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Organic Photochromic and Thermochromic Compounds

Organic Photochromic and Thermochromic Compounds Author John C. Crano
ISBN-10 9780306469114
Release 2006-04-11
Pages 378
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This major treatise on photochromism involving organic molecules and derived systems offers a detailed examination of the synthesis and specific photochromic properties of the best-known photochromic and thermochromic compounds. It includes practical information and commercial applications for known photochromic families.



Fluoropolymers 1

Fluoropolymers 1 Author Gareth Hougham
ISBN-10 9780306460609
Release 1999-10-31
Pages 329
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The fluorine atom, by virtue of its electronegativity, size and bond strength with carbon, can be used to create compounds with remarkable properties. This book is an attempt to bring together in one place, the chemistry, physics and engineering properties of fluoropolymers.



Subject Guide to Books in Print

Subject Guide to Books in Print Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105025888533
Release 2003
Pages
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Subject Guide to Books in Print has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Subject Guide to Books in Print also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Subject Guide to Books in Print book for free.



Photochromic Materials

Photochromic Materials Author He Tian
ISBN-10 9783527683727
Release 2016-06-16
Pages 440
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Summarizing all the latest trends and recent topics in one handy volume, this book covers everything needed for a solid understanding of photochromic materials. Following a general introduction to organic photochromic materials, the authors move on to discuss not only the underlying theory but also the properties of such materials. After a selection of pplications, they look at the latest achievements in traditional solution-phase applications, including photochromic-based molecular logic operations and memory, optically modulated supramolecular system and sensors, as well as light-tunable chemical reactions. The book then describes the hotspot areas of photo-switchable surfaces and nanomaterials, photochromic-based luminescence/electronic devices and bulk materials together with light-regulated biological and bio-chemical systems. The authors conclude with a focus on current industrial applications and the future outlook for these materials. Written with both senior researchers and entrants to the field in mind.



European Journal of Organic Chemistry

European Journal of Organic Chemistry Author
ISBN-10 CHI:81572705
Release 2007
Pages
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European Journal of Organic Chemistry has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from European Journal of Organic Chemistry also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full European Journal of Organic Chemistry book for free.



Organic Photochromic and Thermochromic Compounds

Organic Photochromic and Thermochromic Compounds Author John C. Crano
ISBN-10 1475786158
Release 2013-03-23
Pages 473
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Experiments showinga rapid and reversible change ofcolor s eem likemagic and are always fascinating. The process involved, photochromism, has a few real and many potential applications. Photochromic glasses thatdarken int he s unlight (protecting eyes from excessive light intensity) and bleach ind im lighta re today a part ofe v eryday life. Organic photochromic compounds in plastic ophthalmic lenses, more comfortable to wear, are now competing with silversalts in glasses, despite the longer lifetime oft he inorganic system. This successful commercial application has given a new impetus to research in the general field of photo chromism, which had its most recent revival in the early eighties. The storyo forganic photochromism with its ups anddowns, from the breakthroughs oft he pioneering periodi n the fifties, through the hardtimes dueto the drawbacks of photodegradation, tot he recent successes is in many ways a saga. The upsurges in this domain were marked by an increasing flow of articles in scientific journals andt he publication of several books (in 1971, 1990, and 1992) that have collectedt he important accumulatedknowledge. Over this period, a considerable number ofpatents have been issued. International meetings have accompanied this activity, the most recent being held in 1993 (ISOP 93 atLes Embiez Island, France) and in 1996 (ISOP 96 inClearwater, Florida). Remark ably, these meetings had good representation from both academia and industry. The next ISOP is planned for 1999 in Fukuoka, Japan.



Chromic Phenomena

Chromic Phenomena Author Peter Bamfield
ISBN-10 9781847558688
Release 2010
Pages 562
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Chromic phenomena, or those produced by materials which exhibit colour in response to a chemical or physical stimulus, have increasingly been at the heart of 'high-tec' developments in a variety of fields in the last decade. Many of the newer technologies, which are at the cutting edge of research, are multi-disciplinary, involving researchers from areas as diverse as physics, biology, materials science and electronic engineering. Chromic Phenomena covers five main areas: Colour change materials, such as photochromic, thermochromic and electrochromic materials; Materials which absorb and reflect light - the classical dyes and pigments; Luminescent phenomena, including phosphorescence, fluorescence and electroluminescence; Materials which absorb light and transfer energy, eg photosensitisers, infra-red absorbers and laser-addressable compounds; Phenomena involving the manipulation of light by chemicals, such as liquid crystals, lustre pigments, optoelectronics and photonics Providing an entry point both for new researchers and for established ones, this book, with its emphasis on the technological applications of these chromic phenomena, develops and investigates new applications for colour chemistry. It will be of interest to industrialists and professionals in the biological, medicinal, electronics/telecommunications and colorant industries, as well as academics in these fields.



Forthcoming Books

Forthcoming Books Author R.R. Bowker Company
ISBN-10 00158119
Release 1998
Pages
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Forthcoming Books has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Forthcoming Books also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Forthcoming Books book for free.



New Frontiers in Photochromism

New Frontiers in Photochromism Author Masahiro Irie
ISBN-10 9784431542919
Release 2013-05-27
Pages 298
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Photochromism is the reversible phototransformation of a chemical species between two forms having different absorption spectra. During the phototransformation not only the absorption spectra but also various physicochemical properties change, such as the refractive index, dielectric constant, oxidation/reduction potential, and geometrical structure. The property changes can be applied to photonic equipment such as erasable memory media, photo-optical switch components, and display devices. This book compiles the accomplishments of the research project titled “New Frontiers in Photochromism” supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The project focused not only on the above-mentioned classical subjects in photochromism, such as color changes, optical memory, and optical switches, but also on fundamental physicochemical studies and unprecedented application fields that have not yet been explored in photochromism. The latter topics include light-driven mechanical motion, photocontrol of surface wettability, metal deposition on solid materials, photocontrol of chiral properties, ultrafast decoloration dyes, and femtosecond laser experiments, among others.



Emulsification and Polymerization of Alkyd Resins

Emulsification and Polymerization of Alkyd Resins Author Jan W. Gooch
ISBN-10 9780306475542
Release 2006-04-11
Pages 223
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Emulsification of vegetable oil-based resins was a daunting task when the author began his research, but the subsequent technology spawned a generation of stable emulsions for waterborne coatings based on vegetable oil-based alkyd resins, oils and fatty acids. Autoxidative polymerization of emulsified alkyd resins is an innovative and original contribution to emulsion technology, because conventional emulsion-polymerization is not applicable to alkyd resins. Emulsified alkyd particles are polymerized while dispersed in stable aqueous media—an original and patented innovation. Smooth and fa- drying alkyd coatings are generated from non-polymerized emulsions and air-dried with conventional metal driers, and have met with marketing success. The pre-polymerization innovation for emulsified alkyd particles provides very fast air-drying coatings that have potential markets for interior architectural latex coatings and waterborne pressure-sensitive adhesives and inks. The author demonstrates his knowledge of chemical reaction kinetics by employing a combination of oxygen concentration, internal reactor pressure and other reactor variables to finely control the rate and degree of autoxidative polymerization. He meticulously calculates surfactant chemistry by measuring hydrophile-lipophile balance values, and solubility parameters to emulsify characterized resins. The relationship between hydrophi- lipophile values and solubility parameters is shown in explicit equations. Homogenization equipment used during the course of this research to generate emulsions is shown in detailed drawings together with concise particle size and distribution data. The author reports research spawned internationally by his research in the fields of alkyd-acrylic hybrids, polyester and oil-modified urethane resins.



40 Days of Dating

40 Days of Dating Author Jessica Walsh
ISBN-10 9781613127155
Release 2015-01-20
Pages 304
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When New York–based graphic designers and long-time friends Timothy Goodman and Jessica Walsh found themselves single at the same time, they decided to try an experiment. The old adage says that it takes 40 days to change a habit—could the same be said for love? So they agreed to date each other for 40 days, record their experiences in questionnaires, photographs, videos, texts, and artworks, and post the material on a website they would create for this purpose. What began as a small experiment between two friends became an Internet sensation, drawing 5 million unique (and obsessed) visitors from around the globe to their site and their story since it was launched in July 2013. 40 Days of Dating: An Experiment is a beautifully designed, expanded look at the experiment and the results, including a great deal of material that never made it onto the site, such as who they were as friends and individuals before the 40 days and who they have become since. Note: 40 Days of Dating has a special binding that allows it to open very flat by attaching the endpapers to the inside covers.



Photofunctional Layered Materials

Photofunctional Layered Materials Author Dongpeng Yan
ISBN-10 9783319169910
Release 2015-05-29
Pages 242
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Chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors



Fluoropolymers 2

Fluoropolymers 2 Author Gareth G. Hougham
ISBN-10 9780306469190
Release 2006-04-11
Pages 408
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The fluorine atom, by virtue of its electronegativity, size, and bond strength with carbon, can be used to create compounds with remarkable properties. Small molecules containing fluorine have many positive impacts on everyday life of which blood substitutes, pharmaceuticals, and surface modifiers are only a few examples. Fluoropolymers, too, while traditionally associated with extreme high performance applications have found their way into our homes, our clothing, and even our language. A recent American president was often likened to the tribology of PTFE. Since the serendipitous discovery of Teflon at the DuPont Jackson Laboratory in 1938, fluoropolymers have grown steadily in technological and marketplace importance. New synthetic fluorine chemistry, new processes, and new apprecia tion of the mechanisms by which fluorine imparts exceptional properties all contribute to accelerating growth in fluoropolymers. There are many stories of harrowing close calls in the fluorine chemistry lab, especially from the early years, and synthetic challenges at times remain daunting. But, fortunately, modem techniques and facilities have enabled significant strides toward taming both the hazards and synthetic uncertainties, In contrast to past environmental problems associated with fluorocarbon refrigerants, the exceptional properties of fluorine in polymers have great environmental value. Some fluoropolymers are enabling green technologies such as hydrogen fuel cells for automobiles and oxygen selective membranes for cleaner diesel combustion.



Photokinetics

Photokinetics Author H. Mauser
ISBN-10 0080538851
Release 1998-09-02
Pages 554
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Many books cover the determination of rate constants under different experimental conditions and different chemical composition of the reaction mixture in their formal treatment of thermal kinetics. However, most textbooks are limited to simple mechanisms. In contrast, analogous treatment of photochemical reactions is limited to the publication of special reactions and investigations. Therefore, this book is aimed at providing an overall description of formal photokinetics covering a wider scope than the usual books on kinetics. This volume attempts to provide a concise treatment of both thermo- and photochemical reactions by means of generalised differential equations, their set-up in matrix notation, and their solution by a formalism using numerical integration. At a first glance this approach might be surprising. However, apart from the argument that the didactics of thermal reactions are easier to handle than those of kinetics, the book provides additional reasons in support of this approach. Therefore, the formalism derived allows the evaluation of photochemical reactions, which are superimposed thermal reactions taking into account that the amount of light absorbed varies during the reaction. Because of this, any approximation, either by using total absorbance or negligible absorbance, will cause considerable errors even for simple reactions. The approach chosen to transform the axis of the radiation time into a new variable that includes the photokinetic factor proves that formal kinetics can be applied to thermal and photochemical reactions as well, and even allows the handling of solutions that cannot be homogenised or solid samples in which the concentration varies locally. By using this approach to introduce partial photochemical quantum yields even complex mechanisms can be determined quantitatively. A large number of examples for different mechanisms and an introduction to many spectroscopic and chromatographic methods suitable for photokinetic analyses are provided to enable the reader to carry out a step-by-step evaluation of his own measurements. To reduce the number of formula in some chapters an appendix has been included which contains a detailed description of the calculus of some essential examples. For the convenience of the reader the following has been included: • A large number of examples describing the use of formula • A detailed description of the procedure for applying photokinetics to complex consecutive photoreactions • An Internet address where the reader can find a tutorial for this procedure: http://www.barolo.ipc.uni-tuebingen.de/tele/photokin/ • A simple macro to help in programming his own evaluation procedure.



Polymers and Light

Polymers and Light Author Thomas Lippert
ISBN-10 3540404716
Release 2004-03-23
Pages 361
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Polymers and Light has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Polymers and Light also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Polymers and Light book for free.



Applied Photochromic Polymer Systems

Applied Photochromic Polymer Systems Author C.B. McArdle
ISBN-10 9401053561
Release 2012-11-05
Pages 255
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Photochromic polymer systems are of two main types: those which are merely solid solutions of photochromes in polymeric matrices and those custom-designed polymers which inherently exhibit photochromism. This book provides a concise review of developments in such systems over the past two decades. The coverage has been limited specifically to applied sys tems, or areas with potential applications, although over 500 references cite much of the literature on the fundamentals of the subject. In general, non-biological organic photochromism in organic matrices has been covered. However, the unique properties of polysiloxanes merit special mention in Chapter 4, because of the attributes that such inorganic polymers can provide in certain systems such as liquid crystalline photochromic polymers, where two extremely interesting phenomena are combined. In addition to outlets in polarization-sensitive holographic recording media, such materials exhibit interesting non-linear optical effects suitable for optical switching and rheo-optical phenomena which may find application in mechano-optic transduction. Within this framework examples of all the important photochromic mechanisms are covered by authors from both the industrial and the academic sectors. Given the photonic nature of the phenomenon under discussion, it is not surprising that many optical applications have been proposed. It is perhaps more surprising, however, that, until recently, no large scale markets had been identified that could commercially exploit photochromic phenomena.



Inorganic Nanosheets and Nanosheet Based Materials

Inorganic Nanosheets and Nanosheet Based Materials Author Teruyuki Nakato
ISBN-10 9784431564966
Release 2017-05-14
Pages 670
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This book focuses on inorganic nanosheets, including various oxides, chalcogenides, and graphenes, that provide two-dimensional (2D) media to develop materials chemistry in broad fields such as electronics, photonics, environmental science, and biology. The application area of nanosheets and nanosheet-based materials covers the analytical, photochemical, optical, biological, energetic, and environmental research fields. All of these applications come from the low dimensionality of the nanosheets, which anisotropically regulate structures of solids, microspaces, and fluids. Understanding nanosheets from chemical, structural, and application aspects in relation to their "fully nanoscopic" characters will help materials scientists to develop novel advanced materials. This is the first book that accurately and concisely summarizes this field including exfoliation and intercalation chemistries of layered crystals. The book provides perspective on the materials chemistry of inorganic nanosheets. The first section describes fundamental aspects of nanosheets common to diverse applications: how unique structures and properties are obtained from nanosheets based on low dimensionality. The second section presents state-of-the-art descriptions of how the 2D nature of nanosheets is utilized in each application of the materials that are developed.