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Petascale Computing

Petascale Computing Author David A. Bader
ISBN-10 1584889101
Release 2007-12-22
Pages 616
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Although the highly anticipated petascale computers of the near future will perform at an order of magnitude faster than today’s quickest supercomputer, the scaling up of algorithms and applications for this class of computers remains a tough challenge. From scalable algorithm design for massive concurrency toperformance analyses and scientific visualization, Petascale Computing: Algorithms and Applications captures the state of the art in high-performance computing algorithms and applications. Featuring contributions from the world’s leading experts in computational science, this edited collection explores the use of petascale computers for solving the most difficult scientific and engineering problems of the current century. Covering a wide range of important topics, the book illustrates how petascale computing can be applied to space and Earth science missions, biological systems, weather prediction, climate science, disasters, black holes, and gamma ray bursts. It details the simulation of multiphysics, cosmological evolution, molecular dynamics, and biomolecules. The book also discusses computational aspects that include the Uintah framework, Enzo code, multithreaded algorithms, petaflops, performance analysis tools, multilevel finite element solvers, finite element code development, Charm++, and the Cactus framework. Supplying petascale tools, programming methodologies, and an eight-page color insert, this volume addresses the challenging problems of developing application codes that can take advantage of the architectural features of the new petascale systems in advance of their first deployment.



Eigenvalue Problems Algorithms Software and Applications in Petascale Computing

Eigenvalue Problems  Algorithms  Software and Applications in Petascale Computing Author Tetsuya Sakurai
ISBN-10 9783319624266
Release 2018-01-03
Pages 313
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This book provides state-of-the-art and interdisciplinary topics on solving matrix eigenvalue problems, particularly by using recent petascale and upcoming post-petascale supercomputers. It gathers selected topics presented at the International Workshops on Eigenvalue Problems: Algorithms; Software and Applications, in Petascale Computing (EPASA2014 and EPASA2015), which brought together leading researchers working on the numerical solution of matrix eigenvalue problems to discuss and exchange ideas – and in so doing helped to create a community for researchers in eigenvalue problems. The topics presented in the book, including novel numerical algorithms, high-performance implementation techniques, software developments and sample applications, will contribute to various fields that involve solving large-scale eigenvalue problems.



Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing

Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:925448250
Release 2014
Pages
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The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, "High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems", SC0004061/FG02-10ER25972, UW PRJ36WV.



Contemporary High Performance Computing

Contemporary High Performance Computing Author Jeffrey S. Vetter
ISBN-10 9781351103954
Release 2017-11-23
Pages 730
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Contemporary High Performance Computing: From Petascale toward Exascale focuses on the ecosystems surrounding the world’s leading centers for high performance computing (HPC). It covers many of the important factors involved in each ecosystem: computer architectures, software, applications, facilities, and sponsors. The first part of the book examines significant trends in HPC systems, including computer architectures, applications, performance, and software. It discusses the growth from terascale to petascale computing and the influence of the TOP500 and Green500 lists. The second part of the book provides a comprehensive overview of 18 HPC ecosystems from around the world. Each chapter in this section describes programmatic motivation for HPC and their important applications; a flagship HPC system overview covering computer architecture, system software, programming systems, storage, visualization, and analytics support; and an overview of their data center/facility. The last part of the book addresses the role of clouds and grids in HPC, including chapters on the Magellan, FutureGrid, and LLGrid projects. With contributions from top researchers directly involved in designing, deploying, and using these supercomputing systems, this book captures a global picture of the state of the art in HPC.



Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing

Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:727182340
Release 2011
Pages
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The major achievements enabled by QMC Endstation grant include * Performance improvement on clusters of x86 multi-core systems, especially on Cray XT systems * New and improved methods for the wavefunction optimizations * New forms of trial wavefunctions * Implementation of the full application on NVIDIA GPUs using CUDA The scaling studies of QMCPACK on large-scale systems show excellent parallel efficiency up to 216K cores on Jaguarpf (Cray XT5). The GPU implementation shows speedups of 10-15x over the CPU implementation on older generation of x86. We have implemented hybrid OpenMP/MPI scheme in QMC to take advantage of multi-core shared memory processors of petascale systems. Our hybrid scheme has several advantages over the standard MPI-only scheme. * Memory optimized: large read-only data to store one-body orbitals and other shared properties to represent the trial wave function and many-body Hamiltonian can be shared among threads, which reduces the memory footprint of a large-scale problem. * Cache optimized: the data associated with an active Walker are in cache during the compute-intensive drift-diffusion process and the operations on an Walker are optimized for cache reuse. Thread-local objects are used to ensure the data affinity to a thread. * Load balanced: Walkers in an ensemble are evenly distributed among threads and MPI tasks. The two-level parallelism reduces the population imbalance among MPI tasks and reduces the number of point-to-point communications of large messages (serialized objects) for the Walker exchange. * Communication optimized: the communication overhead, especially for the collective operations necessary to determine ET and measure the properties of an ensemble, is significantly lowered by using less MPI tasks. The multiple forms of parallelism afforded by QMC algorithms make them ideal candidates for acceleration in the many-core paradigm. We presented the results of our effort to port the QMCPACK simulation code to the NVIDIA CUDA GPU platform. We restructured the CPU algorithms to express additional parallelism, minimize GPU-CPU communication, and efficiently utilize the GPU memory hierarchy. Using mixed precision on GT200 GPUs and MPI for intercommunication and load balancing, we observe typical full-application speedups of approximately 10x to 15x relative to quad-core Xeon CPUs alone, while reproducing the double-precision CPU results within statistical error. We developed an all-electron quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method for solids that does not rely on pseudopotentials, and used it to construct a primary ultra-high-pressure calibration based on the equation of state of cubic boron nitride. We computed the static contribution to the free energy with the QMC method and obtained the phonon contribution from density functional theory, yielding a high-accuracy calibration up to 900 GPa usable directly in experiment. We computed the anharmonic Raman frequency shift with QMC simulations as a function of pressure and temperature, allowing optical pressure calibration. In contrast to present experimental approaches, small systematic errors in the theoretical EOS do not increase with pressure, and no extrapolation is needed. This all-electron method is applicable to first-row solids, providing a new reference for ab initio calculations of solids and benchmarks for pseudopotential accuracy. We compared experimental and theoretical results on the momentum distribution and the quasiparticle renormalization factor in sodium. From an x-ray Compton-profile measurement of the valence-electron momentum density, we derived its discontinuity at the Fermi wavevector finding an accurate measure of the renormalization factor that we compared with quantum-Monte-Carlo and G0W0 calculations performed both on crystalline sodium and on the homogeneous electron gas. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the experiment. We have been studying the heat of formation for various Kubas complexes of molecular hydrogen on Ti(1,2)ethylene-nH2 using Diffusion Monte Carlo. This work has been started and is ongoing. We are studying systems involving 1 and 2 Ti bonding sites with up to 10 hydrogen molecules in numerous configurations. This work will establish a benchmark that will test the accuracy of density functional calculations and establish the feasibility of our methods for similar systems.



Parallel Computing

Parallel Computing Author Barbara Chapman
ISBN-10 9781607505297
Release 2010-01-01
Pages 739
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Parallel computing technologies have brought dramatic changes to mainstream computing; the majority of today's PC's, laptops and even notebooks incorporate multiprocessor chips with up to four processors. Standard components are increasingly combined with GPU's (Graphics Processing Unit), originally designed for high-speed graphics processing, and FPGA's (Free Programmable Gate Array) to build parallel computers with a wide spectrum of high-speed processing functions. The scale of this powerful hardware is limited only by factors such as energy consumption and thermal control However, in addition to hardware factors, the practical use of petascale and exascale machines is often hampered by the difficulty of developing software which will run effectively and efficiently on such architecture This book includes selected and refereed papers, presented at the 2009 international Parallel Computing conference (ParCo2009), which set out to address these problems. It provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of parallel computing technologies in hardware, application and software development Areas covered include: numerical algorithms, grid and cloud computing, programming - including GPU and cell programming. The book also includes papers presented at the six mini-symposia held at the conference



Final Report

Final Report Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:962171975
Release 2014
Pages 12
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In the course of developing parallel programs for leadership computing systems, subtle programming errors often arise that are extremely difficult to diagnose without tools. To meet this challenge, University of Maryland, the University of Wisconsin--Madison, and Rice University worked to develop lightweight tools to help code developers pinpoint a variety of program correctness errors that plague parallel scientific codes. The aim of this project was to develop software tools that help diagnose program errors including memory leaks, memory access errors, round-off errors, and data races. Research at Rice University focused on developing algorithms and data structures to support efficient monitoring of multithreaded programs for memory access errors and data races. This is a final report about research and development work at Rice University as part of this project.



Inflation in the World Economy

Inflation in the World Economy Author Michael Parkin
ISBN-10 0719007003
Release 1977
Pages 334
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Inflation in the World Economy has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Inflation in the World Economy also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Inflation in the World Economy book for free.



Final Report for Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing

Final Report for Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:967919323
Release 2015
Pages 7
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This project concentrated on various aspects of creating tool infrastructure to make it easier to program large-scale parallel computers. This project was collaborative with the University of Wisconsin and closely related to the project DE-SC0002606 ("Tools for the Development of High Performance Energy Applications and Systems") . The research conducted during this project is summarized in this report. The complete details of the work are available in the ten publications listed at the end of the report. Many of the concepts created during this project have been incorporated into tools and made available as freely downloadable software (at www.dyninst.org). It also supported the Ph. D. studies of three students and one research staff member.



Scientific Computing with Multicore and Accelerators

Scientific Computing with Multicore and Accelerators Author Jakub Kurzak
ISBN-10 9781439825372
Release 2010-12-07
Pages 514
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The hybrid/heterogeneous nature of future microprocessors and large high-performance computing systems will result in a reliance on two major types of components: multicore/manycore central processing units and special purpose hardware/massively parallel accelerators. While these technologies have numerous benefits, they also pose substantial performance challenges for developers, including scalability, software tuning, and programming issues. Researchers at the Forefront Reveal Results from Their Own State-of-the-Art Work Edited by some of the top researchers in the field and with contributions from a variety of international experts, Scientific Computing with Multicore and Accelerators focuses on the architectural design and implementation of multicore and manycore processors and accelerators, including graphics processing units (GPUs) and the Sony Toshiba IBM (STI) Cell Broadband Engine (BE) currently used in the Sony PlayStation 3. The book explains how numerical libraries, such as LAPACK, help solve computational science problems; explores the emerging area of hardware-oriented numerics; and presents the design of a fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a parallel list ranking algorithm for the Cell BE. It covers stencil computations, auto-tuning, optimizations of a computational kernel, sequence alignment and homology, and pairwise computations. The book also evaluates the portability of drug design applications to the Cell BE and illustrates how to successfully exploit the computational capabilities of GPUs for scientific applications. It concludes with chapters on dataflow frameworks, the Charm++ programming model, scan algorithms, and a portable intracore communication framework. Explores the New Computational Landscape of Hybrid Processors By offering insight into the process of constructing and effectively using the technology, this volume provides a thorough and practical introduction to the area of hybrid computing. It discusses introductory concepts and simple examples of parallel computing, logical and performance debugging for parallel computing, and advanced topics and issues related to the use and building of many applications.



Advanced Software Technologies for Post Peta Scale Computing

Advanced Software Technologies for Post Peta Scale Computing Author Mitsuhisa Sato
ISBN-10 9811319235
Release 2018-12-10
Pages
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Covering research topics from system software such as programming languages, compilers, runtime systems, operating systems, communication middleware, and large-scale file systems, as well as application development support software and big-data processing software, this book presents cutting-edge software technologies for extreme scale computing. The findings presented here will provide researchers in these fields with important insights for the further development of exascale computing technologies. This book grew out of the post-peta CREST research project funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, the goal of which was to establish software technologies for exploring extreme performance computing beyond petascale computing. The respective were contributed by 14 research teams involved in the project. In addition to advanced technologies for large-scale numerical computation, the project addressed the technologies required for big data and graph processing, the complexity of memory hierarchy, and the power problem. Mapping the direction of future high-performance computing was also a central priority.



Contemporary High Performance Computing

Contemporary High Performance Computing Author Jeffrey S. Vetter
ISBN-10 9781351103954
Release 2017-11-23
Pages 730
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Contemporary High Performance Computing: From Petascale toward Exascale focuses on the ecosystems surrounding the world’s leading centers for high performance computing (HPC). It covers many of the important factors involved in each ecosystem: computer architectures, software, applications, facilities, and sponsors. The first part of the book examines significant trends in HPC systems, including computer architectures, applications, performance, and software. It discusses the growth from terascale to petascale computing and the influence of the TOP500 and Green500 lists. The second part of the book provides a comprehensive overview of 18 HPC ecosystems from around the world. Each chapter in this section describes programmatic motivation for HPC and their important applications; a flagship HPC system overview covering computer architecture, system software, programming systems, storage, visualization, and analytics support; and an overview of their data center/facility. The last part of the book addresses the role of clouds and grids in HPC, including chapters on the Magellan, FutureGrid, and LLGrid projects. With contributions from top researchers directly involved in designing, deploying, and using these supercomputing systems, this book captures a global picture of the state of the art in HPC.



Euro Par 2006 Parallel Processing

Euro Par 2006  Parallel Processing Author Wolfgang Lehner
ISBN-10 9783540723370
Release 2007-06-27
Pages 332
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed joint post-proceedings of the three International Workshops on Grid Middleware, CoreGrid 2006, the UNICORE Summit 2006, and the Workshop on Petascale Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, held in Dresden, Germany, in August/September 2006, in conjunction with Euro-Par 2006, the 12th International Conference on Parallel Computing.



Data centric Parallel Debugging Technique for Petascale Computers

Data centric Parallel Debugging Technique for Petascale Computers Author Minh Ngoc Dinh
ISBN-10 OCLC:1011508109
Release 2012
Pages 214
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Petascale computers and computing systems have the potential to solve large-scale, data-intensive problems in science and engineering. Petascale scientific applications, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), involve enormous multi-dimensional data structures and operate with hundreds of thousands of concurrent processing threads. On the one hand, programming languages and environments have evolved significantly to support parallel application developers to explore the advantages in terms of computational power and memory usage. Co-array Fortran, Split-C, MPI and OpenMP are some successful examples. On the other hand, debugging tools for highly parallel software are still immature, especially in techniques for controlling multiple processes and monitoring large scale data structures during debugging time. Typically, contemporary parallel debuggers allow users to control more than one processing thread while supporting the same examination and visualisation operations that of sequential debuggers. This approach restricts the use of parallel debuggers when it comes to large scale scientific applications run across hundreds of thousands compute cores. First, manually observing the runtime data to detect error becomes impractical because the data is too big. Second, performing expensive but useful debugging operations, such as distributed expression evaluation, becomes infeasible as the computational codes become more complex, involving larger data structures, and as the machines become larger.This thesis explores the idea of a data-centric debugging approach, which could be used to make parallel debuggers more powerful. It discusses the use of ad-hoc debug-time assertions that allow a user to reason about the state of a parallel computation. These assertions are modeled on programming language systems that support the verification and validation of program state as a whole rather than focusing on that of only a single process state. The advantage of this approach is the capability to reason about the massive data structure at runtime. Furthermore, on parallel machines, the debugger's performance can be improved by exploiting the underlying parallel platform. The available compute cores can execute parallel debugging functions while idling at a program breakpoint.



High Performance Computing for Structural Mechanics and Earthquake Tsunami Engineering

High Performance Computing for Structural Mechanics and Earthquake Tsunami Engineering Author Shinobu Yoshimura
ISBN-10 9783319210483
Release 2015-10-26
Pages 199
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Huge earthquakes and tsunamis have caused serious damage to important structures such as civil infrastructure elements, buildings and power plants around the globe. To quantitatively evaluate such damage processes and to design effective prevention and mitigation measures, the latest high-performance computational mechanics technologies, which include telascale to petascale computers, can offer powerful tools. The phenomena covered in this book include seismic wave propagation in the crust and soil, seismic response of infrastructure elements such as tunnels considering soil-structure interactions, seismic response of high-rise buildings, seismic response of nuclear power plants, tsunami run-up over coastal towns and tsunami inundation considering fluid-structure interactions. The book provides all necessary information for addressing these phenomena, ranging from the fundamentals of high-performance computing for finite element methods, key algorithms of accurate dynamic structural analysis, fluid flows with free surfaces, and fluid-structure interactions, to practical applications with detailed simulation results. The book will offer essential insights for researchers and engineers working in the field of computational seismic/tsunami engineering.



Exascale Scientific Applications

Exascale Scientific Applications Author Tjerk P. Straatsma
ISBN-10 9781351999243
Release 2017-11-13
Pages 582
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From the Foreword: "The authors of the chapters in this book are the pioneers who will explore the exascale frontier. The path forward will not be easy... These authors, along with their colleagues who will produce these powerful computer systems will, with dedication and determination, overcome the scalability problem, discover the new algorithms needed to achieve exascale performance for the broad range of applications that they represent, and create the new tools needed to support the development of scalable and portable science and engineering applications. Although the focus is on exascale computers, the benefits will permeate all of science and engineering because the technologies developed for the exascale computers of tomorrow will also power the petascale servers and terascale workstations of tomorrow. These affordable computing capabilities will empower scientists and engineers everywhere." — Thom H. Dunning, Jr., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA "This comprehensive summary of applications targeting Exascale at the three DoE labs is a must read." — Rio Yokota, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan "Numerical simulation is now a need in many fields of science, technology, and industry. The complexity of the simulated systems coupled with the massive use of data makes HPC essential to move towards predictive simulations. Advances in computer architecture have so far permitted scientific advances, but at the cost of continually adapting algorithms and applications. The next technological breakthroughs force us to rethink the applications by taking energy consumption into account. These profound modifications require not only anticipation and sharing but also a paradigm shift in application design to ensure the sustainability of developments by guaranteeing a certain independence of the applications to the profound modifications of the architectures: it is the passage from optimal performance to the portability of performance. It is the challenge of this book to demonstrate by example the approach that one can adopt for the development of applications offering performance portability in spite of the profound changes of the computing architectures." — Christophe Calvin, CEA, Fundamental Research Division, Saclay, France "Three editors, one from each of the High Performance Computer Centers at Lawrence Berkeley, Argonne, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, have compiled a very useful set of chapters aimed at describing software developments for the next generation exa-scale computers. Such a book is needed for scientists and engineers to see where the field is going and how they will be able to exploit such architectures for their own work. The book will also benefit students as it provides insights into how to develop software for such computer architectures. Overall, this book fills an important need in showing how to design and implement algorithms for exa-scale architectures which are heterogeneous and have unique memory systems. The book discusses issues with developing user codes for these architectures and how to address these issues including actual coding examples.’ — Dr. David A. Dixon, Robert Ramsay Chair, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA



Desktop Grid Computing

Desktop Grid Computing Author Christophe Cerin
ISBN-10 9781439862148
Release 2012-06-25
Pages 388
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Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book’s first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical issues, offers details about implementation and experiments, and includes references to further reading and notes. One of the first books to give a thorough and up-to-date presentation of this topic, this resource describes various approaches and models as well as recent trends that underline the evolution of desktop grids. It balances the theory of designing desktop grid middleware and architecture with applications and real-world deployment on large-scale platforms.