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Phosphoric Acid

Phosphoric Acid Author Rodney Gilmour
ISBN-10 9781439895160
Release 2013-12-12
Pages 354
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The rise and rationalization of the industrial phosphates industry have gone hand in hand with the development and maturation of technologies to purify phosphoric acid. In the 1960s and 70s, driven by the exponential sales growth of the detergent-builder sodium tripolyphosphate, chemical producers raced to develop processes that would provide a sufficiently pure phosphoric acid feedstock for manufacture to undercut thermal phosphoric acid made from phosphorus. As environmental and political pressure led to a collapse in demand for sodium tripolyphosphate in the 1990s, the commercial pressures to rationalize at plant and corporate levels rose such that only the fittest survived. Phosphoric Acid: Purification, Uses, Technology, and Economics, the first and only book of its kind to be written on this topic, covers the development of purification technologies for phosphoric acid, especially solvent extraction, describing the more successful processes and setting this period in the historical context of the last 350 years. Individual chapters are devoted to the key derivative products which are still undergoing active development, as well as to sustainability and how to approach the commissioning of these plants. The text is aimed at students of chemistry, chemical engineering, business, and industrial history, and to new entrants to the industry.



Phosphorus Recovery and Recycling

Phosphorus Recovery and Recycling Author Hisao Ohtake
ISBN-10 9789811080319
Release 2018-05-25
Pages 526
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This book focuses on the engineering aspects of phosphorus (P) recovery and recycling, presenting recent research advances and applications of technologies in this important and challenging area of engineering. It highlights full-scale applications to illustrate the performance and effectiveness of the new technologies. As an essential element for all living organisms, P cannot be replaced by any other element in biochemical processes, humans ultimately rely its availability. Today, P is mostly obtained from mined rock phosphate (Pi). However, natural reserves of high-grade rock Pi are limited and dwindling on a global scale. As such, there have been increased efforts to recycle P from secondary sources, including sewage sludge, animal manure, food waste, and steelmaking slag, and so close the anthropogenic P cycle. In addition to various aspects of phosphorus covered by other literature, including chemistry, biochemistry, ecology, soil-plant systems and sustainable management, this book is a valuable and comprehensive source of information on the rapidly evolving field of P recovery and recycling engineering for students, researchers, and professionals responsible for sustainable use of phosphorus.



Principles of Sugar Technology

Principles of Sugar Technology Author Pieter Honig
ISBN-10 9781483275109
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 790
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Principles of Sugar Technology focuses on the principles, methodologies, and processes involved in sugar technology, including properties of sugar and agents involved in its manufacture. The selection first offers information on the chemical and physical properties of sucrose, as well as decomposition, structure of the sucrose molecule, sucrose derivatives, crystallized and amorphous sucrose, and solvents. The book then takes a look at the physical and chemical properties of reducing sugars and non-nitrogenous organic acids of sugarcane. The publication ponders on nitrogen-containing nonsugars (amino acids and proteins), complex organic nonsugars of high molecular weight, and lipids of sugarcane. Discussions focus on the distribution of nitrogen in sugarcane, amino acids in cane juice and leaves, lignin, pectin, proteins, and significance of waxy and fatty lipids in sugar manufacture. The text also examines color and colored nonsugars, inorganic nonsugars, and agents used in sugar manufacture. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in sugar technology.



Compendium of Hydrogen Energy

Compendium of Hydrogen Energy Author Frano Barbir
ISBN-10 9781782423850
Release 2015-09-25
Pages 328
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Compendium of Hydrogen Energy: Hydrogen Energy Conversion, Volume Three is the third part of a four volume series and focuses on the methods of converting stored hydrogen into useful energy. The other three volumes focus on hydrogen production and purification; hydrogen storage and transmission; and hydrogen use, safety, and the hydrogen economy, respectively. Many experts believe that, in time, the hydrogen economy will replace the fossil fuel economy as the primary source of energy. Once hydrogen has been produced and stored, it can then be converted via fuel cells or internal combustion engines into useful energy. This volume highlights how different fuel cells and hydrogen-fueled combustion engines and turbines work. The first part of the volume investigates various types of hydrogen fuel cells, including solid oxide, molten carbonate, and proton exchange membrane. The second part looks at hydrogen combustion energy, and the final section explores the use of metal hydrides in hydrogen energy conversion. Highlights how different fuel cells and hydrogen-fueled combustion engines and turbines work Features input written by leading academics in the field of sustainable energy and experts from the world of industry Examines various types of hydrogen fuel cells, including solid oxide, molten carbonate, and proton exchange membrane Presents part of a very comprehensive compendium which, across four volumes, looks at the entirety of the hydrogen energy economy



Insect Molecular Genetics

Insect Molecular Genetics Author Marjorie A. Hoy
ISBN-10 9780240821313
Release 2013-04-09
Pages 838
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Insect Molecular Genetics, Third Edition, summarizes and synthesizes two rather disparate disciplines—entomology and molecular genetics. This volume provides an introduction to the techniques and literature of molecular genetics; defines terminology; and reviews concepts, principles, and applications of these powerful tools. The world of insect molecular genetics, once dominated by Drosophila, has become much more diverse, especially with the sequencing of multiple arthropod genomes (from spider mites to mosquitoes). This introduction includes discussion of honey bees, mosquitoes, flour beetles, silk moths, fruit flies, aphids, house flies, kissing bugs, cicadas, butterflies, tsetse flies and armyworms. This book serves as both a foundational text and a review of a rapidly growing literature. With fully revised and updated chapters, the third edition will be a valuable addition to the personal libraries of entomologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists. Up-to-date references to important review articles, websites, and seminal citations in the disciplines Well crafted and instructive illustrations integral to explaining the techniques of molecular genetics Glossary of terms to help beginners learn the vocabulary of molecular biology



Fertilizer sulfur and food production

Fertilizer sulfur and food production Author Mohinder Mudahar
ISBN-10 9789401715409
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 247
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Fertilizer is a vital component of strategies for expanding foodproduction. The rapid growth in population and the widening food deficits inmany tropical countries ofAsia, Africa, and Latin America call attention to those aspects of fertilization that have been neglected but are expected to yield large economic payoffs in the future. Fertilizer sulfur falls into this category. In the past fertilizer sulfur received little attention from researchers and policymakers since sulfur deficiency was not considered a serious problem. It was not a problem because of low crop yields, extensive cropping, and the incidental supply of sulfur through rain, irrigation water, manures, and sulfurcontaining fertilizers. However, the situation has changed in the last three decades. Moder nagriculture based on high crop yields, intensive cropping, improved crop varieties, and greater use of sulfur-free fertilizers and environmental regula tions restricting sulfur emissions are creating large gaps between sulfur sup ply and sulfur requirements. Sulfur deficiencies are widespread and grow ing. Consequently, the full potential of a modern agricultural system in tropical countries is not being realized. This research effort results from the recognition of the seriousness of the sulfur problem and its adverse impact on food production as well as IFDC's dedication to the development and transfer of economically ef ficient fertilizer technology to tropical countries. This study represents a comprehensive analysis ofthe technical and economic linkages between fer tilizer sulfur and food production, and it provides guidelines for future directions in fertilizer sulfur research and public policy.



Fuels and Fuel Technology

Fuels and Fuel Technology Author Wilfrid Francis
ISBN-10 9781483182261
Release 2016-01-22
Pages 366
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Fuels and Fuel Technology, Volume One: A Summarized Manual provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of fuels and fuel technology. This book presents a reasonably accurate summary of the existing knowledge and literature relating to fuel technology. Organized into two sections encompassing 72 data sheets, this volume begins with an overview of fuels as organic combustible substances used mainly or solely for the production of useful heat that are divided into three classes, namely, solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. This text then examines the main chemical components of wood. This book discusses as well the commercial production of peat. The final section deals with the calculations of theoretical and actual air requirements, dry and wet flue gases, and carbon dioxide in flue gases. This book is a valuable resource for chemists and fuel technologists. Students who are interested to obtain a qualification in the subject of fuels or fuel technology will also find this book useful.



Evil Beyond Belief

Evil Beyond Belief Author James Petrik
ISBN-10 9781315292717
Release 2016-09-17
Pages 200
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An introduction to and overview of the entire problem of evil, from a philosophical perspective. The text aims to be introductory and inclusive, both by familiarizing students with the main contours of the intellectual terrain, and by pointing them in the direction of further resources.



Green Energy

Green Energy Author U. Aswathanarayana
ISBN-10 9780203841464
Release 2010-08-11
Pages 364
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Renewable fuels, such as wind, solar, biomass, tides, and geothermal, are inexhaustible, indigenous, and often free. However, capturing them and transforming them into electricity, hydrogen, or clean transporation fuels often is not. Green Energy: Technology, Economics, and Policy addresses how to approach and apply technology, economics, and policy to bring down the costs involved with renewables, the most important challenge faced in the green era. Intended for students and professionals in resources, energy and environmental engineering and in economic fields focusing on green energy. It explores the ways and means of using technology, economics, and policy to address R & D issues, market penetration, improved efficiency, investment capital, policy changes, and more. It elucidates Green New Deal models in which the twin objectives of job generation and mitigation of climate change impacts are achieved through the harnessing of the transformative power of technology. The book links energy science and technology with energy economics, markets, policy, and planning. It describes how this can be accomplished through public – private partnership in the prosecution of Innovation Chain (Basic Research - Applied Research & Development - Demonstration - Deployment - Commercialization).



The Complete Technology Book on Chemical Industries

The Complete Technology Book on Chemical Industries Author NIIR Board
ISBN-10 9788178330686
Release 2003-08-03
Pages 443
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In modern age chemical industries have permeated most extensively in comparison with other industries and are progressing at a very rapid pace. Chemical Industry in India is one of the fastest growing industries under the Indian economy. The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products. Chemicals have contributed in various sectors like food industry, fertilizers, perfumery, fragrance and flavour etc. Chemicals are used to make a wide variety of consumer goods, as well as thousands inputs to agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and service industries. There are numerous chemicals produced in chemical industry for example chloroform, caffeine, fertilizers , dyes, drug intermediates, herbicide, inorganic salts, copper sulphate, acetaldehyde etc. The chemical industry itself consumes 26 percent of its own output. The Chemical Industry in India is based on the idea of diversification. For example inorganic chemicals is the sector where the growth rate is near about 9% and the chemicals produced in this sector are mainly used in alkalis, fertilizers, etc. Depending on the product categories the chemical industry is divided in many other sectors like drugs and pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, fine chemicals like dyes and paints etc. The chemical industry in India which generates almost 13% of total national export is growing annually at a growth rate anywhere between 10% and 12%. This book majorly deals with the molecular formula, raw materials, properties, laboratory testing, manufacturing process explained with flow diagrams and uses of the chemicals. The major contents of the book are inorganic salts, inorganic chemicals, industrial gas, fertilizers, alum, caffeine, ceramic chemicals etc. This book covers the production of more than 100 chemicals for example acetanilide, methylamine, butylamine, linalol, phosphorous, salicylic acid etc. This book should be of great value to young chemical engineers and chemists who are just entering the field but those already practicing will find much of interest and use for broadening of their insight in to fields in which they are only marginally informed. It is hoped that this book will aid to young engineers, chemical, civil, mechanical and electrical as well as chemists, in understanding the value of chemical, the type of problems met in their production and method for solving these problems.



Proceedings of the XXI International Mineral Processing Congress July 23 27 2000 Rome Italy

Proceedings of the XXI International Mineral Processing Congress  July 23 27  2000  Rome  Italy Author P. Massacci
ISBN-10 9780080543895
Release 2000-07-13
Pages 2276
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These three volumes (Golden Nuggets) present the latest knowledge in the science and technology of mineral processing and new industry applications, related to the following topics: mineral and material characterization and liberation, comminution, classification and agglomeration, hydro and biohydrometallurgy, physical separation processing, flotation, and process simulation and control. Due to the increasing application of mineral processing techniques in waste treatment, recycling and soil remediation have received special attention. The three volumes present a selected collection of peer-reviewed papers devoted both to the theory of mineral processing (Volumes A and B) and to process design and plant application (Volume C).



Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells

Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells Author S. S. Penner
ISBN-10 9781483190976
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 242
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Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells covers the status of fuel cell research and development efforts, as well as inputs on research needs. Chapter 1 presents a summary of research recommendations and Chapters 2-6 describes the surveys on salient features of individual fuel cell types, including elaborations of long-term research needs relating to the expeditious introduction of improved fuel cells. The book further tackles phosphoric acid fuel cells; alkaline fuel cells; solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells; molten carbonate fuel cells; and high-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells.



Process Intensification

Process Intensification Author David Reay
ISBN-10 9780080983059
Release 2013-06-05
Pages 624
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Process Intensification: Engineering for Efficiency, Sustainability and Flexibility is the first book to provide a practical working guide to understanding process intensification (PI) and developing successful PI solutions and applications in chemical process, civil, environmental, energy, pharmaceutical, biological, and biochemical systems. Process intensification is a chemical and process design approach that leads to substantially smaller, cleaner, safer, and more energy efficient process technology. It improves process flexibility, product quality, speed to market and inherent safety, with a reduced environmental footprint. This book represents a valuable resource for engineers working with leading-edge process technologies, and those involved research and development of chemical, process, environmental, pharmaceutical, and bioscience systems. No other reference covers both the technology and application of PI, addressing fundamentals, industry applications, and including a development and implementation guide Covers hot and high growth topics, including emission prevention, sustainable design, and pinch analysis World-class authors: Colin Ramshaw pioneered PI at ICI and is widely credited as the father of the technology



26th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

26th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Author
ISBN-10 9780444634443
Release 2016-06-17
Pages 2486
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26th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering contains the papers presented at the 26th European Society of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE) Event held at Portorož Slovenia, from June 12th to June 15th, 2016. Themes discussed at the conference include Process-product Synthesis, Design and Integration, Modelling, Numerical analysis, Simulation and Optimization, Process Operations and Control and Education in CAPE/PSE. Presents findings and discussions from the 26th European Society of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE) Event



Chemistry in Its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology

Chemistry in Its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology Author Justus Freiherr von Liebig
ISBN-10 BSB:BSB10073250
Release 1847
Pages 418
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Chemistry in Its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Chemistry in Its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Chemistry in Its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology book for free.



Thermodynamics in Geochemistry

Thermodynamics in Geochemistry Author Gregor Munro Anderson
ISBN-10 9780195064643
Release 1993
Pages 588
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This textbook and reference outlines the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, emphasizing applications in geochemistry. The work is distinguished by its comprehensive, balanced coverage and its rigorous presentation. The authors bring years of teaching experience to the work, and have attempted to particularly address those areas where other texts on the subject have provided inadequate coverage. A thorough review of the necessary mathematics is presented early on, both as a refresher for those with a background in university calculus, and for the benefit of those coming to the subject for the first time. The text is written for students in advanced undergraduate or graduate-level geochemistry as well as for all researchers in this field.



Active carbon

Active carbon Author Milan Smíšek
ISBN-10 UCAL:B4456015
Release 1970
Pages 479
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Active carbon has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Active carbon also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Active carbon book for free.