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Nucleation Theory

Nucleation Theory Author Vitaly Kalikmanov
ISBN-10 9789048136438
Release 2012-11-28
Pages 316
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One of the most striking phenomena in condensed matter physics is the occurrence of abrupt transitions in the structure of a substance at certain temperatures or pressures. These are first order phase transitions, and examples such as the freezing of water are familiar in everyday life. The conditions at which the transformation takes place can sometimes vary. For example, the freezing point of water is not always 0°C, but the liquid can be supercooled considerably if it is pure enough and treated carefully. The reason for this phenomenon is nucleation. This monograph covers all major available routes of theoretical research of nucleation phenomena (phenomenological models, semi-phenomenological theories, density functional theories, microscopic and semi-microscopic approaches), with emphasis on the formation of liquid droplets from a metastable vapor. Also, it illustrates the application of these various approaches to experimentally relevant problems. In spite of the familiarity of the involved phenomena, it is still impossible to calculate nucleation accurately, as the properties and the kinetics of the daughter phase are insufficiently well known. Existing theories based upon classical nucleation theory have on the whole explained the trends in behavior correctly. However they often fail spectacularly to account for new data, in particular in the case of binary or, more generally, multi-component nucleation. The current challenge of this book is to go beyond such classical models and provide a more satisfactory theory by using density functional theory and microscopic computer simulations in order to describe the properties of small clusters. Also, semi-phenomenological models are proposed, which attempt to relate the properties of small clusters to known properties of the bulk phases. This monograph is an introduction as well as a compendium to researchers in soft condensed matter physics and chemical physics, graduate and post-graduate students in physics and chemistry starting on research in the area of nucleation, and to experimentalists wishing to gain a better understanding of the efforts being made to account for their data.

Physics and Chemistry of Finite Systems From Clusters to Crystals

Physics and Chemistry of Finite Systems  From Clusters to Crystals Author Peru Jena
ISBN-10 9789401726450
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 1436
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Recent innovations in experimental techniques such as molecular and cluster beam epitaxy, supersonic jet expansion, matrix isolation and chemical synthesis are increasingly enabling researchers to produce materials by design and with atomic dimension. These materials constrained by sire, shape, and symmetry range from clusters containing as few as two atoms to nanoscale materials consisting of thousands of atoms. They possess unique structuraI, electronic, magnetic and optical properties that depend strongly on their size and geometry. The availability of these materials raises many fundamental questions as weIl as technological possibilities. From the academic viewpoint, the most pertinent question concerns the evolution of the atomic and electronic structure of the system as it grows from micro clusters to crystals. At what stage, for example, does the cluster look as if it is a fragment of the corresponding crystal. How do electrons forming bonds in micro-clusters transform to bands in solids? How do the size dependent properties change from discrete quantum conditions, as in clusters, to boundary constrained bulk conditions, as in nanoscale materials, to bulk conditions insensitive to boundaries? How do the criteria of classification have to be changed as one goes from one size domain to another? Potential for high technological applications also seem to be endless. Clusters of otherwise non-magnetic materials exhibit magnetic behavior when constrained by size, shape, and dimension. NanoscaIe metal particles exhibit non-linear opticaI properties and increased mechanical strength. SimiIarly, materials made from nanoscale ceramic particIes possess plastic behavior.

Nucleation Theory and Applications

Nucleation Theory and Applications Author Jürn W. P. Schmelzer
ISBN-10 9783527604760
Release 2006-03-06
Pages 472
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An overview of recent developments in the field of first-order phase transitions, which may be considered a continuation of the previous work 'Aggregation Phenomena in Complex Systems', covering work done and discussed since then. Each chapter features a different aspect of the field written by international specialists, and covers such topics as nucleation and crystallization kinetic of silicate glasses, nucleation in concentration gradients, the determination of coefficients of emission of nucleation theory, diamonds from vitreous carbon.

Nucleation in Condensed Matter

Nucleation in Condensed Matter Author Ken Kelton
ISBN-10 9780080912646
Release 2010-03-19
Pages 756
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In Nucleation in Condensed Matter, key theoretical models for nucleation are developed and experimental data are used to discuss their range of validity. A central aim of this book is to enable the reader, when faced with a phenomenon in which nucleation appears to play a role, to determine whether nucleation is indeed important and to develop a quantitative and predictive description of the nucleation behavior. The third section of the book examines nucleation processes in practical situations, ranging from solid state precipitation to nucleation in biological systems to nucleation in food and drink. Nucleation in Condensed Matter is a key reference for an advanced materials course in phase transformations. It is also an essential reference for researchers in the field. Unified treatment of key theories, experimental evaluations and case studies Complete derivation of key models Detailed discussion of experimental measurements Examples of nucleation in diverse systems

Synthesis Structure and Properties of Poly lactic acid

Synthesis  Structure and Properties of Poly lactic acid Author Maria Laura Di Lorenzo
ISBN-10 9783319642307
Release 2017-10-20
Pages 350
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The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science.The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics.Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned.Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students

Progress in Understanding of Polymer Crystallization

Progress in Understanding of Polymer Crystallization Author Günter Reiter
ISBN-10 9783540473053
Release 2007-02-05
Pages 506
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In the context of polymer crystallization there are several still open and often controversially debated questions. The present volume addresses issues such as novel general views and concepts. It presents new ideas in a connected and accessible way. The intention is thus not only to provide a summary of the present state-of-the-art to all active works but to provide an entry point to newcomer and graduate students entering the field.

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols Author Norihiko Fukuta
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822016258998
Release 1992
Pages 523
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Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols book for free.

Commentationes Physico mathematicae Et Chemico medicae

Commentationes Physico mathematicae Et Chemico medicae Author
ISBN-10 9516532322
Release 1991
Pages 129
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Commentationes Physico mathematicae Et Chemico medicae has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Commentationes Physico mathematicae Et Chemico medicae also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Commentationes Physico mathematicae Et Chemico medicae book for free.

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2000

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2000 Author Barbara N. Hale
ISBN-10 1563969580
Release 2000-08-11
Pages 906
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Conference attendees from about 30 countries met to present research results and discuss current issues in the fields of topospheric and stratospheric aerosols and nucleation phenomena. Specifically addressed are aerosol and nucleation mechanisms affecting ice formation, cloud droplet formation and growth, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol related global warming and ozone depletion mechanisms as well as acid rain production and pollution of the earth's atmosphere. The nucleation symposium part of this conference addresses all theoretical and experimental aspects of single and multi-component nucleation, ion induced nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation involving foreign particulates. The conference attracts leading scientists in the aerosol and nucleation communities and the Proceedings provides a technical summary of the current status of research.

Atmospheric Aerosols and Nucleation

Atmospheric Aerosols and Nucleation Author Paul E. Wagner
ISBN-10 3540501088
Release 1988
Pages 729
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These proceedings give a rather complete overview of the most recent research in the areas of fundamental processes and phase transitions, cloud droplet and ice nucleation in the atmosphere, and aerosol formation and aerosol characteristics in the atmosphere. Nine review papers on topics of special importance are supplemented by about 200 summaries on topics of greatest current importance. The volume should be of interest to scientists working in the atmospheric and environmental sciences, in chemistry and in physics, as well as to engineers working in these areas.

Nucleation Theory and Growth of Nanostructures

Nucleation Theory and Growth of Nanostructures Author Vladimir G. Dubrovskii
ISBN-10 9783642396601
Release 2013-12-04
Pages 601
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Semiconductor nanostructures such as nanowires are promising building blocks of future nanoelectronic, nanophotonic and nanosensing devices. Their physical properties are primarily determined by the epitaxy process which is rather different from the conventional thin film growth. This book shows how the advanced nucleation theory can be used in modeling of growth properties, morphology and crystal phase of such nanostructures. The book represents a systematic account of modern nucleation theory in open systems, nanostructure nucleation and growth mechanisms, and possibilities for tuning the nanostructure properties to the desired values.

Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics

Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics Author Christopher Earls Brennen
ISBN-10 9781107513587
Release 2013-10-14
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Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics deals with the fundamental physical processes of bubble dynamics and the phenomenon of cavitation. It is ideal for graduate students and research engineers and scientists, and a basic knowledge of fluid flow and heat transfer is assumed. The analytical methods presented are developed from basic principles. The book begins with a chapter on nucleation and describes both the theory and observations in flowing and non-flowing systems. Three chapters provide a systematic treatment of the dynamics and growth, collapse, or oscillation of individual bubbles in otherwise quiescent fluids. The following chapters summarise the motion of bubbles in liquids, describe some of the phenomena that occur in homogeneous bubbly flows, with emphasis on cloud cavitation, and summarise some of the experimental observations of cavitating flows. The last chapter provides a review of free streamline methods used to treat separated cavity flows with large attached cavities.

Crystal Growth For Beginners Fundamentals Of Nucleation Crystal Growth And Epitaxy Third Edition

Crystal Growth For Beginners  Fundamentals Of Nucleation  Crystal Growth And Epitaxy  Third Edition Author Markov Ivan Vesselinov
ISBN-10 9789813143869
Release 2016-12-29
Pages 632
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The processes of new phase formation and growth are of fundamental importance in numerous rapidly developing scientific fields such as modern materials science, micro- and optoelectronics, and environmental science. Crystal Growth for Beginners combines the depth of information in monographs, with the thorough analysis of review papers, and presents the resulting content at a level understandable by beginners in science. The book covers, in practice, all fundamental questions and aspects of nucleation, crystal growth, and epitaxy. This book is a non-eclectic presentation of this interdisciplinary topic in materials science. The third edition brings existing chapters up to date, and includes new chapters on the growth of nanowires by the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism, as well as illustrated short biographical texts about the scientists who introduced the basic ideas and concepts into the fields of nucleation, crystal growth and epitaxy. All formulae and equations are illustrated by examples that are of technological importance. The book presents not only the fundamentals but also the state of the art in the subject. Crystal Growth for Beginners is a valuable reference for both graduate students and researchers in materials science. The reader is required to possess some basic knowledge of mathematics, physics and thermodynamics.

Statistical Physics of Fluids

Statistical Physics of Fluids Author Vitaly Kalikmanov
ISBN-10 9783662045367
Release 2013-03-14
Pages 260
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The focus is on the main physical ideas and mathematical methods of the microscopic theory of fluids, starting with the basic principles of statistical mechanics. The detailed derivation of results is accompanied by explanation of their physical meaning. The same approach refers to several specialized topics of the liquid state, most of which are recent developments, such as: a perturbation approach to the surface tension, an algebraic perturbation theory of polar nonpolarizable fluids and ferrocolloids, a semi-phenomenological theory of the Tolman length and some others.

Selforganization by nonlinear irreversible processes

Selforganization by nonlinear irreversible processes Author Werner Ebeling
ISBN-10 UOM:39015012445402
Release 1986
Pages 221
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Selforganization by nonlinear irreversible processes has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Selforganization by nonlinear irreversible processes also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Selforganization by nonlinear irreversible processes book for free.

Australian Journal of Physics

Australian Journal of Physics Author
ISBN-10 CORNELL:31924074054341
Release 1996
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Australian Journal of Physics has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Australian Journal of Physics also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Australian Journal of Physics book for free.

An Introduction to Physics and Technology of Thin Films

An Introduction to Physics and Technology of Thin Films Author Alfred Wagendristel
ISBN-10 9810216165
Release 1994
Pages 147
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Based on lecture notes that have been used successfully by the authors for the past 10 years, with revisions made each year, this book is aimed at graduate students as well as professionals and researchers involved in thin film physics and technology. It is concise, comprehensive and well organized. The first part of the book introduces the concept, describes the various deposition procedures and illustrates PVD methods, evaporation and sputtering. The basic physical processes of film formation are then analyzed and formulated, including methods for monitoring and measuring film thickness. This book also shows how the subject matter connects with, relates and applies to other fields. In the second part of the book, 3 special topics ? ferromagnetic films, diffusion in thin films and mechanical properties of thin films ? are discussed.Given its wide scope, this book is relevant not just to those involved in materials science but also to engineers as well.