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Organogels

Organogels Author Jean-Michel Guenet
ISBN-10 9783319331782
Release 2016-05-14
Pages 122
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This book provides a physics-oriented introduction to organogels with a comparison to polymer thermoreversible gels whenever relevant. The past decade has seen the development of a wide variety of newly-synthesized molecules that can spontaneously self-assemble or crystallize from their organic or aqueous solutions to produce fibrillar networks, namely organogels, with potential applications in organic electronics, light harvesting, bio-imaging, non-linear optics, and the like. This compact volume presents a detailed outlook of these novel molecular systems with special emphasis upon their thermodynamics, morphology, molecular structure, and rheology. The definition of these complex systems is also tackled, as well as the role of the solvent. The text features numerous temperature-phase diagrams for a variety of organogels as well as illustrations of their structures at the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic level. A review of some potential applications is provided including hybrid functional materials with polymers and with carbon nanotubes. Throughout, discussions of theoretical developments and experimental advances are written at a level suitable for beginning graduate students through practicing researchers.



Alternative Routes to Oil Structuring

Alternative Routes to Oil Structuring Author Ashok R. Patel
ISBN-10 9783319191386
Release 2015-05-18
Pages 70
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This Springer Brief gives an overview of recent research conducted in the area of oil structuring starting with a detailed introduction on oleogelation and properties of food-approved building blocks followed by the discussion of some illustrative examples to explain the processing steps required for creating oleogels, advanced characterization (rheological, thermal and microstructural) and some potential edible applications of oleogels. The book w concludes with a section summarizing the general guidelines on the properties of oleogels and practically of approach with regards to the specific category of building blocks used for structuring. The text also lists some unresolved challenges that need to be addressed in order to fully exploit oleogelation for future food product development. The functional application of liquid oils in food product development is mostly accomplished by structuring them into soft, plastic-like materials. This structuring of oil is traditionally based on the fat crystal network formed by high melting triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules that are rich in trans and/or saturated fatty acids. Currently, due to the factors such as the requirement for trans- and saturated fat-free food products, sustainable manufacturing and ethical trade practices, the research in the area of identifying alternative routes to oil structuring (in the absence of trans and saturated fats) has been regarded as a ‘hot topic’ in the bio-scientific community. Oleogelation (gelling of liquid oil in absence of crystallizable TAGs) is one such alternative, which has recently attracted tremendous attention from researchers and industrial scientists working in the domain of food product development. The possibility of creating structured gels that contain a large amount of liquid oil (usually above 90 wt%) opens up many possibilities to develop food products with better nutritional profiles.



Smart Wormlike Micelles

Smart Wormlike Micelles Author Yujun Feng
ISBN-10 9783662459508
Release 2015-01-23
Pages 91
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This Brief provides an up-to-date overview of smart surfactants and describes a broad spectrum of triggers that induce the formation of wormlike micelles or reversibly tune the morphology of surfactant aggregates from wormlike micelles to another state, or vice versa. Combining the fields of chemistry, physics, polymer science, and nanotechnology, its primary focus is on the design, formulation, and processing of intelligent viscoelastic surfactant solutions, covering the scientific principles governing responsiveness to one or more particular triggers, down to the end-use-driven functions. The first chapter explains why and how surfactants self-assemble into viscoelastic wormlike micellar solutions reminiscent of polymer solutions, while the following chapters show how the response to a given trigger translates into macroscopic rheological changes, including temperature, light, pH, CO2, redox, hydrocarbon, etc. The last chapter demonstrates the applications of these viscoelastic assemblies in oil and gas production, drag reduction, biomaterials, cleaning processes, electrorheological and photorheological fluids. Comments and perspectives are provided at the end to conclude this Brief. This Brief is aimed at chemists, physicists, chemical engineers and nano-scientists who are involved in self-assemblies and applications of surfactants, as well as graduates in physical chemistry. Yujun Feng, Ph.D., is a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China. Zonglin Chu, Ph.D., is a post-doctoral fellow working at the Physical Chemistry Institute, University of Zürich, Switzerland. Cécile A. Dreiss, Ph.D., is a senior lecturer at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, UK.



Wormlike Micelles

Wormlike Micelles Author Cecile A Dreiss
ISBN-10 9781782625162
Release 2017-03-21
Pages 414
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Wormlike micelles are elongated flexible self-assembled structures created from the aggregation of amphiphiles and their resulting dynamic networks have gained attention for a number of uses, particularly in the oil industry. Written by experts, Wormlike Micelles describes the latest developments in the field providing an authoritative guide on the subject. The book starts with an introductory chapter giving an overview of the area and then looks at the three key topics of new wormlike micelle systems, characterization and applications. New systems covered in the first part include reverse wormlike micelles and stimuli-responsive wormlike micelles. The second part explores cutting-edge techniques that have led to advances in the understanding of their structure and dynamics, including direct imaging techniques and the combination of rheology with small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Finally, the book reviews their use in oil and gas well treatments as well as surfactant drag reducing solutions. Aimed at postgraduate students and researchers, this text is essential reading for anyone interested in soft matter systems.



Thermal Effects in Supercapacitors

Thermal Effects in Supercapacitors Author Guoping Xiong
ISBN-10 9783319202426
Release 2015-06-17
Pages 147
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This Brief reviews contemporary research conducted in university and industry laboratories on thermal management in electrochemical energy storage systems (capacitors and batteries) that have been widely used as power sources in many practical applications, such as automobiles, hybrid transport, renewable energy installations, power backup and electronic devices. Placing a particular emphasis on supercapacitors, the authors discuss how supercapacitors, or ultra capacitors, are complementing and replacing, batteries because of their faster power delivery, longer life cycle and higher coulombic efficiency, while providing higher energy density than conventional electrolytic capacitors. Recent advances in both macro- and micro capacitor technologies are covered. The work facilitates systematic understanding of thermal transport in such devices that can help develop better power management systems.



Computational Rheology

Computational Rheology Author R G Owens
ISBN-10 9781783261956
Release 2002-05-29
Pages 436
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Modern day high-performance computers are making available to 21st-century scientists solutions to rheological flow problems of ever-increasing complexity. Computational rheology is a fast-moving subject — problems which only 10 years ago were intractable, such as 3D transient flows of polymeric liquids, non-isothermal non-Newtonian flows or flows of highly elastic liquids through complex geometries, are now being tackled owing to the availability of parallel computers, adaptive methods and advances in constitutive modelling. Computational Rheology traces the development of numerical methods for non-Newtonian flows from the late 1960's to the present day. It begins with broad coverage of non-Newtonian fluids, including their mathematical modelling and analysis, before specific computational techniques are discussed. The application of these techniques to some important rheological flow problems of academic and industrial interest is then treated in a detailed and up-to-date exposition. Finally, the reader is kept abreast of topics at the cutting edge of research in computational applied mathematics, such as adaptivity and stochastic partial differential equations. All the topics in this book are dealt with from an elementary level and this makes the text suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as experienced researchers from both the academic and industrial communities. Contents: IntroductionFundamentalsMathematical Theory of Viscoelastic FluidsParameter Estimation in Continuum ModelsFrom the Continuous to the DiscreteNumerical Algorithms for Macroscopic ModelsDefeating the High Weissenberg Number ProblemBenchmark Problems I: Contraction FlowsBenchmark Problems IIError Estimation and Adaptive StrategiesContemporary Topics in Computational Rheology Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and academics with an interest in computational solutions to rheological flow problems. Keywords:Computational Rheology;Numerical Analysis;Constitutive Modelling;Viscoelastic Fluids;High Weissenberg Number Problem;Stochastic Differential EquationsReviews:“The strength of the book is that the authors have combined a mathematical approach with a good understanding of the physics. It helps the reader decipher the long, tortuous literature by using modern mathematical concepts … it is a gem, and every person modeling viscoelastic fluids needs one.”Mathematical Reviews “This book performs a useful service in bringing together in a single volume a set of techniques that have been used with profit in non-Newtonian problems. It flags up some of the special difficulties of viscoelastic flow computation, and properly emphasizes the importance of mesh refinement.”Journal of Fluid Mechanics



Photosynthetic Microorganisms

Photosynthetic Microorganisms Author Shailendra Kumar Singh
ISBN-10 9783319091235
Release 2014-08-25
Pages 123
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This book provides a cohesive overview of carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) of photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria and microalgae. This unique mechanism is by far the most spectacular physiological process in algal growth and productivity. Due to this fact, the study of CCM has captivated phycologists, algal molecular and cellular biologists, botanists, agriculturalists, crop growers, and most recently algal biofuel researchers, around the world. In the brief, the authors draw a contextual in-depth overview, on the basis of the latest findings, to develop an account of the core concepts regarding state-of-the-art of CCM. Subsequent chapters use this account to explore carbon concentrating mechanism of cyanobacteria and microalgae. They highlight the concise summaries of cutting-edge research and integrated industrial applications of photosynthetic microorganism based CO2 mitigation system, across a wide spectrum of energy and environment. The brief also presents sustainable perspectives of carbon concentrating mechanism in the context of current global energy and environmental challenges.



Polymer Solvent Molecular Compounds

Polymer Solvent Molecular Compounds Author Jean-Michel Guenet
ISBN-10 0080555039
Release 2010-07-07
Pages 315
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Crystallisable polymers represent a large share of the polymers used for manufacturing a wide variety of objects, and consequently have received continuous attention from scientists these past 60 years. Molecular compounds from crystallisable polymers, particularly from synthetic polymers, are receiving growing interest due to their potential application in the making of new materials such as multiporous membranes capable of capturing large particles as well as small pollutant molecules. Polymer-Solvent Molecular Compounds gives a detailed description of these promising systems. The first chapter is devoted to the presentation of important investigational techniques and some theoretical approaches. The second chapter is devoted to biopolymers, the first polymers known to produce molecular compounds, chiefly with water. The third chapter deals with synthetic polymers where compound formation is either due to hydrogen-bonding or to electrostatic interactions. The fourth chapter describes intercalates and clathrates systems for which compound formation is mainly due to a molecular recognition process. First book on the subject Gives a short but exhaustive description of investigational tools Covers both biopolymers and synthetic polymers Uses temperature-concentration phase diagrams abundantly for describing the systems Describes systems from the nano to the microscopic level, including mechanical properties



Thermoreversible gelation of polymers and biopolymers

Thermoreversible gelation of polymers and biopolymers Author Jean-Michel Guenet
ISBN-10 UOM:39015025171961
Release 1992
Pages 280
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Thermoreversible gelation is a comparatively new and growing area of polymer science. It encompasses many different systems from synthetic polymers to biopolymers. Abundant literature on the subject is scattered in many different journals, but this is the first book to gather together the current knowledge on both polymer and biopolymers thermoreversible gels. A multidisciplinary approach is taken, and extensive coverage of experimental results from electron and optical microscopy, light scattering and (new or neuron) diffraction techniques is provided. The book is organized into three main sections: Gel formation, thermal behavior and phase diagrams Gel morphology and molecular structure, gelation mechanisms Mechanical properties Polymers and bipolymers are treated separately in each section. The text is supplemented by four appendices: Phase diagrams Diffraction by helices Scattering by semi-rigid macromolecules; and elasticity of rigid networks



The Theory of Crystal Structure Analysis

The Theory of Crystal Structure Analysis Author A. Kitaigorodskii
ISBN-10 9781475703405
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 275
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Structure analysis is based on the phenomena of the diffraction of radia tion by materials. In the first ten to twenty years after Laue's discovery, a very complete theory was developed for the diffraction of x-rays and, later, of electrons. This theory led to equations by means of which it was possible to compute the intensity pattern for a given structure. The theory of structure analysis came to mean that of the diffraction of radiation. In 1935, Patterson pointed out a way leading to the solution of the inverse problem: the finding of the structure from a given intensity distribution pattern. At first the conservatism of researchers, and then the war, hampered the de velopment and broad application of the ideas set forth in this work. It was only during the last ten years that all the rich possibilities of the Patterson method - the method of the analysis of the convolution of the electron density - were brought to light and applied in practice.



Theory and Simulation of Hard Sphere Fluids and Related Systems

Theory and Simulation of Hard Sphere Fluids and Related Systems Author Angel Mulero
ISBN-10 9783540787679
Release 2008-07-10
Pages 546
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Hard spheres and related objects (hard disks and mixtures of hard systems) are paradigmatic systems: indeed, they have served as a basis for the theoretical and numerical development of a number of fields, such as general liquids and fluids, amorphous solids, liquid crystals, colloids and granular matter, to name but a few. The present volume introduces and reviews some important basics and progress in the study of such systems. Their structure, thermodynamic properties, equations of state, as well as kinetic and transport properties are considered from different and complementary points of view. This book addresses graduate students, lecturers as well as researchers in statistical mechanics, physics of liquids, physical chemistry and chemical engineering.



A Mathematical Primer on Quantum Mechanics

A Mathematical Primer on Quantum Mechanics Author Alessandro Teta
ISBN-10 9783319778938
Release 2018-04-17
Pages 259
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This book offers a rigorous yet elementary approach to quantum mechanics that will meet the needs of Master’s-level Mathematics students and is equally suitable for Physics students who are interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the mathematical structure of the theory. Throughout the coverage, which is limited to single-particle quantum mechanics, the focus is on formulating theory and developing applications in a mathematically precise manner. Following a review of selected key concepts in classical physics and the historical background, the basic elements of the theory of operators in Hilbert spaces are presented and used to formulate the rules of quantum mechanics. The discussion then turns to free particles, harmonic oscillators, delta potential, and hydrogen atoms, providing rigorous proofs of the corresponding dynamical properties. Starting from an analysis of these applications, readers are subsequently introduced to more advanced topics such as the classical limit, scattering theory, and spectral analysis of Schrödinger operators. The main content is complemented by numerous exercises that stimulate interactive learning and help readers check their progress.



Handbook of Stimuli Responsive Materials

Handbook of Stimuli Responsive Materials Author Marek W. Urban
ISBN-10 3527633758
Release 2011-02-25
Pages 304
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Adopting a broad approach, this volume provides the scientific community with a much-needed overview of developments and scientific findings in stimuli-responsive materials. Its primary focus is on the designing, synthesizing, formulating, and processing of materials that lead to an understanding of the scientific principles governing response driven functions leading to future technologies. The highly experienced and internationally renowned editor has assembled a team of leading scientists from the interdisciplinary areas of: * polymers * biopolymers * biochemistry * biophysics * biomaterials * bioengineering * materials engineering * biotechnology * chemistry * physics * ceramics * metals * and materials science. A combination that guarantees a unique and high-quality handbook.



Topological Disorder in Condensed Matter

Topological Disorder in Condensed Matter Author F. Yonezawa
ISBN-10 9783642821042
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 256
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This volume contains papers presented at the Fifth Taniguchi Symposium on the Theory of Condensed Matter, which was held between 2-5 November, 1982, at Shimoda, Japan. The topic of the Symposium was "Topological Disorder in Condensed Matter. " The objective of the Taniguchi Symposium is to encourage activity in those fields of research not in the limelight at the moment but regarded as very promising, such as our theme. Topological disorder refers to the dis order in the positions and connectivities of atoms in amorphous solids and liquids. The development of the physiCS of topologically disorderd systems, though extremely important fundamentally and for application purposes, falls far behind compared to that of other kinds of disorderd systems because the structure characterization of topologically disordered systems is still at a rather primitive stage. The structure characterization is the key to com prehensive understanding of physical properties of any material. Recently, several new attempts at structural analyses have been reported. Encouraged by this fact, our motivation in organizing the symposium was to investigate the possibilities of theoretical approaches to open a breakthrough in the present research situation on this subject. A rough sketch of the problem is made in the Introduction to give the readers a general outline of the subject. Part I is devoted to several at tempts to synthesize and characterize topological disorder more or less by analytical means.



A Short Course on Topological Insulators

A Short Course on Topological Insulators Author János K. Asbóth
ISBN-10 9783319256078
Release 2016-02-22
Pages 166
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This course-based primer provides newcomers to the field with a concise introduction to some of the core topics in the emerging field of topological insulators. The aim is to provide a basic understanding of edge states, bulk topological invariants, and of the bulk--boundary correspondence with as simple mathematical tools as possible. The present approach uses noninteracting lattice models of topological insulators, building gradually on these to arrive from the simplest one-dimensional case (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model for polyacetylene) to two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators (the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model for HgTe). In each case the discussion of simple toy models is followed by the formulation of the general arguments regarding topological insulators. The only prerequisite for the reader is a working knowledge in quantum mechanics, the relevant solid state physics background is provided as part of this self-contained text, which is complemented by end-of-chapter problems.



The Map and the Territory

The Map and the Territory Author Shyam Wuppuluri
ISBN-10 9783319724782
Release 2018-02-13
Pages 641
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This volume presents essays by pioneering thinkers including Tyler Burge, Gregory Chaitin, Daniel Dennett, Barry Mazur, Nicholas Humphrey, John Searle and Ian Stewart. Together they illuminate the very foundations of science and the scientific enterprise. The authors examine, from various perspectives, the complex relations between reality per se and our human descriptions of the world, as deduced in the process of scientific discovery. Are we living in Plato’s Cave? If not, how far have we emerged from it? And what are the various layers of description we can apply to objects and phenomena? A simple apple, for example, can be analyzed from several viewpoints beginning with evolution and biology, all the way down its microscopic quantum mechanical components. Together, the cast of eminent scientists and philosophers shed light on how our various theories and constructs co-exist in a patchwork to produce a seemingly coherent reality. All aficionados of philosophy as well as budding researchers will find here much food for thought as well as new and stimulating perspectives.The book also includes a foreword by Sir Roger Penrose and an afterword by Dagfinn Follesdal



Edible Oil Structuring

Edible Oil Structuring Author Ashok R. Patel
ISBN-10 9781782628293
Release 2017-09-28
Pages 336
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Driven both by real industrial needs and curiosity for fundamental research, edible oil structuring has emerged as a subject of growing interest with applications in real food systems. With contributions from leading research groups around the world, this book provides a comprehensive and concise overview of the field with special emphasis on the updates from the last 5 years. New insights into the mechanism of gelation in mono- and multicomponent gels are discussed for several categories of previously known structuring agents along with the potential food applications of some of these systems. In addition, use of alternative methods to explore structuring properties of hydrophilic biopolymers are presented with illustrative examples. Some new concepts such as bio-based synthesis of supergelators, foamed oleogels and use of innovative dispersion techniques give a broader picture of the current research in edible oil structuring. This book will be of interest to students, academics and scientists involved in the research of edible oil structuring. It will be an important reference as it provides current information on the state-of-the-art of the field.