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Optical Precursors

Optical Precursors Author JF Chen
ISBN-10 9789814451949
Release 2013-07-13
Pages 79
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Ever since Einstein’s special relativity in 1905, the principle of invariant light speed in vacuum has been attracting attention from a wide range of disciplines. How to interpret the principle of light speed? Is light referred to continuous light, or light pulse with definite boundaries? Recent discovery of superluminal medium triggered vigorous discussion within the Physics community. Can communication via such “superluminal channel” break the speed limit and thus violate causality principle? Or, will a single photon, which is not governed by classical laws of Physics, tend to break the speed limit? To solve these problems, this Brief brings in Optical Precursors, the theoretical works for which started as early as 1914. This is a typical optical phenomenon combining wave propagation theory and light-wave interaction. Both theory and experimental works are covered in this Brief. The study of precursor verifies that the effective information carried by light pulses can never exceed the speed of light in vacuum- c. Further, through observation from nonclassical single photon source, the precursor rules out the probability of a single photon traveling with the speed, breaking the classical limit.



One Dimensional nanostructures

One Dimensional nanostructures Author Zhenyu Li
ISBN-10 9783642364273
Release 2013-03-21
Pages 141
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One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is a comprehensive book depicting the electrospinning technique and related 1D unique electrospun nanofibers. The first part of the book focuses on electrospinning technique, with chapters describing Electrospinning setup, electrospinning theories, and related working parameter. The second part of the book describes in detail specific topics on how to control the electrospun fiber properties such as how to control the fiber direction, how to control the fiber surface morphology, how to control the fiber structure, and how to construct 3D structures by electrospun fibers. The final part of the book depicts the applications of the electrospun nanofibers, with sections describing in detail specific fields such as electrospun nanofiber reinforcement, filtration, electronic devices, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, biomedical field, and so on. One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is designed to bring state-of-the-art on electrospinning together into a single book and will be valuable resource for scientists in the electrospinning field and other scientists involved in biomedical field, mechanical field, materials, and energy field. Dr. Zhenyu Li is an associate professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China. Currently, he also holds the position in Australian Future Fibres Research & Innovation Centre, Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Dr. Ce Wang is a professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.



The Chemical History of Color

The Chemical History of Color Author Mary Virginia Orna
ISBN-10 9783642326424
Release 2012-10-05
Pages 153
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In this brief, Mary Virginia Orna details the history of color from the chemical point of view. Beginning with the first recorded uses of color and ending in the development of our modern chemical industry, this rich, yet concise exposition shows us how color pervades every aspect of our lives. Our consciousness, our perceptions, our useful appliances and tools, our playthings, our entertainment, our health, and our diagnostic apparatus – all involve color and are based in no small part on chemistry.



Quantum Correlations Beyond Entanglement

Quantum Correlations Beyond Entanglement Author Alexander Streltsov
ISBN-10 9783319096568
Release 2014-11-01
Pages 48
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Quantum correlations are not restricted to the well known entanglement investigated in Bell-type experiments. Other forms of correlations, for example quantum discord, have recently been shown to play an important role in several aspects of quantum information theory. First experiments also support these findings. This book is an introduction into this up-and-coming research field and its likely impact on quantum technology. After giving a general introduction to the concept of quantum correlations and their role in quantum information theory, the author describes a number of pertinent results and their implications.



Applications of Graphene

Applications of Graphene Author Edward L. Wolf
ISBN-10 9783319039466
Release 2014-01-04
Pages 84
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Graphene is presented and analyzed as a replacement for silicon. The Primary focus is on solar cell and CMOS device technologies, with attention to the fabrication methods, including extensions needed, in each case. Specialized applications for graphene within the existing silicon technology are discussed and found to be promising.



How to Do Science with Models

How to Do Science with Models Author Axel Gelfert
ISBN-10 9783319279541
Release 2015-12-21
Pages 135
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Taking scientific practice as its starting point, this book charts the complex territory of models used in science. It examines what scientific models are and what their function is. Reliance on models is pervasive in science, and scientists often need to construct models in order to explain or predict anything of interest at all. The diversity of kinds of models one finds in science – ranging from toy models and scale models to theoretical and mathematical models – has attracted attention not only from scientists, but also from philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science. This has given rise to a wide variety of case studies that look at the different uses to which models have been put in specific scientific contexts. By exploring current debates on the use and building of models via cutting-edge examples drawn from physics and biology, the book provides broad insight into the methodology of modelling in the natural sciences. It pairs specific arguments with introductory material relating to the ontology and the function of models, and provides some historical context to the debates as well as a sketch of general positions in the philosophy of scientific models in the process.



Mapping Archaeological Landscapes from Space

Mapping Archaeological Landscapes from Space Author Douglas C Comer
ISBN-10 9781461460749
Release 2013-01-10
Pages 276
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Mapping Archaeological Landscapes from Space offers a concise overview of air and spaceborne imagery and related geospatial technologies tailored to the needs of archaeologists. Leading experts including scientists involved in NASA’s Space Archaeology program provide technical introductions to five sections: 1) Historic Air and Spaceborne Imagery 2) Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery 3) Synthetic Aperture Radar 4) Lidar 5) Archaeological Site Detection and Modeling Each of these five sections includes two or more case study applications that have enriched understanding of archaeological landscapes in regions including the Near East, East Asia, Europe, Meso- and North America. Targeted to the needs of researchers and heritage managers as well as graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this volume conveys a basic technological sense of what is currently possible and, it is hoped, will inspire new pioneering applications. Particular attention is paid to the tandem goals of research (understanding) and archaeological heritage management (preserving) the ancient past. The technologies and applications presented can be used to characterize environments, detect archaeological sites, model sites and settlement patterns and, more generally, reveal the dialectic landscape-scale dynamics among ancient peoples and their social and environmental surroundings. In light of contemporary economic development and resultant damage to and destruction of archaeological sites and landscapes, applications of air and spaceborne technologies in archaeology are of wide utility and promoting understanding of them is a particularly appropriate goal at the 40th anniversary of the World Heritage Convention.​



Nanoscale Thermoelectrics

Nanoscale Thermoelectrics Author Xiaodong Wang
ISBN-10 9783319020129
Release 2013-11-18
Pages 519
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For the efficient utilization of energy resources and the minimization of environmental damage, thermoelectric materials can play an important role by converting waste heat into electricity directly. Nanostructured thermoelectric materials have received much attention recently due to the potential for enhanced properties associated with size effects and quantum confinement. Nanoscale Thermoelectrics describes the theory underlying these phenomena, as well as various thermoelectric materials and nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, SiGe nanowires, and graphene nanoribbons. Chapters written by leading scientists throughout the world are intended to create a fundamental bridge between thermoelectrics and nanotechnology, and to stimulate readers' interest in developing new types of thermoelectric materials and devices for power generation and other applications. Nanoscale Thermoelectrics is both a comprehensive introduction to the field and a guide to further research, and can be recommended for Physics, Electrical Engineering, and Materials Science departments.



Amorphous Silicon Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

Amorphous Silicon   Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells Author Wolfgang Rainer Fahrner
ISBN-10 9783642370397
Release 2013-04-23
Pages 111
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Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to “fill in the blanks” on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.



Silicon Nano biotechnology

Silicon Nano biotechnology Author Yao He
ISBN-10 9783642546686
Release 2014-04-02
Pages 109
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This book reviews the latest advances in the development of silicon nano-biotechnology for biological and biomedical applications, which include biosensing, bioimaging, and cancer therapy. In this book, newly developed silicon nano-biotechnology and its biomedical applications are systematically introduced. For instance, fluorescent silicon nanoparticles, serving as novel high-performance biological nanoprobes, are superbly suited to real-time and long-term bioimaging. Silicon nanowire-based sensing platform is especially capable of sensitive, specific, and multiplexed detection of various biological species. Silicon-based nanocarriers with ultra-high drug-loading capacity are highly efficacious for in vitro and in vivo cancer therapies. This book is intended for readers who are interested in the design of functional silicon nanostructures and their biological and biomedical applications. It uses silicon nanoparticles and silicon nanowires as models and discusses topics ranging from their synthesis to their biological applications, the goal being to highlight these exciting achievements as starting points in the field of silicon nano-biotechnology. Yao He is a Professor at Institute of Functional Nano&Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, China. Yuanyuan Su is an Associate Professor at Institute of Functional Nano&Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, China.



Climate Fire and Human Evolution

Climate  Fire and Human Evolution Author Andrew Y. Glikson
ISBN-10 9783319225128
Release 2015-11-04
Pages 227
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The book outlines principal milestones in the evolution of the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere during the last 4 million years in relation with the evolution from primates to the genus Homo – which uniquely mastered the ignition and transfer of fire. The advent of land plants since about 420 million years ago ensued in flammable carbon-rich biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Born on a flammable Earth surface, under increasingly unstable climates descending from the warmer Pliocene into the deepest ice ages of the Pleistocene, human survival depended on both—biological adaptations and cultural evolution, mastering fire as a necessity. This allowed the genus to increase entropy in nature by orders of magnitude. Gathered around camp fires during long nights for hundreds of thousandth of years, captivated by the flickering life-like dance of the flames, humans developed imagination, insights, cravings, fears, premonitions of death and thereby aspiration for immortality, omniscience, omnipotence and the concept of god. Inherent in pantheism was the reverence of the Earth, its rocks and its living creatures, contrasted by the subsequent rise of monotheistic sky-god creeds which regard Earth as but a corridor to heaven. Once the climate stabilized in the early Holocene, since about ~7000 years-ago production of excess food by Neolithic civilization along the Great River Valleys has allowed human imagination and dreams to express themselves through the construction of monuments to immortality. Further to burning large part of the forests, the discovery of combustion and exhumation of carbon from the Earth’s hundreds of millions of years-old fossil biospheres set the stage for an anthropogenic oxidation event, affecting an abrupt shift in state of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere system. The consequent ongoing extinction equals the past five great mass extinctions of species—constituting a geological event horizon in the history of planet Earth.



Industry Interactive Innovations in Science Engineering and Technology

Industry Interactive Innovations in Science  Engineering and Technology Author Swapan Bhattacharyya
ISBN-10 9789811039539
Release 2017-07-22
Pages 620
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The book is a collection of peer-reviewed scientific papers submitted by active researchers in the International Conference on Industry Interactive Innovation in Science, Engineering and Technology (I3SET 2016). The conference is a collective initiative of all departments and disciplines of JIS College of Engineering (an autonomous institution), Kalyani, West Bengal, India. The primary objective of the conference is to strengthen interdisciplinary research and encourage innovation in a demand-driven way as desired by the industry for escalating technology for mankind. A galaxy of academicians, professionals, scientists, industry people and researchers from different parts of the country and abroad shared and contributed their knowledge. The major areas of I3SET 2016 include nonconventional energy and advanced power systems; nanotechnology and applications; pattern recognition and machine intelligence; digital signal and image processing; modern instrumentation, control, robotics and automation; civil engineering and structural design; real-time and embedded systems, communication and devices; advanced optimization techniques; biotechnology, biomedical instrumentation and bioinformatics; and outcome based education.



Handbook of Adhesion Technology

Handbook of Adhesion Technology Author Lucas F. M. da Silva
ISBN-10 9783642011689
Release 2011-06-10
Pages 1554
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Adhesives have been used for thousands of years, but until 100 years ago, the vast majority was from natural products such as bones, skins, fish, milk, and plants. Since about 1900, adhesives based on synthetic polymers have been introduced, and today, there are many industrial uses of adhesives and sealants. It is difficult to imagine a product—in the home, in industry, in transportation, or anywhere else for that matter—that does not use adhesives or sealants in some manner. The Handbook of Adhesion Technology is intended to be the definitive reference in the field of adhesion. Essential information is provided for all those concerned with the adhesion phenomenon. Adhesion is a phenomenon of interest in diverse scientific disciplines and of importance in a wide range of technologies. Therefore, this handbook includes the background science (physics, chemistry and materials science), engineering aspects of adhesion and industry specific applications. It is arranged in a user-friendly format with ten main sections: theory of adhesion, surface treatments, adhesive and sealant materials, testing of adhesive properties, joint design, durability, manufacture, quality control, applications and emerging areas. Each section contains about five chapters written by internationally renowned authors who are authorities in their fields. This book is intended to be a reference for people needing a quick, but authoritative, description of topics in the field of adhesion and the practical use of adhesives and sealants. Scientists and engineers of many different backgrounds who need to have an understanding of various aspects of adhesion technology will find it highly valuable. These will include those working in research or design, as well as others involved with marketing services. Graduate students in materials, processes and manufacturing will also want to consult it.



Nanobiomaterials

Nanobiomaterials Author Xiumei Wang
ISBN-10 9783527698653
Release 2017-11-21
Pages 238
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Written by an international team of editors and contributors from renowned universities and institutes, this book addresses the latest research in the field of nanobiomaterials, covering nanotechnologies for their fabrication, developments in biomedical applications, and the challenges of biosafety in clinic uses. Clearly structured, the volume defines the scope and classification of the field, resulting in a broad overview from fundamental principles to current technological advances, and from materials synthesis to biomedical applications along with future trends.



Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing and Communication Systems

Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing and Communication Systems Author J. K. Mandal
ISBN-10 9789811068904
Release 2018-03-29
Pages 857
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The volume contains latest research work presented at International Conference on Computing and Communication Systems (I3CS 2016) held at North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong, India. The book presents original research results, new ideas and practical development experiences which concentrate on both theory and practices. It includes papers from all areas of information technology, computer science, electronics and communication engineering written by researchers, scientists, engineers and scholar students and experts from India and abroad.



Algal Biorefineries

Algal Biorefineries Author Rakesh K. Bajpai
ISBN-10 9789400774940
Release 2013-10-01
Pages 324
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This book reviews efforts to produce chemicals and fuels from forest and plant products, agricultural residues and more. Algae can potentially capture solar energy and atmospheric CO2; the book details needed research and legislative initiatives.



Gold Nanostars

Gold Nanostars Author Giuseppe Chirico
ISBN-10 9783319207681
Release 2015-08-03
Pages 80
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This Brief focuses on the synthesis, functionalization techniques, optical properties and biomedical application of gold nanostars (GNS). Various facilities of gold nanostars synthesis as well as functionalization of GNS with PEG, organic dyes, bioactive compounds are discussed. The authors discuss physical origin of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances and the way the nano-environment affects them. The implication of the LSPR of gold nanostars surface enhanced Raman scattering is also discussed. The emphasis has been done on the application of GNS for current and emerge needs of medicine, biology and pharmacy. Moreover, properties of gold nanostars as contrast agents for in vivo imaging and interaction of GNS with cells are also discussed in this Brief.