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Occupational Exposure Assessment for Air Contaminants

Occupational Exposure Assessment for Air Contaminants Author Gurumurthy Ramachandran
ISBN-10 9781420032154
Release 2005-03-24
Pages 360
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Over the last three decades, significant progress has been made not only in the technology of measuring air contaminants but also in the statistical descriptions of exposure distributions and exposure assessment strategies. Occupational Exposures for Air Contaminants addresses the various aspects of occupational exposure assessment for air contaminants as a coherent body of knowledge. It is the first book to explore occupational air contaminant measurement and properties, human exposure assessment, design of exposure strategies, and the statistical interpretation of exposure measurements in one comprehensive source. The book describes the process of obtaining a number that represents the value of exposure to an air contaminant and the science and technology underlying this process. It includes a discussion of sources of variability in exposures, the statistics of exposure distributions, and exposure assessment strategies for routine monitoring as well as occupational epidemiology. The book's all-inclusive exploration of the major theories and practices of occupational exposure assessment for air contaminants make this an ideal textbook for a graduate or upper-level undergraduate course on occupational exposure assessment of airborne contaminants.



Assessment of Ambient and Occupational Exposures to Air Contaminants from Wildland Fire Smoke

Assessment of Ambient and Occupational Exposures to Air Contaminants from Wildland Fire Smoke Author Kathleen McGuire Navarro
ISBN-10 OCLC:994290198
Release 2016
Pages 98
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This dissertation combines traditional methods of exposure assessment with new approaches to evaluate exposures in community and occupational settings to air contaminants commonly emitted from wildland fires and found in the ambient environment. Wildland fires emit large amounts of air pollutants known to cause adverse health effects. Past exposure assessments of wildland fires have measured levels of fine and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5-PM4), acrolein, benzene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, crystalline silica, total particulates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). I evaluated exposures to air pollutants associated with wildland fires, specifically PM2.5 and PAHs at different exposure receptor levels - in communities near a wildland fire, occupational exposures of wildland firefighters, and biomarkers of exposure in the US population. First, I evaluated air quality impacts of PM2.5 from smoke from a mega wildland fire on receptor areas in California and Nevada. The 2013 Rim Fire was the third largest wildland fire in California history and burned 257,314 acres in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. This project employed two approaches to examine the air quality impacts, (1) an evaluation of PM2.5 concentration data collected by temporary and permanent air monitoring sites and (2) an estimation of intake fraction (iF) of PM2.5 from smoke. The Rim Fire impacted locations in the central Sierra nearest to the fire and extended to northern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and Nevada monitoring sites. Daily 24-hr average PM2.5 concentrations measured at 22 air monitors had an average concentration of 20 [mu]g/m3 and ranged from 0 to 450 [mu]g/m3. iF for PM2.5 from smoke during the active fire period was 7.4 per million, which is slightly higher to representative iF for PM2.5 in rural areas and much lower than for urban areas. This study is a unique application of intake fraction to examine emissions-to-exposure for wildfires and emphasizes that air quality cannot only be localized to communities near large fires but can extend long distances and impact larger urban areas. Next, I characterized exposures of wildland firefighters during wildland fire and prescribed fires to PAHs, explore associations between exposure and firefighting job tasks, and examine off-duty and community PAH and PM2.5 concentrations. Wildland firefighters working to control wildland fires work long shifts and are exposed to high levels of wood smoke with no respiratory protection. PAHs were measured on 21 wildland firefighters (N=28) while suppressing two wildland fires and 4 wildland firefighters conducting prescribed burns in California. Personal air samples were collected using actively sampled XAD-coated quartz fiber filters. Filters in cassette cases were attached to the back of each wildland firefighter's backpack. Community-level PAH air samples were collected for the first 12 days of a wildland fire and were collocated with a PM2.5 sampler. Samples were analyzed for 17 individual PAHs through extraction with dichloromethane and analyzed on a gas chromatograph with a mass selective detector. I detected measurable concentrations of 17 PAHs in personal samples on firefighters at prescribed and wildland fires and in area samples at a community nearby a wildland fire. Naphthalene, retene, and phenanthrene were consistently the highest measured PAHs at all three sampling scenarios. PAH concentrations were higher at wildland fires compared to prescribed fires and were highest for firefighters during job tasks that involve the most direct contact with smoke near an actively burning wildland fire. Although concentrations do not exceed current occupational exposure limits, wildland firefighters are exposed to PAHs not only on the fire line at wildland fires, but also while working prescribed burns and while off-duty. It is important to characterize exposures from wildland fires to better understand any potential long-term health effects. Lastly, I evaluated predictors of urinary PAH concentrations in 2001-2006 NHANES participants from a variety of sources including demographic information, food intake, housing characteristics, and modeled outdoor air pollutant exposures. Biomonitoring data provides a direct way to link human exposure to environmental contaminants. However, these data do not reveal how various exposure routes or media contribute to the body burden of a specific chemical. NHANES participants were linked to their census tract-level daily PM2.5 exposure estimate, outdoor temperature, and annual air toxics concentrations. Multivariate linear regression models were developed using the Deletion/Substitution/ Addition algorithm to predict urinary PAH levels using NHANES questionnaire data for model selection in all and non-smoking adult NHANES participants. Exposure parameters were then added to each model. Model fit was assessed by comparing the R2 for each model tested. Exposure to PM2.5 and air toxics emissions were not associated with levels of urinary PAH metabolites. In the analysis current smoking status was the strongest predictor of PAH biomarker concentration and was able to explain 10% - 47% of the variability of PAH biomarker concentrations. The DSA selected models did not improve prediction in the "all adults" analysis. They were able to explain 10% - 51% of the variability of PAH biomarker concentrations in all adults. Among non-smokers, the DSA selected variables only explained 2% - 5% of the variability in biomarker concentrations. Further studies of routes of exposure of PAHs should be completed to understand how PAHs in the environment are contributing to the body burden of PAH. This study demonstrated how a rich dataset of biomarkers with individual information on demographics, food intake, and air pollution exposures can be used to examine the contribution of each route of exposure on the body burden. With the predicted increase of fire season in the western United States due to climate change resulting in more acres burned and smoke produced, it is important to quantify the air quality impacts from wildfires to develop effective strategies to protect public and wildland firefighter health. These methods outlined in this dissertation can be used to better estimate short-term and long-term health risks, so that public and occupational health practitioners, air quality regulators, and natural resource managers can develop mitigation strategies to reduce exposure to wildland fire smoke.



Air Pollution and Health

Air Pollution and Health Author Stephen T. Holgate
ISBN-10 9780080526928
Release 1999-04-21
Pages 1065
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Concern about the impact of air pollution has led governments and local authorities across the world to regulate, among other things, the burning of fossil fuels, industrial effluence, cigarette smoke, and aerosols. This legislation has often followed dramatic findings about the impact of pollution on human health. At the same time there have been significant developments in our ability to detect and quantify pollutants and a proliferation of urban and rural air pollution networks to monitor levels of atmospheric contamination. Air Pollution and Health is the first fully comprehensive and current account of air pollution science and it impact on human health. It ranges in scope from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and particle physics to the causes and scope of allergic reactions and respiratory, cardiovascular, and related disorders. The book has substantial international coverage and includes sections on cost implications, risk assessment, regulation, standards, and information networks. The multidisciplinary approach and the wide range of issues covered makes this an essential book for all concerned with monitoring and regulating air pollution as well as those concerned with its impact on human health. Only comprehensive text covering all the important air pollutants and relating these to human health and regulatory bodies Brings together a wide range of issues concerning air pollution in an easily accessible format Contributions from government agencies in the US and UK provide information on public policy and resource networks in the areas of health promotion and environmental protection



Risk Assessment and Indoor Air Quality

Risk Assessment and Indoor Air Quality Author Elizabeth L. Anderson
ISBN-10 1420048473
Release 1998-08-28
Pages 272
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With the recent tightening of air quality standards as mandated by the U.S. EPA, has come great pressure on regulatory bodies at all levels of government, along with the industries and groups affected by these standards, to better assess the hazards and risks that result from air pollutants. Risk Assessment and Indoor Air Quality carefully ties together the tools and methodologies of Risk Assessment to the study of indoor air quality. This informative text takes a look at the problem of long-term exposure to low-level concentrations of toxins. In addition to commonly found toxins, such as chemical fumes from furnishings and carpeting, and indoor use of pesticides, this unique volume discusses risks associated with exposure to indoor allergens and infectious disease pathogens such as Legionnaires Disease. Because few scientific models exist for understanding the dynamics of indoor air quality, Risk Assessment and Indoor Air Quality is an essential resource for all students and professionals involved evaluating, testing and monitoring indoor air quality.



Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants Author Committee on Advances in Assessing Human Exposure to Airborne Pollutants
ISBN-10 9780309042840
Release 1991-01-01
Pages 344
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Most people in the United States spend far more time indoors than outdoors. Yet, many air pollution regulations and risk assessments focus on outdoor air. These often overlook contact with harmful contaminants that may be at their most dangerous concentrations indoors. A new book from the National Research Council explores the need for strategies to address indoor and outdoor exposures and examines the methods and tools available for finding out where and when significant exposures occur. The volume includes: A conceptual framework and common terminology that investigators from different disciplines can use to make more accurate assessments of human exposure to airborne contaminants. An update of important developments in assessing exposure to airborne contaminants: ambient air sampling and physical chemical measurements, biological markers, questionnaires, time-activity diaries, and modeling. A series of examples of how exposure assessments have been applied--properly and improperly--to public health issues and how the committee's suggested framework can be brought into practice. This volume will provide important insights to improve risk assessment, risk management, pollution control, and regulatory programs.



Patty s Industrial Hygiene 4 Volume Set

Patty s Industrial Hygiene  4 Volume Set Author Vernon E. Rose
ISBN-10 9780470769539
Release 2011-02-14
Pages 3200
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Since the first edition in 1948, Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology has become a flagship publication for Wiley. In the course of its nearly six decades in print, it has evolved into a standard reference for the fields of occupational health and toxicology. The volumes on Industrial Hygiene are cornerstone reference works for chemists, engineers, toxicologists, and occupational safety personnel. Since the 5th edition was published, the field of IH has changed with personnel often working for multinational firms, self-employed, at small consulting firms. Their environment has changed and expanded, and thus also the types of information and resources required have changed. The traditional areas of interest to occupational health and safety professionals include anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of potential hazards. In addition to these, the 6th edition provides information and reliable resources to prepare for natural disasters, exposures to biological agents and potential acts of terrorism.



Exposure Assessment in Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology

Exposure Assessment in Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Author Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen
ISBN-10 0191015687
Release 2003-08-07
Pages 298
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Set against a background of growing public, media and political concern about occupational and environmental health issues, and a scientific need to better understand and explain the effects of pollutants on human health, this book is a unique resource. Contributions from an expert panel of international practitioners provide a comprehensive reference on the state of the art methods and applications in the field of occupational and environmental pollution and the adverse health effects, particularly the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. Risks associated with occupational and environmental exposure are generally small, but the exposed population, and hence the population attributable risk, may be large. To detect small risk, the exposure assessment needs to be very refined. Exposure assessment is the study of the distribution and determinants of potentially hazardous agents, and includes the estimation of intensity, duration and frequency of exposure, the variation in these indices and their determinants. The aim of this book is to develop an understanding and knowledge of exposure assessment methods and their application to substantive issues in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The emphasis is on methodological principles and good practice. It is focused on exposure assessment in both occupational and environmental epidemiology since there are many similarities but also some interesting differences. The book outlines the basic principles of exposure assessment, and examines the current status and research questions in the exposure assessment of occupational and environmental epidemiological studies of allergens, particulate matter, chlorination disinfection by-products, agricultural pesticides and radiofrequencies. The book will be of interest to all concerned with exposure assessment and epidemiology. It will be a valuable source for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in exposure assessment, occupational hygiene, environmental science, epidemiology, toxicology, biostatistics, occupational and environmental health, health risk assessment and related disciplines and a useful resource of reference for policy makers and regulators.



Chemical Risk Assessment and Occupational Health

Chemical Risk Assessment and Occupational Health Author C. Mark Smith
ISBN-10 086569219X
Release 1994-01-01
Pages 273
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One-liner: A major examination of the strengths and limitations associated with the use of risk assessment in occupational health.



Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology

Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Author Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen
ISBN-10 9780199378807
Release 2015-07-08
Pages 352
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This completely updated edition of Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology offers a practical introduction to exposure assessment methodologies in environmental epidemiologic studies. In addition to methods for traditional methods -- questionnaires, biomonitoring -- this new edition is expanded to include geographic information systems, modeling, personal sensoring, remote sensing, and OMICs technologies. In addition, each of these methods is contextualized within a recent epidemiology study, maximizing illustration for students and those new to these to these techniques. With clear writing and extensive illustration, this book will be useful to anyone interested in exposure assessment, regardless of background.



Assessment of Exposure to Indoor Air Pollutants

Assessment of Exposure to Indoor Air Pollutants Author Matti Jantunen
ISBN-10 9289013427
Release 1997-01-01
Pages 139
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Most people spend most of their time indoors, and the poor quality of the indoor environment is a strong determinant of a variety of health problems. The principal way of preventing adverse health effects is to eliminate exposure to hazardous factors. But first, standardized methods of assessing exposure are necessary to assess the risk to health and to select optimal risk management actions. This book aims to facilitate the implementation of exposure assessment methods in public health practice.



Pollution Abstracts

Pollution Abstracts Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105009011912
Release 1993
Pages
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Indexes material from conference proceedings and hard-to-find documents, in addition to journal articles. Over 1,000 journals are indexed and literature published from 1981 to the present is covered. Topics in pollution and its management are extensively covered from the standpoints of atmosphere, emissions, mathematical models, effects on people and animals, and environmental action. Major areas of coverage include: air pollution, marine pollution, freshwater pollution, sewage and wastewater treatment, waste management, land pollution, toxicology and health, noise, and radiation.



Applications of Toxicogenomics in Safety Evaluation and Risk Assessment

Applications of Toxicogenomics in Safety Evaluation and Risk Assessment Author Darrell R. Boverhof
ISBN-10 1118008987
Release 2011-10-11
Pages 392
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This book provides a timely overview of toxicogenomics, with special emphasis on the practical applications of this technology to the risk assessment process. Introductory sections are followed by a series of chapters highlighting practical and systematic applications of toxicogenomics in informing the risk assessment process – including the areas of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, endocrine toxicity, organ-specific toxicity, population monitoring, and ecotoxicology. The book concludes with approaches for the integration of this technology in safety evaluation studies, and an outlook on how toxicogenomics and complementary technologies can reframe the current risk assessment paradigm.



Risk Assessment of Urban Air

Risk Assessment of Urban Air Author
ISBN-10 NWU:35556032008989
Release 1994
Pages 218
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Risk Assessment of Urban Air has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Risk Assessment of Urban Air also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Risk Assessment of Urban Air book for free.



Essential Resources for Industrial Hygiene

Essential Resources for Industrial Hygiene Author Michael K. Harris
ISBN-10 9780932627988
Release 2000-01-01
Pages 350
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Essential Resources for Industrial Hygiene has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Essential Resources for Industrial Hygiene also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Essential Resources for Industrial Hygiene book for free.



Safety Evaluation of Certain Contaminants in Food

Safety Evaluation of Certain Contaminants in Food Author
ISBN-10 9251054266
Release 2006
Pages 778
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Safety Evaluation of Certain Contaminants in Food has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Safety Evaluation of Certain Contaminants in Food also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Safety Evaluation of Certain Contaminants in Food book for free.



Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Author Charles N. Haas
ISBN-10 9781118910023
Release 2014-06-09
Pages 440
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Provides the latest QMRA methodologies to determine infection risk cause by either accidental microbial infections or deliberate infections caused by terrorism • Reviews the latest methodologies to quantify at every step of the microbial exposure pathways, from the first release of a pathogen to the actual human infection • Provides techniques on how to gather information, on how each microorganism moves through the environment, how to determine their survival rates on various media, and how people are exposed to the microorganism • Explains how QMRA can be used as a tool to measure the impact of interventions and identify the best policies and practices to protect public health and safety • Includes new information on genetic methods • Techniques use to develop risk models for drinking water, groundwater, recreational water, food and pathogens in the indoor environment



Cancer Risk Assessment

Cancer Risk Assessment Author Ching-Hung Hsu
ISBN-10 1118035127
Release 2010-12-08
Pages 824
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With a weight-of-the-evidence approach, cancer risk assessment indentifies hazards, determines dose-response relationships, and assesses exposure to characterize the true risk. This book focuses on the quantitative methods for conducting chemical cancer risk assessments for solvents, metals, mixtures, and nanoparticles. It links these to the basic toxicology and biology of cancer, along with the impacts on regulatory guidelines and standards. By providing insightful perspective, Cancer Risk Assessment helps researchers develop a discriminate eye when it comes to interpreting data accurately and separating relevant information from erroneous.