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Organic Photovoltaics

Organic Photovoltaics Author Sam-Shajing Sun
ISBN-10 1420026356
Release 2005-03-29
Pages 664
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Recently developed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) show distinct advantages over their inorganic counterparts due to their lighter weight, flexible shape, versatile materials synthesis and device fabrication schemes, and low cost in large-scale industrial production. Although many books currently exist on general concepts of PV and inorganic PV materials and devices, few are available that offer a comprehensive overview of recently fast developing organic and polymeric PV materials and devices. Organic Photovoltaics: Mechanisms, Materials, and Devices fills this gap. The book provides an international perspective on the latest research in this rapidly expanding field with contributions from top experts around the world. It presents a unified approach comprising three sections: General Overviews; Mechanisms and Modeling; and Materials and Devices. Discussions include sunlight capture, exciton diffusion and dissociation, interface properties, charge recombination and migration, and a variety of currently developing OPV materials/devices. The book also includes two forewords: one by Nobel Laureate Dr. Alan J. Heeger, and the other by Drs. Aloysius Hepp and Sheila Bailey of NASA Glenn Research Center. Organic Photovoltaics equips students, researchers, and engineers with knowledge of the mechanisms, materials, devices, and applications of OPVs necessary to develop cheaper, lighter, and cleaner renewable energy throughout the coming decades.



Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells Author Wallace C.H. Choy
ISBN-10 9781447148234
Release 2012-11-19
Pages 266
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Organic solar cells have emerged as new promising photovoltaic devices due to their potential applications in large area, printable and flexible solar panels. Organic Solar Cells: Materials and Device Physics offers an updated review on the topics covering the synthesis, properties and applications of new materials for various critical roles in devices from electrodes, interface and carrier transport materials, to the active layer composed of donors and acceptors. Addressing the important device physics issues of carrier and exciton dynamics and interface stability and novel light trapping structures, the potential for hybrid organic solar cells to provide high efficiency solar cells is examined and discussed in detail. Specific chapters covers key areas including: Latest research and designs for highly effective polymer donors/acceptors and interface materials Synthesis and application of highly transparent and conductive graphene Exciton and charge dynamics for in-depth understanding of the mechanism underlying organic solar cells. New potentials and emerging functionalities of plasmonic effects in OSCs Interface Degradation Mechanisms in organic photovoltaics improving the entire device lifetime Device architecture and operation mechanism of organic/ inorganic hybrid solar cells for next generation of high performance photovoltaics This reference can be practically and theoretically applied by senior undergraduates, postgraduates, engineers, scientists, researchers, and project managers with some fundamental knowledge in organic and inorganic semiconductor materials or devices.



Introduction to Organic Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials and Devices Second Edition

Introduction to Organic Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials and Devices  Second Edition Author Sam-Shajing Sun
ISBN-10 9781466585119
Release 2016-10-03
Pages 1069
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This book covers the combined subjects of organic electronic and optoelectronic materials/devices. It is designed for classroom instruction at the senior college level. Highlighting emerging organic and polymeric optoelectronic materials and devices, it presents the fundamentals, principle mechanisms, representative examples, and key data.



Multi Frequency EPR Spectroscopy of Conjugated Polymers and Their Nanocomposites

Multi Frequency EPR Spectroscopy of Conjugated Polymers and Their Nanocomposites Author Victor I. Krinichnyi
ISBN-10 9781315349626
Release 2016-10-14
Pages 314
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Conjugated polymeric materials and their nanocomposites are widely used for the creation of alternative sources of renewable energy, cell phone screens, mobile gadgets, video players and OLED-TV, as well as organic diodes, transistors, sensors, etc. with field-dependent and spin-assisted electronic properties. Multifrequency EPR Spectroscopy methods can help researchers optimize their structural, magnetic and electronic properties for the creation of more efficient molecular devices. This book will acquaint the reader with the basic properties of conjugated polymers, the fundamentals of EPR Spectroscopy, and the information that can be obtained at different wavebands of EPR spectroscopy.



Printable Solar Cells

Printable Solar Cells Author Nurdan Demirci Sankir
ISBN-10 9781119283737
Release 2017-04-19
Pages 576
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This book provides an overall view of the new and highly promising materials and thin film deposition techniques for printable solar cell applications. The book is organized in four parts. Organic and inorganic hybrid materials and solar cell manufacturing techniques are covered in Part I. Part II is devoted to organic materials and processing technologies like spray coating. This part also demonstrates the key features of the interface engineering for the printable organic solar cells. The main focus of the Part III is the perovskite solar cells, which is a new and promising family of the photovoltaic applications. Finally, inorganic materials and solution based thin film formation methods using these materials for printable solar cell application is discussed in Part IV.



Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion Author Tetsuo Soga
ISBN-10 0080468306
Release 2006-12-14
Pages 614
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Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion covers a wide variety of materials and device types from inorganic materials to organic materials. This book deals with basic semiconductor physics, modelling of nanostructured solar cell, nanostructure of conventional solar cells such as silicon, CIS and CdTe, dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, photosynthetic materials, fullerene, extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cell, quantum structured solar cell, intermediate band solar cell, carbon nanotube, etc. including basic principle and the latest results. There are many books written on conventional p-n junction solar cells, but few books focus on new concepts in this area. * Focuses on the use of nanostructured materials for solar energy * Looks at a wide variety of materials and device types * Covers both organic and inorganic materials



Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells Author Barry P. Rand
ISBN-10 9789814463669
Release 2014-08-26
Pages 810
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Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have the potential to make a significant contribution to the increasing energy needs of the future. In this book, 15 chapters written by selected experts explore the required characteristics of components present in an OPV device, such as transparent electrodes, electron- and hole-conducting layers, as well as electron donor and acceptor materials. Design, preparation, and evaluation of these materials targeting highest performance are discussed. This includes contributions on modeling down to the molecular level to device-level electrical and optical testing and modeling, as well as layer morphology control and characterization. The integration of the different components in device architectures suitable for mass production is described. Finally, the technical feasibility and economic viability of large-scale manufacturing using fast inexpensive roll-to-roll deposition technologies is assessed.



Optoelectronics of Molecules and Polymers

Optoelectronics of Molecules and Polymers Author André Moliton
ISBN-10 9780387251035
Release 2010-05-30
Pages 498
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Optoelectronic devices are currently being developed at an extraordinary rate. Organic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices and electro-optical modulators are pivotal to the future of displays, photosensors and solar cells, and communication technologies. This book details the theories underlying the mechanisms involved in the relevant organic materials and covers, at a basic level, how the organic components are made. The first part of the book introduces the fundamental theories used to describe ordered solids and goes onto detail on concepts applicable to localised energy levels. Then the methods used to determine energy levels particular to perfectly ordered molecular and macromolecular systems are discussed along with a detailed consideration of the effects of quasi-particles. The function of excitons and their transfer between two molecules is studied and, in addition, the problems associated with interfaces and charge injection into resistive media are presented. More technological aspects are covered in the second part, which details the actual methods used to fabricate devices based on organic materials, such as dry etching. The principal characterisation techniques are also highlighted. Specific attention is paid to visual displays using organic light-emitting diodes; the conversion of photons into electrical energy (the photovoltaic effect); and for communications and information technologies, the electro-optical modulation of signals.



Solar Cell Device Physics

Solar Cell Device Physics Author Stephen Fonash
ISBN-10 9780323154635
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 352
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Solar Cell Device Physics offers a balanced, in-depth qualitative and quantitative treatment of the physical principles and operating characteristics of solar cell devices. Topics covered include photovoltaic energy conversion and solar cell materials and structures, along with homojunction solar cells. Semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction cells and surface-barrier solar cells are also discussed. This book consists of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the basic physical principles and materials properties that are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion, with emphasis on various photovoltaic devices capable of efficiently converting solar energy into usable electrical energy. The electronic and optical properties of crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous materials with both organic and inorganic materials are considered, together with the manner in which these properties change from one material class to another and the implications of such changes for photovoltaics. Generation, recombination, and bulk transport are also discussed. The two mechanisms of photocarrier collection in solar cells, drift and diffusion, are then compared. The remaining chapters focus on specific solar cell device classes defined in terms of the interface structure employed: homojunctions, semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions, and surface-barrier devices. This monograph is appropriate for use as a textbook for graduate students in engineering and the sciences and for seniors in electrical engineering and applied physics, as well as a reference book for those actively involved in solar cell research and development.



Organic Photovoltaics

Organic Photovoltaics Author Christoph Joseph Brabec
ISBN-10 9783662051870
Release 2013-11-21
Pages 300
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The present volume describes and explains the fundamentals of organic/plastic solar cells in a manner accessible to both researchers and students. It provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of these materials and corresponding devices, which will play a key role in future solar energy systems.



Handbook of Organic Materials for Electronic and Photonic Devices

Handbook of Organic Materials for Electronic and Photonic Devices Author Oksana Ostroverkhova
ISBN-10 0081022840
Release 2019-01-19
Pages 950
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Organic materials are attractive due to their low cost, the possibility of their deposition from solution onto large-area substrates, and the ability to tailor their properties. In the second edition of Handbook of Organic Materials for Electronic and Photonic Devices experts provide an overview of the materials, mechanisms, characterization techniques, structure-property relationships and most promising applications of organic materials. The second edition includes new content on emerging organic materials, expanded content on the basic physics behind electronic properties, and new chapters on organic photonics. Advances in organic materials design, fabrication, and processing that enabled charge unprecedented carrier mobilities and power conversion efficiencies have made an update to the first edition necessary. The new edition also reflects the latest advances in understanding of underlying physics that enabled novel material design and improved organic device design. Provides a comprehensive overview of the materials, mechanisms, characterization techniques and structure property relationships of organic materials Reviews key applications including organic solar cells, light-emitting electrochemical cells, sensors, bioelectronics, memory devices and lasers New content to reflect latest advances in understanding of underlying physics to enable material design and device fabrication



Carbon Nanotechnology

Carbon Nanotechnology Author Liming Dai
ISBN-10 0080459323
Release 2006-04-18
Pages 750
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Nanotechnology is no longer a merely social talking point and is beginning to affect the lives of everyone. Carbon nanotechnology as a major shaper of new nanotechnologies has evolved into a truly interdisciplinary field, which encompasses chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, materials science and engineering. This is a field in which a huge amount of literature has been generated within recent years, and the number of publications is still increasing every year. Carbon Nanotechnology aims to provide a timely coverage of the recent development in the field with updated reviews and remarks by world-renowned experts. Intended to be an exposition of cutting-edge research and development rather than a kind of conference proceeding, Carbon Nanotechnology will be very useful not only to experienced scientists and engineers, who wish to broaden their knowledge of the wide-ranging nanotechnology and/or to develop practical devices, but also to graduate and senior undergraduate students who look to make their mark in this field of the future. · A comprehensive treatment from materials chemistry and structure-property to practical applications · Offers an in-depth analysis of various carbon nanotechnologies from both fundamental and practical perspectives · An easily accessible assessment of the materials properties and device performances based on all of the major classes of carbon nanomaterials, including: carbon fiber; diamond; C60; and carbon nanotubes · A concise compilation of the practical applications of carbon nanotechnologies from polymer-carbon nanocomposites to sensors, electron emitters, and molecular electronics



Handbook of Organic Materials for Optical and Opto Electronic Devices

Handbook of Organic Materials for Optical and  Opto Electronic Devices Author Oksana Ostroverkhova
ISBN-10 9780857098764
Release 2013-08-31
Pages 832
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Small molecules and conjugated polymers, the two main types of organic materials used for optoelectronic and photonic devices, can be used in a number of applications including organic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, photorefractive devices and waveguides. Organic materials are attractive due to their low cost, the possibility of their deposition from solution onto large-area substrates, and the ability to tailor their properties. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices provides an overview of the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials, and explains how these materials can be used across a range of applications. Parts one and two explore the materials used for organic optoelectronics and nonlinear optics, their properties, and methods of their characterization illustrated by physical studies. Part three moves on to discuss the applications of optoelectronic and nonlinear optical organic materials in devices and includes chapters on organic solar cells, electronic memory devices, and electronic chemical sensors, electro-optic devices. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices is a technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists involved in research and development of organic semiconductor and nonlinear optical materials and devices. Comprehensively examines the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials Discusses their applications in different devices including solar cells, LEDs and electronic memory devices An essential technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists



Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells Author Wolfgang Tress
ISBN-10 9783319100975
Release 2014-11-22
Pages 464
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This book covers in a textbook-like fashion the basics or organic solar cells, addressing the limits of photovoltaic energy conversion and giving a well-illustrated introduction to molecular electronics with focus on the working principle and characterization of organic solar cells. Further chapters based on the author’s dissertation focus on the electrical processes in organic solar cells by presenting a detailed drift-diffusion approach to describe exciton separation and charge-carrier transport and extraction. The results, although elaborated on small-molecule solar cells and with focus on the zinc phthalocyanine: C60 material system, are of general nature. They propose and demonstrate experimental approaches for getting a deeper understanding of the dominating processes in amorphous thin-film based solar cells in general. The main focus is on the interpretation of the current-voltage characteristics (J-V curve). This very standard measurement technique for a solar cell reflects the electrical processes in the device. Comparing experimental to simulation data, the author discusses the reasons for S-Shaped J-V curves, the role of charge carrier mobilities and energy barriers at interfaces, the dominating recombination mechanisms, the charge carrier generation profile, and other efficiency-limiting processes in organic solar cells. The book concludes with an illustrative guideline on how to identify reasons for changes in the J-V curve. This book is a suitable introduction for students in engineering, physics, material science, and chemistry starting in the field of organic or hybrid thin-film photovoltaics. It is just as valuable for professionals and experimentalists who analyze solar cell devices.



Iontronics

Iontronics Author Janelle Leger
ISBN-10 1439806896
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 247
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The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices, and is now seeing the beginning of commercial success. On the sidelines of this increasingly well-established field are several emerging technologies with innovative mechanisms and functions that utilize the mixed ionic/electronic conducting character of conjugated organic materials. Iontronics: Ionic Carriers in Organic Electronic Materials and Devices explores the potential of these materials, which can endow electronic devices with unique functionalities. Fundamental science and applications With contributions from a community of experts, the book focuses on the use of ionic functions to define the principle of operation in polymer devices. It begins by reviewing the scientific understanding and important scientific discoveries in the electrochemistry of conjugated polymers. It examines the known effects of ion incorporation, including the theory and modulation of electrochemistry in polymer films, and it explores the coupling of electronic and ionic transport in polymer films. The authors also describe applications that use this technology, including polymer electrochromic devices, artificial muscles, light-emitting electrochemical cells, and biosensors, and they discuss the fundamental technological hurdles in these areas. The changes in materials properties and device characteristics due to ionic conductivity and electrochemical doping in electrically conductive organic materials, as well as the importance of these processes in a number of different and exciting technologies, point to a large untapped potential in the development of new applications and novel device architecture. This volume captures the state of the science in this burgeoning field.



Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology

Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology Author
ISBN-10 0123743966
Release 2010-10-29
Pages 2774
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From the Introduction: Nanotechnology and its underpinning sciences are progressing with unprecedented rapidity. With technical advances in a variety of nanoscale fabrication and manipulation technologies, the whole topical area is maturing into a vibrant field that is generating new scientific research and a burgeoning range of commercial applications, with an annual market already at the trillion dollar threshold. The means of fabricating and controlling matter on the nanoscale afford striking and unprecedented opportunities to exploit a variety of exotic phenomena such as quantum, nanophotonic and nanoelectromechanical effects. Moreover, researchers are elucidating new perspectives on the electronic and optical properties of matter because of the way that nanoscale materials bridge the disparate theories describing molecules and bulk matter. Surface phenomena also gain a greatly increased significance; even the well-known link between chemical reactivity and surface-to-volume ratio becomes a major determinant of physical properties, when it operates over nanoscale dimensions. Against this background, this comprehensive work is designed to address the need for a dynamic, authoritative and readily accessible source of information, capturing the full breadth of the subject. Its six volumes, covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including material sciences, chemistry, physics and life sciences, have been written and edited by an outstanding team of international experts. Addressing an extensive, cross-disciplinary audience, each chapter aims to cover key developments in a scholarly, readable and critical style, providing an indispensible first point of entry to the literature for scientists and technologists from interdisciplinary fields. The work focuses on the major classes of nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structure and applications, reviewing nanomaterials and their respective technologies in well-structured and comprehensive articles with extensive cross-references. It has been a constant surprise and delight to have found, amongst the rapidly escalating number who work in nanoscience and technology, so many highly esteemed authors willing to contribute. Sharing our anticipation of a major addition to the literature, they have also captured the excitement of the field itself in each carefully crafted chapter. Along with our painstaking and meticulous volume editors, full credit for the success of this enterprise must go to these individuals, together with our thanks for (largely) adhering to the given deadlines. Lastly, we record our sincere thanks and appreciation for the skills and professionalism of the numerous Elsevier staff who have been involved in this project, notably Fiona Geraghty, Megan Palmer and Greg Harris, and especially Donna De Weerd-Wilson who has steered it through from its inception. We have greatly enjoyed working with them all, as we have with each other.



Luminescent Materials and Applications

Luminescent Materials and Applications Author Adrian Kitai
ISBN-10 0470985674
Release 2008-04-30
Pages 292
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Luminescence, for example, as fluorescence, bioluminescence, and phosphorescence, can result from chemical changes, electrical energy, subatomic motions, reactions in crystals, or stimulation of an atomic system. This subject continues to have a major technological role for humankind in the form of applications such as organic and inorganic light emitters for flat panel and flexible displays such as plasma displays, LCD displays, and OLED displays. Luminescent Materials and Applications describes a wide range of materials and applications that are of current interest including organic light emitting materials and devices, inorganic light emitting diode materials and devices, down-conversion materials, nanomaterials, and powder and thin-film electroluminescent phosphor materials and devices. In addition, both the physics and the materials aspects of the field of solid-state luminescence are presented. Thus, the book may be used as a reference to gain an understanding of various types and mechanisms of luminescence and of the implementation of luminescence into practical devices. The book is aimed at postgraduate students (physicists, electrical engineers, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and engineers) and researchers in industry, for example, at lighting and display companies and academia involved in studying conduction in solids and electronic materials. It will also provide an excellent starting point for all scientists interested in luminescent materials. Finally it is hoped that this book will not only educate, but also stimulate further progress in this rapidly evolving field.