution of philosophical problems such as reductionism, the second with the development of social theories, and the third with the intersection of evolutionary biology with economics, political philosophy, and public policy. Specific papers deal with naturalistic epistemology, the limits of reductionism, the biological justification of ethics, the so-called 'trolley problem' in moral philosophy, the political philosophy of biological endowments, and the Human Genome Project and its implications for policy. Rosenberg's important writings on a variety of issues are here organized into a coherent philosophical framework which promises to be a significant and controversial contribution to scholarship in many areas.



Generative Social Science Studies in Agent Based Computational Modeling

Generative Social Science  Studies in Agent Based Computational Modeling Author Joshua M. Epstein
ISBN-10 9781400842872
Release 2012-01-02
Pages 384
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Agent-based computational modeling is changing the face of social science. In Generative Social Science, Joshua Epstein argues that this powerful, novel technique permits the social sciences to meet a fundamentally new standard of explanation, in which one "grows" the phenomenon of interest in an artificial society of interacting agents: heterogeneous, boundedly rational actors, represented as mathematical or software objects. After elaborating this notion of generative explanation in a pair of overarching foundational chapters, Epstein illustrates it with examples chosen from such far-flung fields as archaeology, civil conflict, the evolution of norms, epidemiology, retirement economics, spatial games, and organizational adaptation. In elegant chapter preludes, he explains how these widely diverse modeling studies support his sweeping case for generative explanation. This book represents a powerful consolidation of Epstein's interdisciplinary research activities in the decade since the publication of his and Robert Axtell's landmark volume, Growing Artificial Societies. Beautifully illustrated, Generative Social Science includes a CD that contains animated movies of core model runs, and programs allowing users to easily change assumptions and explore models, making it an invaluable text for courses in modeling at all levels.



Economic Concepts for the Social Sciences

Economic Concepts for the Social Sciences Author Todd Sandler
ISBN-10 0521796776
Release 2001-09-17
Pages 285
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The primary purpose of this book is to present some of the key economic concepts that have guided economic thinking in the last century and to identify which of these concepts will continue to direct economic thought in the coming decades. This book is written in an accessible manner and is intended for a wide audience with little or no formal training in economics. It should also interest economists who want to reflect on the direction of the discipline and to learn concepts and achievements in other subfields. The author imparts his enthusiasm for the economic way of reasoning and its wide applicability. Through the abundant use of illustrations and examples, the author makes concepts understandable and relevant. Topics covered include game theory, the new institutional economics, market failures, asymmetric information, endogenous growth theory, general equilibrium, rational expectations, and others.



Game Theory for the Social Sciences

Game Theory for the Social Sciences Author Herve Moulin
ISBN-10 9780814764237
Release 1986-10-01
Pages 290
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The second edition of Herve Moulin's highly successful book outlines the fundamental concepts of game theory—one of the most provocative and fruitful applications of mathematics to the human sciences—and demonstrates its uses in economic and political discourse. Thoroughly revised, and now published with an accompanying workbook of 89 exercises, this rigorous yet accessible test explains the uses of game theory in largely nontechnical terms. Moulin carefully discusses the behavioral scenarios underlying the various equilibrium concepts. He provides a self-contained exposition of basic equilibrium concepts for strategic games: perfect (sophisticated) equilibrium, Nash's noncooperative example, Aumann's strong and correlated example, and several versions of the core. The author is concerned less with mathematical refinements than with helping the reader understand the strategic stories backing these concepts. HIs examples therefore give a fair account of the current game models used in economics, politics, and sociology. Addressed here are oligopoly theory, the provision of public gtoods, auctions, voting procedures, and cost allocation problems, as well as the classic prisoner's dilemma, tic-tac-toe, and Marienbad games. Extremely popular in its original French edition and in its first English version, Moulin's excellent introductory text is now, more than ever, the book to answer the essential questions about the application of game theory to the social sciences.



The Expansion of Economics Toward a More Inclusive Social Science

The Expansion of Economics  Toward a More Inclusive Social Science Author Shoshana Grossbard-Shechtman
ISBN-10 9781315499758
Release 2016-07-08
Pages 296
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Economics, like most other social sciences, is not a pure discipline. Indeed, it has been enhanced by the fact that there is so much overlap between it and the related fields of business, industrial relations, political science, social psychology, and sociology. This book is the first attempt to explain how work in economics has influenced and benefited from a merging of economic analysis with the research practices of these related fields of study. With contributions from leading economists from around the world, it demonstrates how economics is leading the way toward a more unified social science.



Sustainable Development Science Ethics and Public Policy

Sustainable Development  Science  Ethics  and Public Policy Author J. Lemons
ISBN-10 9789401584920
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 284
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Of all the books written about the problems of sustainable development and environmental protection, Sustainable Development: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy is one of the first to examine the role of science, economics and law, and ethics as generally applied to decision making on sustainable development, particularly in respect to the recommendations contained in Agenda 21. Specifically, the book examines the role, capabilities, and certain strengths and weaknesses of these disciplines and their ethical implications in the context of sustainable development problems. Such an analysis is necessary to determine whether sustainable development problems create important new challenges and problems for government so that, where appropriate, new tools or approaches may be designed to overcome limitations or take advantage of the strengths of current scientific, economic and legal capabilities. Audience: Environmental professionals, whether academic, governmental or industrial, or in the private consultancy sector. Also suitable as an upper level text or reference.



Science Society and the Environment

Science  Society and the Environment Author Michael R. Dove
ISBN-10 9781134740413
Release 2015-04-24
Pages 178
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In an era when pressing environmental problems make collaboration across the divide between sciences and arts and humanities essential, this book presents the results of a collaborative analysis by an anthropologist and a physicist of four key junctures between science, society, and environment. The first focuses on the systemic bias in science in favour of studying esoteric subjects as distinct from the mundane subjects of everyday life; the second is a study of the fire-climax grasslands of Southeast Asia, especially those dominated by Imperata cylindrica (sword grass); the third reworks the idea of ‘moral economy’, applying it to relations between environment and society; and the fourth focuses on the evolution of the global discourse of the culpability and responsibility of climate change. The volume concludes with the insights of an interdisciplinary perspective for the natural and social science of sustainability. It argues that failures of conservation and development must be viewed systemically, and that mundane topics are no less complex than the more esoteric subjects of science. The book addresses a current blind spot within the academic research community to focusing attention on the seemingly common and mundane beliefs and practices that ultimately play the central role in the human interaction with the environment. This book will benefit students and scholars from a number of different academic disciplines, including conservation and environment studies, development studies, studies of global environmental change, anthropology, geography, sociology, politics, and science and technology studies.



Topics on Economics and Social Science

Topics on Economics and Social Science Author Barrington K. Brown
ISBN-10 9781477160138
Release 2009-05-11
Pages 301
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This manuscript consists of 16 research papers that were completed between the years 1982 and 2005, the analyses of which range from the purely theoretical, to the empirical, and extending to the more ideological and philosophical. In any case, the emphasis of each paper is upon creativity, with inventiveness and innovation being the essential elements. Part two of this manuscript consists of a purely theoretical paper. This paper presents a fresh approach to macroeconomic theory and policy. Part Three, consisting of empirically oriented projects, employs unique variable and model specifications in order to verify existing theories in economics. The first three papers, in this part, verifies the theories of bilateral monopoly and the employment effects of minimum wage legislation under conditions of competition, monopsony, and monopoly. The next paper examines Caribbean economic integration and verifies the principle of comparative advantage. The fifth paper, in this part, examines the relationship between market structure and rates of return. The sixth paper, in this part, deals with the gaming industry. The fourth part of this manuscript deals with the more ideological and philosophical aspects of economics and social science. The first two papers, in this part, tend to emphasize laissez faire capitalism. The third, and last, paper of this part, begins to break with this tendency, and, thus, serves as somewhat of an introduction to the fifth part of this manuscript. The fifth part of this manuscript is much more interdisciplinary in nature compared to the earlier parts and deals with class conflict and extends to conflict in general. The first paper presents the primary class conflict model and five additional papers follow. The fifth paper, while an empirical undertaking, is included here because it is consistent with the general topic of this part of the manuscript.



Social Sciences Index

Social Sciences Index Author
ISBN-10 UOM:39015079890490
Release
Pages
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Social Sciences Index has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Social Sciences Index also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Social Sciences Index book for free.



Critical Dynamics

Critical Dynamics Author Uwe C. Täuber
ISBN-10 9780521842235
Release 2014-03-06
Pages 488
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A comprehensive and unified introduction to describing and understanding complex interacting systems.



Political Equilibrium A Delicate Balance

Political Equilibrium  A Delicate Balance Author Peter C. Ordeshook
ISBN-10 9789400973800
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 210
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Political Equilibrium A Delicate Balance has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Political Equilibrium A Delicate Balance also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Political Equilibrium A Delicate Balance book for free.



Action Theory and Social Science

Action Theory and Social Science Author I. Pörn
ISBN-10 9789401012683
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 138
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This book is intended as a contribution to the foundations of the sciences of man, especially the social sciences. It has been argued with increasing frequency in recent years that the vocabulary of social science is to a large extent an action vocabulary and that any attempt to systematize concepts and establish bases for understanding in the field cannot, therefore, succeed unless it is firmly built on action theory. I think that these claims are sub stantially correct, but at the same time it seems to me that action theory, as it is relevant to social science, still awaits vital contributions from logic and philosophy. For example, it has often been said, rightly I believe, that situa tions in which two or more agents interact constitute the subject-matter of social science. But have we got an action theory which is rich enough or com prehensive enough to allow us to characterize the interaction situation? I think not. Once we have such a theory, however, we should be able to give an accurate account of central social phenomena and to articulate our concep tions about the nature of social reality. The conceptual scheme advanced in this book consists, in the first instance, of solutions to a number of characterization problems, i. e. problems which may be expressed by questions of the form "What is the nature of . . .