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PAHs

PAHs Author Peter E. T. Douben
ISBN-10 9780470864296
Release 2003-07-25
Pages 404
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or polyarenes, are one of the largest and most structurally diverse class of organic molecules known. High percentages of polyarenes, representing a wide range of molecular sizes and structural types, are present in coal tars and petroleum residues. The major sources of PAHs are crude oil, coal and oil shale. The fuels produced from these fossil sources constitute the primary source of energy for the industrial nations of the world, and the petrochemicals from these raw materials are the basis of the synthetic fibre and plastics industries. PAHs are however, widespread pollutants and their impact on the environment and human health must be monitored and controlled. This book will review and assess our scientific understanding of the ecological exposure and effects PAHs have in different environments and habitats. It will accomplish this by taking the recipients of the pollution in the environment as starting points and working its way back through pathways to access what is required for our understanding of effects and rationale for control. Although this book will concentrate on ecological exposure of PAHs, the general impacts of PAHs on human populations will be touched upon. It is thought to be the first book to focus on the ecological aspects of PAHs.



Enzymatic Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs by Manganese Peroxidase in Reactors Containing Organic Solvents

Enzymatic Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  PAHs  by Manganese Peroxidase in Reactors Containing Organic Solvents Author
ISBN-10
Release 2006
Pages 190
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Enzymatic Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs by Manganese Peroxidase in Reactors Containing Organic Solvents has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Enzymatic Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs by Manganese Peroxidase in Reactors Containing Organic Solvents also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Enzymatic Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs by Manganese Peroxidase in Reactors Containing Organic Solvents book for free.



PAHs and Related Compounds

PAHs and Related Compounds Author Alasdair H. Neilson
ISBN-10 3540634223
Release 1997-12-17
Pages 386
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Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems."



PAHs and Related Compounds

PAHs and Related Compounds Author Alasdair N. Neilson
ISBN-10 9783540496977
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 414
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Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems.



PAHs

PAHs Author Victor Carrasco Navarro
ISBN-10 OCLC:882980784
Release 2013
Pages
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Emissions of mercury PAHs dioxins and PCBs related to NFR 3

Emissions of mercury  PAHs  dioxins and PCBs related to NFR 3 Author Patrik Fauser
ISBN-10 9789289322461
Release 2011-09-05
Pages 86
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PCBs and dioxins are among the most toxic organic chemicals and where the latter is an unwanted bi-product primarily from residential wood burning, fires, municipal waste incineration and steel reclamation, PCBs have been widely used in a number of industrial and commercial products and activities. PAHs have carcinogeni/mutagenic properties and are produced when materials containing carbon and hydrogen are burned. The heavy metal mercury is also one of the most toxic chemicals that is being used today and although there are legally binding instruments in force within the EU and globally, which aim to limit the use and spreading of mercury in the environment it is still found in various consumer and commercial products. The use of these chemicals gives rise to emissions to air. This joint Nordic project contributes to improving the emission inventories for mercury, PAHs, dioxins and PCBs related to the sector "Solvents and Other Product Use", which will help the Nordic countries to assess whether they reach the overall environmental objective of clean and healthy surroundings and several targets in the Nordic Environmental Action Programme 2009-2012 and the international air quality conventions such as Convention on Long-Range, Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The report is mainly aimed at experts performing the national emission inventories but also policy-makers and the general public may find information on sources to emissions, working procedure of emission inventories and on measures implemented on an international and national level for reducing emissions.



The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study Atmospheric chemistry of PCBs and PAHs

The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study  Atmospheric chemistry of PCBs and PAHs Author United States. Environmental Protection Agency
ISBN-10 MINN:31951D00623560K
Release 1979
Pages
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The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study Atmospheric chemistry of PCBs and PAHs has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study Atmospheric chemistry of PCBs and PAHs also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study Atmospheric chemistry of PCBs and PAHs book for free.



Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs

Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  PAHs  Author Kim Gehle
ISBN-10 OCLC:771939065
Release 2009
Pages 68
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How to use this course -- Initial check -- What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? -- Where are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found? -- What are the routes of exposure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? -- Who is at risk of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? -- What are the standards and regulations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure? -- What is the biologic fate of PAHs in the body? -- How do PAHs induce pathogenic change? -- What health effects are associated with PAH exposure? -- Clinical assessment -- How should patients exposed to PAHs be treated and managed? -- What instructions should be given to patients to prevent overexposure to PAHs? -- Sources of additional information -- Assessment and posttest -- Literature cited.



Petrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment Analysis Synthesis Toxicity and Environmental Impact

Petrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment  Analysis  Synthesis  Toxicity and Environmental Impact Author Daniela M. Pampanin
ISBN-10 9781681084275
Release 2017-04-07
Pages 250
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Although a lot is known about the influence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the marine environment, there are still many unanswered questions. Petrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment is a monograph that sums up basic knowledge about this topic while highlighting current research practices useful in studying the aquatic environment. It starts with an introduction to effect of PAH in the marine environment. It then proceeds to provide information on techniques to monitor PAH levels and investigate the affected environment in order to control the subsequent negative effects. Chapters also detail the carcinogenic and endocrine effects of PAHs on fish as well as the degradation of PAHs by microorganisms. This monograph is a useful reference for environmental science students and professionals learning about the role of PAH in the marine environment



Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Author Ronald G. Harvey
ISBN-10 0521364582
Release 1991-11-07
Pages 396
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, many of which have been identified as potent human carcinogens, occur widely in the environment as a result of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic matter. Major sources of emissions are wood and coal burning, automobiles, heat and power plants, and refuse burning. This volume reviews the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their active metabolites, providing up-to-date information on their chemical and physical properties, methods of synthesis, enviromental occurrence, and chemical reactions. It also surveys their biological properties, metabolism and metabolic activation, and current concepts concerning their mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The emphasis throughout is on recent findings and newer methods and techniques. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this currently active field of research, bringing together in a single volume a large amount of information previously scattered throughout the scientific literature. It may be read with profit by anyone with an interest in the chemistry and metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, environmental chemistry and chemical carcinogenesis.



Seasonal Attributes of Urban Soil PAHs of the Brahmaputra Valley

Seasonal Attributes of Urban Soil PAHs of the Brahmaputra Valley Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:1021162241
Release 2015
Pages
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Highlights: First study on soil PAHs of Brahmaputra Valley. Seasonal variability in attributes of soils PAHs studied. Seasonality in PAHs profiles by rings number. Seasonality in association of PAHs and carbon. PCA–MLR – contributing sources both mobile and stationary. Abstract: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants, which are both toxic and carcinogenic. In the present study seasonally collected composite soil samples of Guwahati city of the Brahmaputra Valley were analysed for of PAHs by HPLC column. Black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) of soil samples were analysed by thermochemical oxidation method in a TOC analyzer. Mean concentrations of ∑PAHs (USEPA 16) were found to be 5 570 168 ± 7003, 9052 ± 1292 and 19 294 ± 17 827 ng g −1 during monsoon, pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Two- and 4-ring PAHs dominated and the 2-ring PAHs were particularly abundant during post-monsoon period. The carcinogenic potentials of PAHs were calculated as BaP equivalents, which was found to be maximum (1167.064 ng BaPq g −1 ) at industrial site. Diagnostic ratios of marker species indicated for pyrogenic origins of PAHs. Sources were indentified and contribution of individual sources was quantified by multivariate hyphenated model – Principal Component Analysis–Multiple Linear Regression (PCA–MLR). Mobile sources like the vehicular traffic were found to have contributed ∼63% to the PAHs load. The correlations of individual PAHs with BC or OC showed seasonal variations. High dependencies of PAHs on BC/OC ratios were found indicating that BC could be interfering with the association of PAHs and OC. However, such relationships showed seasonal bias and high positive dependencies were found during pre-monsoon period only. Strong relationships were found between PAHs and BC/OC during monsoon and post-monsoon seasons.



Distribution and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs in Laminated Santa Barbara Basin Sediments

Distribution and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  PAHs  in Laminated Santa Barbara Basin Sediments Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:1021140324
Release 2017
Pages
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Highlights: PAH distributions were examined from Santa Barbara Basin sediment cores. Diagnostic PAH ratios show shift from petrogenic to pyrogenic inputs in late 1900s. PCA helps resolve anthropogenic inputs within PAH assemblages. Perylene abundance increases with sediment age; it is dominant in sediments > 2 ka. Higher retene amounts in flood layers and turbidites serve as a wildfire proxy. Abstract: The Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) preserves a high-resolution sediment record that is varved down to ca. 1700 CE and laminated for at least 2500 years. The distributions of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in a suite of samples from sediment cores representing different depositional scenarios – varves/laminae, terrigenous flood layers, and marine turbidites. The concentrations of these PAHs were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in selected ion mode and evaluated in terms of their distributions, diagnostic ratios, and loadings recognized by principal component analysis (PCA). Two biogenic PAHs, perylene and retene, provided the greatest variation in their downcore concentration values. Perylene concentrations increased downcore exhibiting markedly higher abundance in sediments older than 300 CE, consistent with the interpretation that perylene is formed diagenetically in reducing sediments. A modest increase in perylene concentrations in sediments from the late 1960s may be associated with flood-derived transport of higher amounts of degraded terrestrial organic matter from fire-denudated landscapes into the coastal environment. The markedly higher concentrations of retene in flood layers and turbidites relative to varves/laminae suggest that these lithologies are more effective in transporting pyrogenic PAHs and can be interpreted as a proxy for wildfires in SBB. Changes in key diagnostic ratios reveal the shift from a dominance of petrogenic PAHs in older sediments to a strong pyrogenic signal beginning in the latter half of the 20th century. Statistical analysis using PCA of the PAH distributions in the samples revealed that modern sediments showed a strong, positive relationship with PC1, which represents the greatest variation among the samples, whereas flood layers showed a strong relationship with the second major variable (PC2). Thus, statistical approaches provide the capability to elucidate modern, anthropogenic signatures within the complex PAH distributions of SBB and also establish a PAH profile that characterizes the lithological signature of flood layers.



Rates of mass transfer of PAHs from complex NAPLs to water and implications on bioavailability

Rates of mass transfer of PAHs from complex NAPLs to water and implications on bioavailability Author Suparna Mukherji
ISBN-10 UOM:39015041232466
Release 1997
Pages
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PTEAM

PTEAM Author L. Sheldon
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822016944597
Release 1992
Pages
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Beyond the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs

Beyond the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs Author Julie Layshock
ISBN-10 OCLC:642055936
Release 2010
Pages 238
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with a molecular weight (MW) of 302 and oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) have demonstrated toxicity beyond that of frequently monitored and known carcinogenic PAHs. Airborne particulate matter (PM) was characterized for MW 302 isomers to evaluate risk and air quality indices and OPAHs in order to fill data gaps concerning sources and distribution of OPAHs. Additionally, standard reference materials of numerous environmental media were analyzed for OPAH occurrence. Air samples were collected from two locations: the remote atmosphere of Mt. Bachelor, Oregon and the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China. Collection of size fractionated particles of PM 2.5 and PM 10 allowed evaluation of air quality indexes as well as OPAH distribution profiles for source identification. Standard reference materials (SRMs) possessing certified values of PAHs were purchased and methods of analysis were developed. Results demonstrate that MW 302 isomers are highly abundant in the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China. Although toxicity information is not available for all MW 302 isomers, for those with available carcinogenic potency, the combined potency of MW 302 isomers contributes to a significant portion of carcinogenic risk for PAHs in Beijing. Results further convey the dependency of air quality assessment outcomes on metrics used and monitored PAHs. OPAHs were measured in many of the SRM matrices for the first time and the abundance of OPAHs, with respect to PAHs, is a major finding. Results indicate that diesel exhaust could be a major source of OPAHs and that biota could be a sink. Measurement of OPAHs from ambient air confirmed that OPAHs are environmentally abundant. Particulate matter air samples from Mt. Bachelor show that while OPAHs are more concentrated than PAHs, the particle size distribution could not be used to determine origins of OPAH formation. Results did show that OPAHs are concentrated on the smallest, most respirable size fraction of particulate matter collected from both Mt. Bachelor and Beijing. We conclude that MW 302 isomers and OPAHs are environmentally relevant and concentrated PAHs requiring continued study.



Metabolism of Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs by Cunninghamella Elegans

Metabolism of Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  PAHs  by Cunninghamella Elegans Author Oluwaseun Alfred Olatubi
ISBN-10 OCLC:137262568
Release 2007
Pages
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant compounds due to the toxicity of some members. They are ubiquitous and are persistent bioaccumulative toxins (PBTs). The toxicity of PAHs represents a risk to human health, and there are varied risk assessment approaches to quantifying the risk posed by PAHs based on exposure routes and scenarios. PAHs are not carcinogenic until they are metabolically activated as the body attempts to break them down and forms reactive metabolites that bind to the DNA causing subsequent replication in the cells. Fundamental to assessing the risk posed by PAHs is understanding the metabolism of PAHs. Since exposure to PAHs is never to single PAHs, understanding what differences may occur in mixtures of PAHs gives accurate assessment of the dangers of PAHs. Understanding the dynamics of complex metabolism vis-á-vis single metabolism of PAHs and possible effects on the toxicity expression of PAHs is a necessary advancement to accurately impact and guide remediation strategies. Studies were carried out comparing the metabolism of the PAHs Phenanthrene (PHE), Flouranthene (FLA) and Benzo[a]pyrene (BAP) in single, binary and ternary mixtures by monitoring the disappearance of the parent compound. It was observed that PAH metabolism in the single PAH experiment differed from metabolism in both binary and ternary mixtures. Enzyme competition was evident in the metabolism of mixtures, changing significantly the metabolism patterns of individual PAHs. PAH structure was also seen to affect metabolism in mixtures and the possible creation of toxicity effects during mixture metabolism. PAH concentration changed over time with faster change during single PAH metabolism followed by ternary mixture metabolism and finally binary metabolism. These results affirm that substrate interactions must be considered in the risk assessment approaches to the dangers posed by exposure to PAHs.



Investigation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs on Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization FGD By products

Investigation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  PAHs  on Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization  FGD  By products Author Ping Sun
ISBN-10 OCLC:60035158
Release 2004
Pages
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Abstract: The primary goal of this research was to examine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on dry FGD by-products to determine environmentally safe reuse options of this material. Due to the lack of information on the analytical procedures for measuring PAHs on FGD by-products, our initial work focused on analytical method development. Ultrasonic extraction with toluene as the solvent turned out to be a fast and efficient method to extract PAHs from LSD ash. The reactions of PAHs under standard ultrasonic extraction conditions were studied to address concern over the possible degradation of PAHs by ultrasound. The identified degradation by-products including methylphenanthrene and methyl-naphthalene after sonication of phenanthrene suggested that phenanthrene reacts by both direct pyrolysis and reaction with methyl radicals formed from pyrolysis of the alkane solvent. After analytical method development, speciation and concentrations of PAHs on LSD ash were investigated. Low molecular weight compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were the primary PAHs identified. Although PAH speciation on LSD ash varied in different samples, concentrations of PAHs identified were consistently low at the mg/kg level. Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly variability of PAHs showed a low variability from 2001-2004. Results also suggested that total measured PAH concentrations were correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. The LSD ash samples were fractionated and unburned carbon was separated for PAH measurements. The PAH concentrations on the unburned carbon were the highest among all the fractions indicating an association between PAHs and unburned carbon. However, PAHs detected on the lime-enriched fraction suggested capture of PAHs by injected slaked lime. Finally, solid by-products collected from the Ohio State carbonation and ash reactivation (OSCAR) process were examined for PAHs. The compositions and concentrations of PAHs were found to be affected by the sorbent type. Samples collected from the baghouse had higher concentrations than the samples collected from the cyclone possibly due to the longer residence time of the particles and the lower temperature in the baghouse. Moreover, operational parameters such as sorbent injection rate, flue gas flow rate also were determined to affect the PAH concentrations on the solid by-products.