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Plasticity Robustness Development and Evolution

Plasticity  Robustness  Development and Evolution Author Patrick Bateson
ISBN-10 9781139496285
Release 2011-06-30
Pages
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How do we understand and explain the apparent dichotomy between plasticity and robustness in the context of development? Can we identify these complex processes without resorting to 'either/or' solutions? Written by two leaders in the field, this is the first book to fully unravel the complexity of the subject, explaining that the epigenetic processes generating plasticity and robustness are in fact deeply intertwined. It identifies the different mechanisms that generate robustness and the various forms of plasticity, before considering the functional significance of the integrated mechanisms and how the component processes might have evolved. Finally, it highlights the ways in which epigenetic mechanisms could be instrumental in driving evolutionary change. Essential reading for biologists and psychologists interested in epigenetics and evolution, this book is also a valuable resource for biological anthropologists, sociobiologists, child psychologists and paediatricians.



Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality Evolution Culture and Wisdom Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology

Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality  Evolution  Culture  and Wisdom  Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology Author Darcia Narvaez
ISBN-10 9780393709674
Release 2014-10-20
Pages 456
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Winner of the Inaugural Expanded Reason Award: A wide-ranging exploration of the role of childhood experiences in adult morality. Moral development has traditionally been considered a matter of reasoning—of learning and acting in accordance with abstract rules. On this model, largely taken for granted in modern societies, acts of selfishness, aggression, and ecological mindlessness are failures of will, moral problems that can be solved by acting in accordance with a higher rationality. But both ancient philosophy and recent scientific scholarship emphasize implicit systems, such as action schemas and perceptual filters that guide behavior and shape human development. In this integrative book, Darcia Narvaez argues that morality goes “all the way down” into our neurobiological and emotional development, and that a person’s moral architecture is largely established early on in life. Moral rationality and virtue emerge “bottom up” from lived experience, so it matters what that experience is. Bringing together deep anthropological history, ethical philosophy, and contemporary neurobiological science, she demonstrates where modern industrialized societies have fallen away from the cultural practices that made us human in the first place. Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality advances the field of developmental moral psychology in three key ways. First, it provides an evolutionary framework for early childhood experience grounded in developmental systems theory, encompassing not only genes but a wide array of environmental and epigenetic factors. Second, it proposes a neurobiological basis for the development of moral sensibilities and cognition, describing ethical functioning at multiple levels of complexity and context before turning to a theory of the emergence of wisdom. Finally, it embraces the sociocultural orientations of our ancestors and cousins in small-band hunter-gatherer societies—the norm for 99% of human history—for a re-envisioning of moral life, from the way we value and organize child raising to how we might frame a response to human-made global ecological collapse. Integrating the latest scholarship in clinical sciences and positive psychology, Narvaez proposes a developmentally informed ecological and ethical sensibility as a way to self-author and revise the ways we think about parenting and sociality. The techniques she describes point towards an alternative vision of moral development and flourishing, one that synthesizes traditional models of executive, top-down wisdom with “primal” wisdom built by multiple systems of biological and cultural influence from the ground up.



Evolutionary Origins and Early Development of Number Processing

Evolutionary Origins and Early Development of Number Processing Author David C. Geary
ISBN-10 9780128008881
Release 2014-11-04
Pages 400
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The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition. The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant substantive and methodological challenges to help advance the field of basic number processing. Introductory sections and summaries will be included to provide background for non-specialist readers.



Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology Author
ISBN-10 9780128004265
Release 2016-04-14
Pages 2132
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Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process



Ecological Genomics

Ecological Genomics Author Christian R. Landry
ISBN-10 9789400773479
Release 2013-11-25
Pages 359
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Researchers in the field of ecological genomics aim to determine how a genome or a population of genomes interacts with its environment across ecological and evolutionary timescales. Ecological genomics is trans-disciplinary by nature. Ecologists have turned to genomics to be able to elucidate the mechanistic bases of the biodiversity their research tries to understand. Genomicists have turned to ecology in order to better explain the functional cellular and molecular variation they observed in their model organisms. We provide an advanced-level book that covers this recent research and proposes future development for this field. A synthesis of the field of ecological genomics emerges from this volume. Ecological Genomics covers a wide array of organisms (microbes, plants and animals) in order to be able to identify central concepts that motivate and derive from recent investigations in different branches of the tree of life. Ecological Genomics covers 3 fields of research that have most benefited from the recent technological and conceptual developments in the field of ecological genomics: the study of life-history evolution and its impact of genome architectures; the study of the genomic bases of phenotypic plasticity and the study of the genomic bases of adaptation and speciation.



Does Altruism Exist

Does Altruism Exist Author David Sloan Wilson
ISBN-10 9780300206753
Release 2015-03-01
Pages 192
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David Sloan Wilson, one of the world’s leading evolutionists, addresses a question that has puzzled philosophers, psychologists, and evolutionary biologists for centuries: Does altruism exist naturally among the Earth’s creatures? The key to understanding the existence of altruism, Wilson argues, is by understanding the role it plays in the social organization of groups. Groups that function like organisms indubitably exist, and organisms evolved from groups. Evolutionists largely agree on how functionally organized groups evolve, ending decades of controversy, but the resolution casts altruism in a new light: altruism exists but shouldn’t necessarily occupy center stage in our understanding of social behavior. After laying a general theoretical foundation, Wilson surveys altruism and group-level functional organization in our own species—in religion, in economics, and in the rest of everyday life. He shows that altruism is not categorically good and can have pathological consequences. Finally, he shows how a social theory that goes beyond altruism by focusing on group function can help to improve the human condition in a practical sense. Does Altruism Exist? puts old controversies to rest and will become the center of debate for decades to come.



Development Function and Evolution of Teeth

Development  Function and Evolution of Teeth Author Mark F. Teaford
ISBN-10 1139429221
Release 2007-02-01
Pages
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In this field there has been an explosion of information generated by scientific research. One of the beneficiaries of this has been the study of morphology, where new techniques and analyses have led to insights into a wide range of topics. Advances in genetics, histology, microstructure, biomechanics and morphometrics have allowed researchers to view teeth from alternative perspectives. However, there has been little communication between researchers in the different fields of dental research. This book brings together overviews on a wide range of dental topics linking genes, molecules and developmental mechanisms within an evolutionary framework. Written by the leading experts in the field, this book will stimulate co-operative research in fields as diverse as paleontology, molecular biology, developmental biology and functional morphology.



Divided Brains

Divided Brains Author Lesley J. Rogers
ISBN-10 9781107005358
Release 2013-01-17
Pages 229
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Discusses brain asymmetry from four perspectives - function, evolution, development and causation - covering a wide range of species, including humans.



Behaviour Development and Evolution

Behaviour  Development and Evolution Author Patrick Bateson
ISBN-10 9781783742516
Release 2017-02-20
Pages 134
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The role of parents in shaping the characters of their children, the causes of violence and crime, and the roots of personal unhappiness are central to humanity. Like so many fundamental questions about human existence, these issues all relate to behavioural development. In this lucid and accessible book, eminent biologist Professor Sir Patrick Bateson suggests that the nature/nurture dichotomy we often use to think about questions of development in both humans and animals is misleading. Instead, he argues that we should pay attention to whole systems, rather than to simple causes, when trying to understand the complexity of development. In his wide-ranging approach Bateson discusses why so much behaviour appears to be well-designed. He explores issues such as ‘imprinting’ and its importance to the attachment of offspring to their parents; the mutual benefits that characterise communication between parent and offspring; the importance of play in learning how to choose and control the optimal conditions in which to thrive; and the vital function of adaptability in the interplay between development and evolution. Bateson disputes the idea that a simple link can be found between genetics and behaviour. What an individual human or animal does in its life depends on the reciprocal nature of its relationships with the world about it. This knowledge also points to ways in which an animal’s own behaviour can provide the variation that influences the subsequent course of evolution. This has relevance not only for our scientific approaches to the systems of development and evolution, but also on how humans change institutional rules that have become dysfunctional, or design public health measures when mismatches occur between themselves and their environments. It affects how we think about ourselves and our own capacity for change.



Evolution Development the Predictable Genome

Evolution  Development    the Predictable Genome Author David Lawrence Stern
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105215333076
Release 2011
Pages 264
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For too long, efforts to synthesize evolution and development have failed to build a united view of the origins and evolution of biological diversity. In this groundbreaking book, David Stern sets out to draw evolutionary biology and developmental biology together by cutting through the differences that divide the disciplines and by revealing their deeper similarities. He draws upon the insights of generations of evolutionary biologists and scores of developmental biologists to build a solid foundation for future investigation of the genetic and developmental causes of diversity. Along the way, and in plain English, he explicates many of the guiding principles of evolution, population genetics, and developmental biology. Each chapter offers a clear review of fundamental principles, together with thoughtprovoking ideas that will be tested only with data emerging from current and future studies. With the basic principles established, he then offers a new way of thinking about development--backwards--to clarify precisely how the mechanisms of development influence evolution. In the same spirit, he takes a fresh look at evolution in populations, arguing that population history influences precisely how developmental mechanisms evolve. Both Stern's new perspective on development and his reassessment of the role of populations leads to the surprising conclusion that the evolution of genomes appears to be predictable. Stern argues that developmental biology and evolutionary biology are intertwined: it is impossible to understand one of them fully without understanding the other. This book provides a clear and wide-ranging introduction to evolution and development for the basic reader; graduate students will be introduced to the cutting-edge of research in evolutionary developmental biology; and experts in evolution or development will receive both an uncomplicated introduction to the other discipline and an abundance of new, provocative ideas.



Mechanisms of Life History Evolution

Mechanisms of Life History Evolution Author Thomas Flatt
ISBN-10 9780191621024
Release 2011-05-12
Pages 506
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Life history theory seeks to explain the evolution of the major features of life cycles by analyzing the ecological factors that shape age-specific schedules of growth, reproduction, and survival and by investigating the trade-offs that constrain the evolution of these traits. Although life history theory has made enormous progress in explaining the diversity of life history strategies among species, it traditionally ignores the underlying proximate mechanisms. This novel book argues that many fundamental problems in life history evolution, including the nature of trade-offs, can only be fully resolved if we begin to integrate information on developmental, physiological, and genetic mechanisms into the classical life history framework. Each chapter is written by an established or up-and-coming leader in their respective field; they not only represent the state of the art but also offer fresh perspectives for future research. The text is divided into 7 sections that cover basic concepts (Part 1), the mechanisms that affect different parts of the life cycle (growth, development, and maturation; reproduction; and aging and somatic maintenance) (Parts 2-4), life history plasticity (Part 5), life history integration and trade-offs (Part 6), and concludes with a synthesis chapter written by a prominent leader in the field and an editorial postscript (Part 7).



Variation

Variation Author Benedikt Hallgrímsson
ISBN-10 0080454461
Release 2011-05-04
Pages 592
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Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection was based on the observation that there is variation between individuals within the same species. This fundamental observation is a central concept in evolutionary biology. However, variation is only rarely treated directly. It has remained peripheral to the study of mechanisms of evolutionary change. The explosion of knowledge in genetics, developmental biology, and the ongoing synthesis of evolutionary and developmental biology has made it possible for us to study the factors that limit, enhance, or structure variation at the level of an animals' physical appearance and behavior. Knowledge of the significance of variability is crucial to this emerging synthesis. Variation situates the role of variability within this broad framework, bringing variation back to the center of the evolutionary stage. Provides an overview of current thinking on variation in evolutionary biology, functional morphology, and evolutionary developmental biology Written by a team of leading scholars specializing on the study of variation Reviews of statistical analysis of variation by leading authorities Key chapters focus on the role of the study of phenotypic variation for evolutionary, developmental, and post-genomic biology



Epigenetics

Epigenetics Author Benedikt Hallgrimsson Ph.D.
ISBN-10 9780520948822
Release 2011-04-11
Pages 472
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Illuminating the processes and patterns that link genotype to phenotype, epigenetics seeks to explain features, characters, and developmental mechanisms that can only be understood in terms of interactions that arise above the level of the gene. With chapters written by leading authorities, this volume offers a broad integrative survey of epigenetics. Approaching this complex subject from a variety of perspectives, it presents a broad, historically grounded view that demonstrates the utility of this approach for understanding complex biological systems in development, disease, and evolution. Chapters cover such topics as morphogenesis and organ formation, conceptual foundations, and cell differentiation, and together demonstrate that the integration of epigenetics into mainstream developmental biology is essential for answering fundamental questions about how phenotypic traits are produced.



Evolution From Molecules to Men

Evolution From Molecules to Men Author D. S. Bendall
ISBN-10 0521289335
Release 1986-02-27
Pages 607
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Giving a broad view of biological evolution the topics discussed here range from the history of the development of evolutionary thought, through current problems in molecular evolution and the evolution of whole organisms, to evolution of behaviour, sociobiology and man's place in evolution.



Play Playfulness Creativity and Innovation

Play  Playfulness  Creativity and Innovation Author Patrick Bateson
ISBN-10 9781107015135
Release 2013-07-11
Pages 166
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Examines the role of playfulness in animal and human development, highlighting its links to creativity and, in turn, to innovation.



Evolutionary Theory and the Creation Controversy

Evolutionary Theory and the Creation Controversy Author Olivier Rieppel
ISBN-10 3642148964
Release 2010-11-01
Pages 204
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Evolutionary theory addresses the phenomenon of the origin and diversity of plant and animal species that we observe. In recent times, however, it has become a predominant ideology which has gained currency far beyond its original confines. Attempts to understand the origin and historical development of human culture, civilization and language, of the powers of human cognition, and even the origin of the moral and ethical values guiding and constraining everyday life in human societies are now cast in an evolutionary context. In “Evolutionary Theory and the Creation Controversy” the author examines evolutionary theory from a historical perspective, explaining underlying metaphysical backgrounds and fundamental philosophical questions such as the paradoxical problem of change, existence and creation. He introduces the scientists involved, their research results and theories, and discusses the evolution of evolutionary theory against the background of Creationism and Intelligent Design.



Aging and Health A Systems Biology Perspective

Aging and Health   A Systems Biology Perspective Author A.I. Yashin
ISBN-10 9783318027303
Release 2014-10-09
Pages 206
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Aging is a major risk factor for chronic diseases, which in turn can provide information about the aging of a biological system. This publication serves as an introduction to systems biology and its application to biological aging. Key pathways and processes that impinge on aging are reviewed, and how they contribute to health and disease during aging is discussed. The evolution of this situation is analyzed, and the consequences for the study of genetic effects on aging are presented. Epigenetic programming of aging, as a continuation of development, creates an interface between the genome and the environment. New research into the gut microbiome describes how this interface may operate in practice with marked consequences for a variety of disorders. This analysis is bolstered by a view of the aging organism as a whole, with conclusions about the mechanisms underlying resilience of the organism to change, and is expanded with a discussion of circadian rhythms in aging. Finally, the book presents an outlook for the development of interventions to delay or to reverse the features of aging. The publication is recommended to students, researchers as well as professionals dealing with public health and public policy related to an aging society.