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Patenting of Pharmaceuticals and Development in Sub Saharan Africa

Patenting of Pharmaceuticals and Development in Sub Saharan Africa Author POKU ADUSEI
ISBN-10 9783642325144
Release 2012-10-25
Pages 296
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This book critically investigates the patent protection of medication in light of the threats posed by HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis epidemics to the citizens of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (hereinafter “SSA” or “Africa”). The book outlines the systemic problems associated with the prevailing globalized patent regime and the regime’s inability to promote access to life-saving medication at affordable prices in SSA. It argues that for pharmaceutical patents to retain their relevance in SSA countries, human development concepts must be integrated into global patent law- and policy-making. An integrative approach implies developing additional public health and human development exceptions/limitations to the exercise of patent rights with the goal of scaling up access to medication that can treat epidemics in SSA. By drawing on multiple perspectives of laws, institutions, practices, and politics, the book suggests that SSA countries adopt an evidence-based approach to implementing global patent standards in domestic jurisdictions. This evidence-based approach would include mechanisms like local need assessments and the use of empirical data to shape domestic patent law-making endeavors. The approach also implies revising patent rules and policies with a pro-poor and pro-health emphasis, so that medication will be more affordable and accessible to the citizens of SSA countries. It also suggests considering the opinions of individuals and pro-access institutions in enacting crucial pieces of health-related statutes in SSA countries. The approach in this book is sensitive to the public health needs of the citizens affected by epidemics and to the imperative of building local manufacturing facilities for pharmaceutical research and development in SSA.



Pharmaceutical Patent Protection and Development in Sub Saharan Africa

Pharmaceutical Patent Protection and Development in Sub Saharan Africa Author Poku Adusei
ISBN-10 0494790067
Release 2013
Pages
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Pharmaceutical Patent Protection and Development in Sub Saharan Africa has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Pharmaceutical Patent Protection and Development in Sub Saharan Africa also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Pharmaceutical Patent Protection and Development in Sub Saharan Africa book for free.



The Global Politics of Pharmaceutical Monopoly Power

The Global Politics of Pharmaceutical Monopoly Power Author Ellen F. M. 't Hoen
ISBN-10 9079700061
Release 2009
Pages 136
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In The Global Politics of Pharmaceutical Monopoly Power, researcher and global advocate Ellen 't Hoen explains how new global rules for pharmaceutical patenting impact access to medicines in the developing world. The book gives an account of the current debates on intellectual property, access to medicines, and medical innovation, and provides historical context that explains how the current system emerged. This book supports major policy changes in the management of pharmaceutical patents and the way medical innovation is financed in order to protect public health and, in particular, promote access to essential medicines for all. The Open Society Institute provided support to translate this report into Russian.



Pills for the Poorest

Pills for the Poorest Author Emilie Cloatre
ISBN-10 9781137358875
Release 2013-08-06
Pages 224
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The desperate need for a vast part of the global population to access better medicines in more certain ways is one of the biggest concerns of the modern era. Pills for the Poorest offers a new perspective on the much-debated issue of the links between intellectual property and access to medication. Using ethnographic case studies in Djibouti and Ghana, and insights from actor-network theory, it explores the ways in which TRIPs and pharmaceutical patents are translated in the daily practices of those who purchase, distribute, and use (or fail to use) medicines in sub-Saharan Africa. It suggests that focusing on routine practices and the material deployment of intellectual property significantly enriches our understanding of the complex dynamics that animate the field of access to medicines and helps relocate the role of law within those processes. It demonstrates how intellectual property affects access to medicines in ways that are often discreet, indirect and forgotten. By exploring these complex mechanisms, it seeks to ask questions about the modes of actions of pharmaceutical patents, but also, more generally, about the complexity of legal objects.



Patent Law in Global Perspective

Patent Law in Global Perspective Author Professor Ruth L. Okediji
ISBN-10 9780199334285
Release 2014-02-27
Pages 400
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Patent Law in Global Perspective addresses critical and timely questions in patent law from a truly global perspective, with contributions from leading patent law scholars from various countries. Offering fresh insights and new approaches to evaluating key institutional, economic, doctrinal, and practical issues, these chapters reflect critical analyses and review developments in national patent laws, efforts to reform the global patent system, and reconfigure geopolitical interests. Professors Ruth L. Okediji and Margo A. Bagley bring together the first collection to explore patent law issues through the lens of economic development theory, international relations, theoretical foundations for the patent law system in the global context, and more. Topics include: the role of patent law in economic development; the efficacy of patent rights in facilitating innovation; patents and access to medicines; comparative patentability standards (including subject matter eligibility for biotechnology and software inventions); limitations and exceptions to patent scope and protection (including exhaustion, compulsory licensing, and research exceptions); patents on plants and other living organisms; and the impact of emerging economies on global patent system governance. The contributors provide a wealth of original insight and thought-provoking discussion that will be of great interest and benefit to scholars, policymakers, and practitioners alike.



Making Medicines in Africa

Making Medicines in Africa Author Maureen Mackintosh
ISBN-10 9781137546470
Release 2016-02-03
Pages 334
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This book is open access under a CC-BY license. The importance of the pharmaceutical industry in Sub-Saharan Africa, its claim to policy priority, is rooted in the vast unmet health needs of the sub-continent. Making Medicines in Africa is a collective endeavour, by a group of contributors with a strong African and more broadly Southern presence, to find ways to link technological development, investment and industrial growth in pharmaceuticals to improve access to essential good quality medicines, as part of moving towards universal access to competent health care in Africa. The authors aim to shift the emphasis in international debate and initiatives towards sustained Africa-based and African-led initiatives to tackle this huge challenge. Without the technological, industrial, intellectual, organisational and research-related capabilities associated with competent pharmaceutical production, and without policies that pull the industrial sectors towards serving local health needs, the African sub-continent cannot generate the resources to tackle its populations' needs and demands. Research for this book has been selected as one of the 20 best examples of the impact of UK research on development. See http://www.ukcds.org.uk/the-global-impact-of-uk-research for further details.



India and the Patent Wars

India and the Patent Wars Author Murphy Halliburton
ISBN-10 9781501713989
Release 2017-11-15
Pages 202
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India and the Patent Wars contributes to an international debate over the costs of medicine and restrictions on access under stringent patent laws showing how activists and drug companies in low-income countries seize agency and exert influence over these processes. Murphy Halliburton contributes to analyses of globalization within the fields of anthropology, sociology, law, and public health by drawing on interviews and ethnographic work with pharmaceutical producers in India and the United States. India has been at the center of emerging controversies around patent rights related to pharmaceutical production and local medical knowledge. Halliburton shows that Big Pharma is not all-powerful, and that local activists and practitioners of ayurveda, India’s largest indigenous medical system, have been able to undermine the aspirations of multinational companies and the WTO. Halliburton traces how key drug prices have gone down, not up, in low-income countries under the new patent regime through partnerships between US- and India-based companies, but warns us to be aware of access to essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries going forward.



Contemporary Issues in Pharmaceutical Patent Law

Contemporary Issues in Pharmaceutical Patent Law Author Bryan Mercurio
ISBN-10 9781317389798
Release 2017-02-17
Pages 249
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This collection reflects on contemporary and contentious issues in international rulemaking in regards to pharmaceutical patent law. With chapters from both well-established and rising scholars, the collection contributes to the understanding of the regulatory framework governing pharmaceutical patents as an integrated discipline through the assessment of relevant laws, trends and policy options. Focusing on patent law and related pharmaceutical regulations, the collection addresses the pressing issues governments face in an attempt to resolve policy dilemmas involving competing interests, needs and objectives. The common theme running throughout the collection is the need for policy and law makers to think and act in a systemic manner and to be more reflective and responsive in finding new solutions within and outside the patent system to the long-standing problems as well as emerging challenges



Intellectual Property and Sustainable Development

Intellectual Property and Sustainable Development Author Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz
ISBN-10 9781849803458
Release 2009
Pages 459
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ÔThis is a thought-provoking book with relevance to a broad readership, especially IP practitioners with a strong international focus.Õ Ð Australian Intellectual Property Law Bulletin Intellectual property (IP) has gained an unprecedented importance in the new world of globalization and the knowledge economy. However, experience, as well as cyclical attitudes toward IP, show that there is no universal model of IP protection. This comprehensive book considers new and emerging IP issues from a development perspective, examining recent trends and developments in this area. Presenting an overview of the IP landscape in general, the contributing authors subsequently narrow their focus, providing wide-ranging case studies from countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America on topical issues in the current IP discourse. These include the impact of IP on the pharmaceutical sector, the protection of life forms and traditional knowledge, geographical indications, access to knowledge and public research institutes, and the role of competition policy. The challenges developing countries face in the TRIPS-Plus world are also explored in detail. The diverse range of contributions to this thought-provoking book offer a wide variety of alternative perspectives on and solutions for the controversial issues surrounding the role of IP within sustainable development. As such, it will prove a stimulating read for government policy-makers, trade negotiators, academics, lawyers and IP practitioners in general, UN and other intergovernmental agencies, development campaigners and aid agencies, environmentalist groups and university students.



Global Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic

Global Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic Author Bradly J. Condon
ISBN-10 9783540783923
Release 2008-07-22
Pages 366
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We began to research for this book in 2000, with the idea that we might contribute to the search for solutions to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic by c- bining perspectives from different disciplines. Much has happened in the interv- ing years. First, the severity of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa – and the threat it posed for many others regions of the world – led to a movement among several countries to correct the imbalance between producers and users of ph- maceutical products. This effort produced a clarification of the right of gove- ments to produce generic medicine under compulsory licenses and an amendment of the World Trade Organization’s TRIPS Agreement to allow exports of generic medicines from one WTO Member to another. In 2007, the amended rules were put into practice, with Canada authorizing the export of generic antiretroviral drugs to Rwanda. However, at the same time, global patent laws have been undermined due to regulatory capture, most notably in free trade agreements and through political pressure on countries like Thailand to not to exercise their right to issue compulsory licenses for pharmaceutical products. Second, the amount of money available for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS has increased dramatically, with the establishment of the World Bank Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program for Africa (MAP), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), among other funding initiatives.



Protecting Moral Rights Under Copyright Law

Protecting Moral Rights Under Copyright Law Author Poku Adusei
ISBN-10 3838328302
Release 2009-12
Pages 140
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Protecting Moral Rights Under Copyright Law has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Protecting Moral Rights Under Copyright Law also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Protecting Moral Rights Under Copyright Law book for free.



Key Aspects of German Employment and Labour Law

Key Aspects of German Employment and Labour Law Author Jens Kirchner
ISBN-10 3642006787
Release 2010-06-16
Pages 343
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This publication gives an overview of all key aspects of German labour and employment law as well as adjoining fields. Legal professionals with expert knowledge and many years of experience explain the legal basis of these aspects of German law, point out typical practical problems and suggest solutions to those problems. In addition, examples are given on how to best manage legal pitfalls to minimize risks. This book translates employment and labour law for foreign in-house counsels and human resources managers at international companies and provides a clear understanding of the complex legal regulations in Germany. All three editors of the book, Dr. Jens Kirchner, Pascal R. Kremp and Michael Magotsch, are key legal professionals working at the Frankfurt office of DLA Piper, one of the largest legal services providers in the world (www.dlapiper.com), with national and multinational clients. Their experience includes the management of cross-border restructurings, outsourcing and transfer of undertaking measures, as well as the management of national and multi-jurisdictional merger and acquisitions projects, including post-merger integration processes.



Private Patents and Public Health

Private Patents and Public Health Author Ellen F. M. 't Hoen
ISBN-10 9079700851
Release 2016
Pages 181
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Millions of people around the world do not have access to the medicines they need to treat disease or alleviate suffering. Strict patent regimes introduced following the establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1995 interfere with widespread access to medicines by creating monopolies that keep medicines prices well out of reach for many. 0The AIDS crisis in the late nineties brought access to medicines challenges to the public?s attention, when millions of people in developing countries died from an illness for which medicines existed, but were not available or affordable. Faced with an unprecedented health crisis ? 8,000 people dying daily ? the public health community launched an unprecedented global effort that eventually resulted in the large-scale availability of low-priced generic HIV medicines. 0But now, high prices of new medicines - for example, for cancer, tuberculosis and hepatitis C - are limiting access to treatment in low-, middle and high-income countries alike. Patent-based monopolies affect almost all medicines developed since 1995 in most countries, and global health policy is now at a critical juncture if the world is to avoid new access to medicines crises. 0This book discusses lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS crisis, and asks whether actions taken to extend access and save lives are exclusive to HIV or can be applied more broadly to new global access challenges.



The Company Legal Department

The Company Legal Department Author Walter Kolvenbach
ISBN-10 9789401744850
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 135
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This study attempts to describe the role of the company law department within the company, its relation to company management and the employees who use the services of the company lawyers. It, furthermore, tries to explain that the legal advice is only one part of the operation of a legal department in a business enterprise. Other important aspects are the legal costs, organiza tional questions and coordination problems within the department as well as the relationship of the company legal department with the other departments in the enterprise and, last but not least, the relationship between house counsel and outside counsel. The increasing volume of legislation and regulations in all industrialized -countries resulted in an increase in the number of company legal departments and company lawyers. All large companies now have their own company legal department. Therefore, it seems appropriate to attempt to describe some aspects relating to this part of the legal profession, which is relatively new, and which has developed differently from country to country. The position of the company counsel and his relationship with the company and its em ployees, his professional background and his relationship with the Bar are important subjects which require further study.



The Power of Pills

The Power of Pills Author Jillian Cohen
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105134512651
Release 2006-10-20
Pages 297
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Unique textbook covering everything you need to know about the pharmaceutical industry -- from regulation to ethical questions



Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs

Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs Author Committee on Understanding the Global Public Health Implications of Substandard, Falsified, and Counterfeit Medical Products
ISBN-10 9780309269391
Release 2013-05-20
Pages 351
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The adulteration and fraudulent manufacture of medicines is an old problem, vastly aggravated by modern manufacturing and trade. In the last decade, impotent antimicrobial drugs have compromised the treatment of many deadly diseases in poor countries. More recently, negligent production at a Massachusetts compounding pharmacy sickened hundreds of Americans. While the national drugs regulatory authority (hereafter, the regulatory authority) is responsible for the safety of a country's drug supply, no single country can entirely guarantee this today. The once common use of the term counterfeit to describe any drug that is not what it claims to be is at the heart of the argument. In a narrow, legal sense a counterfeit drug is one that infringes on a registered trademark. The lay meaning is much broader, including any drug made with intentional deceit. Some generic drug companies and civil society groups object to calling bad medicines counterfeit, seeing it as the deliberate conflation of public health and intellectual property concerns. Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs accepts the narrow meaning of counterfeit, and, because the nuances of trademark infringement must be dealt with by courts, case by case, the report does not discuss the problem of counterfeit medicines.



Intellectual Property Pharmaceuticals and Public Health

Intellectual Property  Pharmaceuticals and Public Health Author Kenneth C. Shadlen
ISBN-10 9780857938619
Release 2011-01-01
Pages 352
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'This impressive collection offers fascinating new perspectives on the impact of pharmaceutical patents on access to medicines in developing countries. The volume's editors have put together an important book that sets out clearly the challenges to public health in a wide range of national contexts. The book will be a valuable text for all scholars and decision-makers interested in the global politics of intellectual property rights and public health.' – Duncan Matthews, Queen Mary, University of London, UK This up-to-date book examines pharmaceutical development, access to medicines, and the protection of public health in the context of two fundamental changes that the global political economy has undergone since the 1970s, the globalization of trade and production and the increased harmonization of national regulations on intellectual property rights. With authors from eleven different countries presenting case studies of national experiences in Africa, Asia and the Americas, the book analyzes national strategies to promote pharmaceutical innovation, while at the same time assuring widespread access to medicines through generic pharmaceutical production and generic pharmaceutical importation. The expert chapters focus on patents as well as an array of regulatory instruments, including pricing and drug registration policies. Presenting in-depth analysis and original empirical research, this book will strongly appeal to academics and students of intellectual property, international health, international political economy, international development and law.