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Principles of Environmental Physics

Principles of Environmental Physics Author John Monteith
ISBN-10 9780123869937
Release 2013-07-26
Pages 422
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Principles of Environmental Physics: Plants, Animals, and the Atmosphere, 4e, provides a basis for understanding the complex physical interactions of plants and animals with their natural environment. It is the essential reference to provide environmental and ecological scientists and researchers with the physical principles, analytic tools, and data analysis methods they need to solve problems. This book describes the principles by which radiative energy reaches the earth’s surface and reviews the latest knowledge concerning the surface radiation budget. The processes of radiation, convection, conduction, evaporation, and carbon dioxide exchange are analyzed. Many applications of environmental physics principles are reviewed, including the roles of surface albedo and atmospheric aerosols in modifying microclimate and climate, remote sensing of vegetation properties, wind forces on trees and crops, dispersion of pathogens and aerosols, controls of evaporation from vegetation and soil (including implications of changing weather and climate), and interpretation of micrometeorological measurements of carbon dioxide and other trace gas fluxes. Presents a unique synthesis of micrometeorology and ecology in its widest sense Deals quantitatively with the impact of weather on living systems but also with the interactions between organisms and the atmosphere that are a central feature of life on earth Offers numerous worked examples and problems with solutions Provides many examples of laboratory and field measurements and their interpretation Includes an up-to-date bibliography and review of recent micrometeorological applications in forestry, ecology, hydrology, and agriculture



Environmental Physics

Environmental Physics Author Egbert Boeker
ISBN-10 9780470666753
Release 2011-09-19
Pages 440
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Environmental Physics Third Edition - Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Egbert Boeker & Rienk van Grondelle, VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands Environmental Physics, Third Edition serves as an introduction to physics in the context of societal problems such as energy supply, pollution, climate change and finite resources of fossil fuels and uranium. The emphasis of this text is on physics, i.e. the concepts and principles that help in understanding the ways to produce energy efficiently or to mitigate climate change. Extra attention is given to photosynthesis due to its importance in the field of renewable energy. This thoroughly revised and updated third edition focuses on the utilization of sustainable energy and mitigating climate change. The text explains the physical mechanisms behind climate change and discusses the physics of renewable energy options. Nuclear power is treated in a separate chapter because of its social and political importance. In the final chapter political and social aspects of ‘renewable energy and climate change' are reviewed. A distinguishing feature of the text is the discussion of spectroscopy and spectroscopic methods, again from basic concepts, as a crucial means to quantitatively analyze and monitor the condition of the environment, the factors determining climate change and all aspects of energy conversion. This textbook will be invaluable to students in physics and related subjects such as physical chemistry and geophysics. It assumes a basic knowledge in physics and mathematics, and all equations are derived from first principles and explained in a physical way. Supplementary material including sections from earlier editions of this book, a description of environmental experiments for a student's labs and computer codes to expand some of the books' content are available from www.few.vu.nl/environmentalphysics



Microclimate and Local Climate

Microclimate and Local Climate Author Roger Barry
ISBN-10 9781107145627
Release 2016-05-29
Pages 379
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This book provides an up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of microclimate and local climate. It describes and explains the climate within the lower atmosphere and upper soil, the region critical to life on Earth. It is invaluable for advanced students and researchers in climatology, environmental science, geography, meteorology, agricultural science, and forestry.



An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics

An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics Author Gaylon S. Campbell
ISBN-10 9781461216261
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 286
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From reviews of the first edition: "well organized . . . Recommended as an introductory text for undergraduates" -- AAAS Science Books and Films "well written and illustrated" -- Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society



Introduction to Environmental Physics

Introduction to Environmental Physics Author Peter Hughes
ISBN-10 9781482273069
Release 2014-04-21
Pages 496
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The changing climate and its affect on all of us is becoming increasingly apparent - ozone depletion, hurricanes, floods and extreme weather behaviour. Introduction to Environmental Physics challenges the way we think about how and why environmental change occurs. This authoritative book aims to cover some of the more common and popular topics addressed in "physics of the earth", "physics of the environment" and "environmental physics" courses. It provides an essentially non- mathematical treatment suitable for a first year undergraduate level course. The principle topics covered are the physics of the built environment, the physics of human survival, energy for living, environmental health, revealing the planet, the sun and the atmosphere, the biosphere, the global climate and climate change. With contributions from well-respected experts on the subject, this textbook contains a summary, references and questions at the end of each chapter. This is an ideal textbook for first year undergraduates in a variety of courses, particularly physical geography, physics, environmental and earth science, with worked examples illustrating principles and vignettes from scientists who have made a significant contribution to the field enlightening the student along the way. As the authors say in the preface to this book, "At the outset of the 21st century there are many environmental challenges to be wrestled with, and though the environment is changing, the Physics is not!"



Principles of Agronomy for Sustainable Agriculture

Principles of Agronomy for Sustainable Agriculture Author Francisco J. Villalobos
ISBN-10 9783319461168
Release 2017-01-14
Pages 555
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This textbook explains the various aspects of sustainable agricultures to undergraduate and graduate students. The book first quantifies the components of the crop energy balance, i.e. the partitioning of net radiation, and their effect on the thermal environment of the canopy. The soil water balance and the quantification of its main component (evapotranspiration) are studied to determine the availability of water to rain fed crops and to calculate crop water requirements. Then it sets the limitations of crop production in relation to crop phenology, radiation interception and resource availability (e.g. nutrients). With that in mind the different agricultural techniques (sowing, tillage, irrigation, fertilization, harvest, application of pesticides, etc.) are analyzed with special emphasis in quantifying the inputs (sowing rates, fertilizer amounts, irrigation schedules, tillage plans) required for a given target yield under specific environmental conditions (soil & climate). For all techniques strategies are provided for improving the ratio productivity/resource use while ensuring sustainability. The book comes with online practical focusing on the key aspects of management in a crop rotation (collecting weather data, calculating productivity, sowing rates, irrigation programs, fertilizers rates etc).



Evolution on Planet Earth

Evolution on Planet Earth Author Lynn Rothschild
ISBN-10 9780080494852
Release 2003-06-19
Pages 456
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Driving evolution forward, the Earth's physical environment has challenged the very survival of organisms and ecosystems throughout the ages. With a fresh new perspective, Evolution on Planet Earth shows how these physical realities and hurdles shaped the primary phases of life on the planet. The book's thorough coverage also includes chapters on more proximate factors and paleoenvironmental events that influenced the diversity of life. A team of notable ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and paleontologists join forces to describe drifting continents, extinction events, and climate change -- important topics that continue to shape Earth's inhabitants to this very day. In a world where global change has become an international issue, this book provides a several billion-year evolutionary perspective on what the environment and environmental change means to life. * Provides thorough background information on each topic while introducing cutting-edge research * Features original material solicited from the leading minds in evolutionary biology and geology today * Emphasizes the influence of massive geological forces - continental drift, volcanic activity, sea and tides



A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants Animals and Ecosystems

A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants  Animals  and Ecosystems Author James R. Ehleringer
ISBN-10 9780387270487
Release 2006-03-30
Pages 530
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Based in extensive research in geology, atmospheric science, and paleontology, this book offers a detailed history of CO2 in the atmosphere, and an understanding of factors that have influenced changes in the past. The text illuminates the role of atmospheric CO2 in the modern carbon cycle and in the evolution of plants and animals, and addresses the future role of atmospheric CO2 and its likely effects on ecosystems.



Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate

Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate Author Murry L. Salby
ISBN-10 9781107049055
Release 2012-01-16
Pages
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Murry Salby's new book provides an integrated treatment of the processes controlling the Earth-atmosphere system, developed from first principles through a balance of theory and applications. This book builds on Salby's previous book, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics. The scope has been expanded into climate, with the presentation streamlined for undergraduates in science, mathematics and engineering. Advanced material, suitable for graduate students and as a resource for researchers, has been retained but distinguished from the basic development. The book provides a conceptual yet quantitative understanding of the controlling influences, integrated through theory and major applications. It leads readers through a methodical development of the diverse physical processes that shape weather, global energetics and climate. End-of-chapter problems of varying difficulty develop student knowledge and its quantitative application, supported by answers and detailed solutions online for instructors.



Entropy Principle for the Development of Complex Biotic Systems

Entropy Principle for the Development of Complex Biotic Systems Author Ichiro Aoki
ISBN-10 9780123944047
Release 2012-01-25
Pages 122
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The concept of entropy in thermodynamics is a complex one, though it is fundamental in understanding physics, the workings of the mind, and biology. Entropy is the measure of the quality of energy, and it can also refer to the turn from order to disorder or randomness in isolated systems. In open systems, such as biology, entropy is formulated in terms of production and energy flow. This book establishes a novel view of complex biological systems and the earth using this concept of entropy, encompassing the interdisciplinary area of biology, ecology and physics. This book considers the development over time of a range of biologically complex systems such as plants, animals, humans, and ecosystems, describing them in terms of the second law of thermodynamics, entropy. With its broad coverage of biological systems, this book will be useful for students of environmental science as well as students in biology and physics. Includes discussion of multiple complex systems including the earth and biological systems within it. Suitable for those with little physics background who wish to learn how the laws of physics apply to ecological systems. Clearly organized by system, making information easy to access.



An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics

An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics Author David G. Andrews
ISBN-10 9780521872201
Release 2010-04-29
Pages 237
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This work offers a broad coverage of atmospheric physics, including atmospheric thermodynamics, radiative transfer, atmospheric fluid dynamics and elementary atmospheric chemistry.



Cold Plasma in Food and Agriculture

Cold Plasma in Food and Agriculture Author NN Misra
ISBN-10 9780128014899
Release 2016-07-15
Pages 380
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Cold Plasma in Food and Agriculture: Fundamentals and Applications is an essential reference offering a broad perspective on a new, exciting, and growing field for the food industry. Written for researchers, industry personnel, and students interested in nonthermal food technology, this reference will lay the groundwork of plasma physics, chemistry, and technology, and their biological applications. Food scientists and food engineers interested in understanding the theory and application of nonthermal plasma for food will find this book valuable because it provides a roadmap for future developments in this emerging field. This reference is also useful for biologists, chemists, and physicists who wish to understand the fundamentals of plasma physics, chemistry, and technology and their biological interactions through applying novel plasma sources to food and other sensitive biomaterials. Examines the topic of cold plasma technology for food applications Demonstrates state-of-the-art developments in plasma technology and potential solutions to improve food safety and quality Presents a solid introduction for readers on the topics of plasma physics and chemistry that are required to understand biological applications for foods Serves as a roadmap for future developments for food scientists, food engineers, and biologists, chemists, and physicists working in this emerging field



Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry Second Edition

Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry  Second Edition Author Des W. Connell
ISBN-10 9780203025383
Release 2005-07-14
Pages 480
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Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition provides a theoretical basis for the behavior and biological effects of natural chemical entities and contaminants in natural systems, concluding with a practical focus on risk assessment and the environmental management of chemicals. The text uses molecular properties such as polarity, water solubility, and vapor pressure as the starting point for understanding the environmental chemistry of various contaminants in soil, water, and the atmosphere. It explains biological processes such as respiration and photosynthesis and their relationship to greenhouse gases. The book then introduces environmental toxicology and describes the distribution, transport, and transformation of contaminants, including PCBs and dioxins, plastics, petroleum and aromatic hydrocarbons, soaps and detergents, and pesticides. The author highlights the relationship between specific chemical properties and their environmental and biological effects. Other topics discussed include partition behavior, fugacity, and genotoxicity, particularly involving carcinogens. The second edition updates the contents and incorporates the latest advances in the field since the 1997 edition was published. It presents an entirely new chapter on metals, which underlines the correlation between metallic properties and their behavior in the environment, as well as new sections on radionuclides and acid drainage water. The chapter on atmospheric chemistry and pollution has been substantially expanded including photochemical smog, the Greenhouse Effect, and pollution processes in the atmosphere and acid rain. The author also adds recent approaches to ecotoxicology, ecological, and human risk assessments to include the probabilistic approach. Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition is a practical textbook for teaching students the basic concepts of chemistry in the framework of the environment and a practical reference for anyone involved in the management and disposal of industrial chemicals and emissions, occupational health and safety, and the protection of the natural environment.



Principles of Animal Biometeorology

Principles of Animal Biometeorology Author Roberto Gomes da Silva
ISBN-10 9789400757332
Release 2012-11-13
Pages 264
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The book begins by describing in detail the mechanisms of energy exchange – radiative, convective, conductive and evaporative – together with techniques for their determination. The discussion extends to the importance of CO2, ozone and methane, together with that of aerosol pollutants and the evolution of atmospheric CO2. Subsequent chapters apply the results of the biophysical methods to mammals, birds and aquatic animals. Discussion includes problems of shelter and shade for animals in tropical environments and techniques for the thermal evaluation for shelters and for several tree types. The details of heat exchange between animals and the environment are presented, in separate chapters covering Mammals and Birds and Aquatic Mammals. A chapter on Shade and Shelter describes the importance of shade for animals, factors of shade efficiency, the protections offered by shelter and methods of calculating the protection afforded by both shade and shelter. A Special Methods chapter offers a variety of techniques for evaluating cutaneous and respiratory evaporation, and practical methods for sampling of hairs and the evaluation of hair coat characteristics.



Advanced Numerical Methods for Complex Environmental Models Needs and Availability

Advanced Numerical Methods for Complex Environmental Models  Needs and Availability Author István Faragó
ISBN-10 9781608057788
Release 2013-12-10
Pages 426
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High air pollution levels pose a significant threat to plants, animals and human beings. Efforts by researchers are directed towards keeping air pollution levels below well defined ‘critical‘ levels in order to maintain a sustainable atmosphere and environmental system. The application of advanced mathematical models is important for researchers to achieve this goal as efficiently as possible. Mathematical models can be used to predict answers to many important questions about the environment. This application comes with several complex theoretical and practical obstacles which need to be resolved. A successfully applicable mathematical model needs to enable researchers to • Mathematically describe all important physical and chemical processes. • Apply fast and sufficiently accurate numerical methods. • Ensure that the model runs efficiently on modern high speed computers. • Use high quality input data, both meteorological data and emission inventories, in the runs. • Verify the model results by comparing them with reliable measurements taken in different parts of the spatial domain of the model. • Carry out long series of sensitivity experiments to check the response of the model to changes of different key parameters. • Visualize and animate the output results in order to make them easily understandable even to non-specialists. This monograph thoroughly describes mathematical methods useful for various situations in environmental modeling - including finite difference methods, splitting methods, parallel computation, etc. - and provides a framework for resolving problems posed in relation to the points listed above. Chapters are written by well-known specialists making this book a handy reference for researchers, university teachers and students working and studying in the areas of air pollution, meteorology, applied mathematics and computer science.



ENVIRONMENTAL Physics

ENVIRONMENTAL Physics Author M. Dzelalija
ISBN-10 1505685265
Release 2014-12-23
Pages 64
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ENVIRONMENTAL PhysicsBy M. Dzelalija



Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer of Planetary Atmospheres

Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer of Planetary Atmospheres Author Kelly Chance
ISBN-10 9780199662104
Release 2017-03-16
Pages 160
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Spectroscopy and radiative transfer are rapidly growing fields within atmospheric and planetary science with implications on various fields. Remote sensing and modeling atmospheric composition require detailed knowledge of how radiation and matter interact in planetary atmospheres. This book provides this fundamental knowledge to a depth that will leave a student with the background to become capable of performing quantitative research on atmospheres. The book is intended for graduate students or for advanced undergraduates. It spans across principles through applications, with sufficient background for students without prior experience in either spectroscopy or radiative transfer. Courses based on this book are intended to be accompanied by the development of increasing sophisticated atmospheric and spectroscopic modeling capability (ideally, the student develops a computer model for simulation of atmospheric spectra from microwave through ultraviolet).