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Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids Author Michael Türk
ISBN-10 9780444594433
Release 2014-11-06
Pages 152
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Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties



In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure

In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure Author Andreas Braeuer
ISBN-10 9780444634207
Release 2015-12-07
Pages 394
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In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure provides a comprehensive treatment of in-situ applications of spectroscopic techniques at high pressure and their working principles, allowing the reader to develop a deep understanding of which measurements are accessible with each technique, what their limitations are, and for which application each technique is best suited. Coverage is also given to the instrumental requirements for these applications, with respect to the high pressure instrumentation and the spectroscopic components of the equipment. The pedagogical style of the book is supplemented by the inclusion of "study questions" which aim to make it useful for graduate-level courses. Bridges the gap between supercritical fluid science/technology and in-situ spectroscopic techniques Provides a powerful guide to applying spectroscopic techniques as gainful sensors at high pressure Highlights the influence of a high pressure environment and high pressure equipment on spectroscopic techniques Presents a deep understanding of which measurements are accessible with each technique, what their limitations are, and for which application each technique is best suited



Current Trends of Supercritical Fluid Technology in Pharmaceutical Nutraceutical and Food Processing Industries

Current Trends of Supercritical Fluid Technology in Pharmaceutical  Nutraceutical and Food Processing Industries Author Ana Rita C. Duarte
ISBN-10 9781608050468
Release 2009-01-01
Pages 117
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Supercritical fluid technology can be seen as a green and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional. Current information on these topics is spread through different publications in different peer-reviewed journals. the editors were therefore of the opinion that this information should be gathered in an Ebook which presents some reviews on these topics which should be of major interest not only for the academia but also for the industry.



Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids Author E. Kiran
ISBN-10 9789401139298
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 596
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.



Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering Author Ya-Ping Sun
ISBN-10 9780824744717
Release 2002-03-26
Pages 600
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This title analyzes the chemical reactions, structures and fundamental properties of supercritical fluid systems for the production of new compounds, nanomaterials, fibers, and films. It complies contemporary research and technological advances for increased selectivity and reduced waste in chemical, industrial, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Topics include fluid dynamics, catalysis, hydrothermal synthesis, surfactants, conducting polymers, crystal growth, and other aspects and applications of supercritical fluids.



Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications Author Vladimir Anikeev
ISBN-10 9780444626974
Release 2013-12-21
Pages 284
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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection



Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Author Maartje F. Kemmere
ISBN-10 9783527607051
Release 2006-05-12
Pages 358
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Recently, supercritical fluids have emerged as more sustainable alternatives for the organic solvents often used in polymer processes. This is the first book emphasizing the potential of supercritical carbon dioxide for polymer processes from an engineering point of view. It develops a state-of-the-art overview on polymer fundamentals, polymerization reactions and polymer processing in supercritical carbon dioxide. The book covers topics in a multidisciplinary approach starting from polymer chemistry and thermodynamics, going through monitoring, polymerization processes and ending with polymer shaping and post-processing. The authors are internationally recognized experts from different fields in polymer reaction engineering in supercritical fluids. The book was initiated by the Working Party on Polymer Reaction Engineering of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering and further renowned international experts.



Amorphous Solid Dispersions

Amorphous Solid Dispersions Author Navnit Shah
ISBN-10 9781493915989
Release 2014-11-21
Pages 699
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This volume offers a comprehensive guide on the theory and practice of amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) for handling challenges associated with poorly soluble drugs. In twenty-three inclusive chapters, the book examines thermodynamics and kinetics of the amorphous state and amorphous solid dispersions, ASD technologies, excipients for stabilizing amorphous solid dispersions such as polymers, and ASD manufacturing technologies, including spray drying, hot melt extrusion, fluid bed layering and solvent-controlled micro-precipitation technology (MBP). Each technology is illustrated by specific case studies. In addition, dedicated sections cover analytical tools and technologies for characterization of amorphous solid dispersions, the prediction of long-term stability, and the development of suitable dissolution methods and regulatory aspects. The book also highlights future technologies on the horizon, such as supercritical fluid processing, mesoporous silica, KinetiSol®, and the use of non-salt-forming organic acids and amino acids for the stabilization of amorphous systems. Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Theory and Practice is a valuable reference to pharmaceutical scientists interested in developing bioavailable and therapeutically effective formulations of poorly soluble molecules in order to advance these technologies and develop better medicines for the future.



Innovations in Supercritical Fluids

Innovations in Supercritical Fluids Author Keith W. Hutchenson
ISBN-10 UOM:39015031855532
Release 1995-01-01
Pages 469
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Presents an overview of supercritical fluid science and technology with emphasis on developments in solubility and modeling. Provides comprehensive coverage of current research, including molecular interactions and simulations, phase behavior, chemical reactions in supercritical fluids, supercritical water oxidation, and forest products applications. Addresses various aspects of the supercritical water oxidation process, including fundamental kinetics and modeling, simulations of hydrogen bonding and solvation, catalysis, use of unconventional oxidants, corrosion issues, reactor design and simulation, and applications. Includes a new technique for the rapid and accurate mapping of critical curve phase boundaries.



Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems

Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems Author Jamileh M. Lakkis
ISBN-10 9781118733523
Release 2016-04-18
Pages 408
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The emergence of the discipline of encapsulation and controlled release has had a great impact on the food and dietary supplements sectors; principally around fortifying food systems with nutrients and health-promoting ingredients. The successful incorporation of these actives in food formulations depends on preserving their stability and bioavailability as well as masking undesirable flavors throughout processing, shelf life and consumption. This second edition of Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems serves as an improvement and a complement companion to the first. However, it differentiates itself in two main aspects. Firstly, it introduces the reader to novel encapsulation and controlled release technologies which have not yet been addressed by any existing book on this matter, and secondly, it offers an in-depth discussion on the impact of encapsulation and controlled release technologies on the bioavailability of health ingredients and other actives. In common with the first edition the book includes chapters written by distinguished authors and researchers in their respective areas of specialization. This book is designed as a reference for scientists and formulators in the food, nutraceuticals and consumer products industries who are looking to formulate new or existing products using microencapsulated ingredients. It is also a post-graduate text designed to provide students with an introduction to encapsulation and controlled release along with detailed coverage of various encapsulation technologies and their adaptability to specific applications.



Additives in Polymers

Additives in Polymers Author Jan C. J. Bart
ISBN-10 9780470012055
Release 2005-04-08
Pages 836
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This industrially relevant resource covers all established and emerging analytical methods for the deformulation of polymeric materials, with emphasis on the non-polymeric components. Each technique is evaluated on its technical and industrial merits. Emphasis is on understanding (principles and characteristics) and industrial applicability. Extensively illustrated throughout with over 200 figures, 400 tables, and 3,000 references.



Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development Author Peter York
ISBN-10 9780824751029
Release 2004-03-23
Pages 632
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Interconnecting the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies, their current and anticipated utility in drug delivery, and process engineering advances from related methodological domains and pharmaceutical applications, this volume unlocks the potential of supercritical fluids to further the development of improved pharmaceutical products-from drug powders for respiratory delivery to drug delivery systems for controlled release.



Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids Author E. Kiran
ISBN-10 9789401582957
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 800
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Supercritical fluids which are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density, are gaining increasing importance as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the pressure, or more strictly the density, the properties of these fluids are customized and manipulated for the particular process at hand, be it a physical transformation, such as separation or solvation, or a chemical transformation, such as a reaction or reactive extraction. Supercritical fluids, however, differ from both gases and liquids in many respects. In order to properly understand and describe their properties, it is necessary to know the implications of their nearness to criticality, to be aware of the complex types of phase separation (including solid phases) that occur when the components of the fluid mixture are very different from each other, and to develop theories that can cope with the large differences in molecular size and shape of the supercritical solvent and the solutes that are present.



Practical Aspects of Chemical Engineering

Practical Aspects of Chemical Engineering Author Marek Ochowiak
ISBN-10 9783319739786
Release 2018-02-07
Pages 465
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This book focuses on Chemical Engineering and Processing, covering interdisciplinary innovation technologies and sciences closely related to chemical engineering, such as computer image analysis, modelling and IT. The book presents interdisciplinary aspects of chemical and biochemical engineering interconnected with process system engineering, process safety and computer science.



Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology Author Concepcion Domingo Pascual
ISBN-10 9789814613415
Release 2015-10-22
Pages 566
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The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemicals. The replacement of those solvents is a key point to enable the transition from classical synthesis to green chemistry and nanotechnology concepts, i.e., to sustainability. The first radical option to achieve this goal is to completely avoid the use of solvents, as occurs in mechanochemical processes. A wide-range synthesis prospect is given by identifying between known solvents those with less negative environmental impact. This book concerns the analysis of the advantages of using compressed CO2 to produce not only improved materials in a better way, but also new nanoproducts. Recovering and using CO2, otherwise released into the atmosphere, is a means of recycling emissions resulting from other users. The use of supercritical CO2 is a complex option from a conceptual point of view requiring enhanced technical preparation.



Supercritical Fluids Technology in Lipase Catalyzed Processes

Supercritical Fluids Technology in Lipase Catalyzed Processes Author Sulaiman Al-Zuhair
ISBN-10 9781498745796
Release 2016-01-05
Pages 160
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Enzymes are currently used in various industries, most commonly in food, detergents, and pharmaceuticals production. Lipases are hydrolytic enzymes that demonstrate great potential as an alternative to conventional catalysts in a number of industrial applications. A complete understanding of enzymes, and their proteins structure and environmental behavior, can greatly aid in the further development of industrial applications. Supercritical Fluids Technology in Lipase Catalized Processes provides basic information about enzymes, their sources, reaction kinetics, and main industrial applications. The book focuses in lipases. their main sources, structure, and features, with an emphasis on their specificity and interfacial activity, and presents proven techniques for isolating, extracting, and purifying. Comprised of six compact chapters, this comprehensive guide introduces: Immobilization techniques and immobilized lipases that allow repeated use (which is essential from an economic point of view) Different bioreactor configurations using immobilized lipases The latest information on the available technologies in lipolytic reactions The advantages of nonaqueous media in biochemical synthesis over aqueous and solvent-free systems Material on the use of lipases in nonaqueous media to overcome the drawbacks usually encountered with the use of conventional chemical catalysts The use of supercritical fluids (SCFs) as a green alternative reaction medium Factors affecting the physical properties of lipases in this medium and, hence, their activity and stability A case study using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for biodiesel production Novel, cutting-edge technology, using immobilized enzymes to reduce the overall production cost Supercritical Fluids Technology in Lipase Catalized Processes outlines the main industrial applications of common enzymes and discusses relevant challenges and innovations emerging in the field.



Biofoams

Biofoams Author Salvatore Iannace
ISBN-10 9781466561809
Release 2015-10-28
Pages 450
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Addresses a Growing Need for the Development of Cellular and Porous Materials in Industry Building blocks used by nature are motivating researchers to create bio-inspired cellular structures that can be used in the development of products for the plastic, food, and biomedical industry. Representing a unified effort by international experts, Biofoams: Science and Applications of Bio-Based Cellular and Porous Materials highlights the latest research and development of biofoams and porous systems, and specifically examines the aspects related to the formation of gas bubbles in drink and food. The book offers a detailed analysis of bio-polymers and foaming technologies, biodegradable and sustainable foams, biomedical foams, food foams, and bio-inspired foams. Explores the Generation of New Materials with Wide-Ranging Technological Applicability This book introduces the science, technologies, and applications related to the use of biopolymers and biomaterials in the development of porous structures. It presents topics that include bio-based polymers for the development of biodegradable and sustainable polymeric foams, foams in food, foams in biomedical applications, biohybrids, and bio-inspired cellular and porous systems. It also includes recent studies on the design of polymer-based composites and hybrid scaffolds, weighs in on the challenges related to the production of porous polymers, and presents relevant examples of cellular architecture present in nature. In addition, this book: Focuses on materials compatible with natural tissues Discusses the engineering of bio-inspired scaffolds with the ability to mimic living tissue Reveals how to use renewable resources to develop more sustainable lightweight materials Illustrates the state of the art of porous scaffold and process techniques A book dedicated to material science, Biofoams: Science and Applications of Bio-Based Cellular and Porous Materials focuses on food technology, polymers and composites, biomedical, and chemical engineering, and examines how the principles used in the creation of cellular structures can be applied in modern industry.