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Protecting Investment in Services

Protecting Investment in Services Author Martín Molinuevo
ISBN-10 9041138277
Release 2012
Pages 311
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La 4e de couverture indique : "International economic relations are governed by two bodies of international law. Trade in goods and services is the domain of international trade law, embodied in the WTO agreements. Foreign investment is governed by international investment law, consisting of a vast network of investment agreements, including bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs). These two different fields of international law share a large area of overlap: foreign investment in services, around 55% of all global direct investment, is covered by both investment agreements and the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Since the rights and obligations featured in the two frameworks are not always compatible, this legal overlap reduces transparency and undermines governments' regulatory capacity in an unanticipated manner. This is the first book to tackle investment law and trade law jointly, and to compare the principles, rules, and dispute-settlement mechanisms of investment agreements with the multilateral framework of the WTO/GATS. Among the many invaluable questions the book addresses are the following: What are the substantive rules that apply to investment in services under investment agreements and the GATS? - How do these disciplines differ? Which offers the best protection for investors in services and do they affect the governments' policymaking capacity? - Who can gain access to investor-State arbitration and WTO dispute settlement?. The in-depth analysis, supported by an extensive review of existent jurisprudence, provides a thorough explanation of treaty standards like most favoured nation, national treatment, fair and equitable treatment, domestic regulation, and transparency, as well as procedural rules on access to the dispute-settlement mechanisms and enforcement procedures. Policymakers will find relevant insights in this work, as it provides a thorough review of legal matters that limit policy decisions and bring about possible contradictions between the two bodies of international economic law. Legal practitioners will benefit from the book's clear guidelines on the pros and cons of the trade and investment legal frameworks, and under what conditions each system is best suited to protect foreign investment in services."



The WTO and International Investment Law

The WTO and International Investment Law Author Jürgen Kurtz
ISBN-10 9781107009707
Release 2016-01-20
Pages 326
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Jürgen Kurtz provides a theoretically grounded and doctrinally tractable framework to understand the relationship between international trade and investment law.



Second Thoughts

Second Thoughts Author Armand de Mestral
ISBN-10 9781928096399
Release 2017-01-30
Pages
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Criticism. Doubts. Second thoughts. Although investor-state arbitration (ISA) has been included in investment agreements between developed and developing countries since the 1960s, and provided foreign investors with a kind of private justice against developing world host states, it became increasingly controversial in developed countries when it was included in NAFTA in 1993, creating the possibility of ISA claims between and against two developed countries (the United States or Canada), as well as claims against and by a developing state (Mexico). A few years later, the OECD’s attempt to finalize the Multilateral Agreement on Investment was stymied by concerted civil society protest and opposition to ISA, and in recent years each new proposed agreement has sparked fresh rounds of protest. What engenders the controversy about ISA? While ISA’s advantage is that it prevents escalation of international conflict by relieving states from feeling obliged to espouse claims of injured investors against foreign governments, it is criticized for creating regulatory chill whereby states are reluctant to make necessary public policy reforms for fear that changes to the investment environment will lead to expensive investor claims. Are fears of litigation and expensive payouts well founded? Can key modifications to the ISA system, such as those added to the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement satisfy critics and redeem this system of private justice? Is ISA really necessary between developed democracies where an independent and professional judiciary can generally be trusted to decide without fear or favour? In Second Thoughts: Investor-State Arbitration between Developed Democracies, 16 international investment legal experts have undertaken in-depth analyses of ISA’s economic, political, and social impacts when included in agreements between developed democracies. This timely volume appears at a critical moment, seeking answers to the crucial questions that will determine the next generation of international investment agreements.



Towards a Universal Justice Putting International Courts and Jurisdictions into Perspective

Towards a Universal Justice  Putting International Courts and Jurisdictions into Perspective Author Dário Moura Vicente
ISBN-10 9789004298712
Release 2016-04-06
Pages 596
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Towards a Universal Justice? Putting International Courts and Jurisdictions into Perspective offers a comprehensive overview of legal issues concerning the role and interrelations of international courts and jurisdictions.



International Arbitration Law and Practice in Switzerland

International Arbitration  Law and Practice in Switzerland Author Gabrielle Kaufmann-Kohler
ISBN-10 9780199679751
Release 2014-01
Pages 400
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This third edition, and the first in English, of the globally-cited Arbitrage International-Droit et Pratique à la Lumière de la LDIP, provides complete guidance on arbitration law and practice relating to Switzerland from two of the leading authorities on Swiss practice.



The Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes

The Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes Author Yoshifumi Tanaka
ISBN-10 9781107164277
Release 2018-01-11
Pages 400
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This book offers students a clear and systematic overview of procedures for peaceful dispute settlement in international law.



International Economic Law

International Economic Law Author Giovanna Adinolfi
ISBN-10 9783319446455
Release 2016-12-29
Pages 288
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This volume scrutinises the main challenges faced by States in their current international economic relations from an interdisciplinary perspective. It combines legal research with political and economic analysis and favours dialogue among scientific disciplines. Readers are offered a series of in-depth studies on a rich variety of topics: how to reconcile States’ interest to benefit from economic liberalization with their need to pursue social goals (such as the protection of human rights or of the environment); recent developments under WTO law and regional integration processes; international cooperation in the energy sector; national regulatory developments in the banking sector, sovereign wealth funds and investor-State arbitration.



Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in International Economic Law

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in International Economic Law Author Thilo Rensmann
ISBN-10 9780192515162
Release 2017-05-04
Pages 370
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International economic law, with its traditional focus on large multinational enterprises, is only slowly waking up to the new reality of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), entering the global marketplace. In the wake of the digital revolution, smaller companies now play an important role in the global economic landscape. In 2015 the UN expressly called for SMEs to have greater access to international trade and investment, and it is increasingly recognized that the integration of SMEs provides one of the keys to creating a more sustainable and inclusive global economy. As SMEs increasingly permeate transnational supply chains, so interactions between these companies and international economic law and policy proliferate. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in International Economic Law offers the first comprehensive analysis of the interaction between SMEs and international economic law. This book presents a broad international perspective, gathering together contributions by leading experts from academia, legal practice, and international organizations. It opens up a field of enquiry into this so far unexplored dynamic and provide a touchstone for future debate. The analysis covers a broad spectrum of international trade and investment law focusing on issues of particular interest to SMEs, such as trade in services, government procurement, and trade facilitation. Diverse perspectives illuminate regional developments (in particular within the EU) and the implications of mega-regional free trade agreements. The essays also examine questions of legitimacy of global economic governance; in particular, concerns surrounding the threat posed to the interests of domestic SMEs by the growing liberalization of international trade and investment. These essays constitute essential reading for practitioners and academics seeking to navigate a previously neglected trend in international economic law.



Equity and Equitable Principles in the World Trade Organization

Equity and Equitable Principles in the World Trade Organization Author Anastasios Gourgourinis
ISBN-10 9781317964155
Release 2015-07-24
Pages 284
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This book analyses whether, and how, equity and equitable principles can be employed as juridical tools in the legal reasoning of judges and lawyers in World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes where there is interaction between norms derived from the multilateral trade regime and other international legal regimes. Bringing the literature on equity and equitable principles in international law up to date this book tackles several legal problems which have emerged in WTO dispute settlement practice as well as engaging with the concept of the fragmentation of international law. The book provides an original argument about the role and significance of equity and equitable principles in the debate over fragmentation by providing a coherent methodology for addressing conflicts and overlaps between WTO and non-WTO norms in the context of Dispute Settlement Body proceedings.



Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development

Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development Author Jean-Pierre Chauffour
ISBN-10 9780821386439
Release 2011-06-22
Pages 511
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The Handbook offers an introduction to the key elements of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs), addressing the practical economic and legal aspects of the regulatory policies in PTAs.



Ownership Unbundling and Related Measures in the EU Energy Sector

Ownership Unbundling and Related Measures in the EU Energy Sector Author Tilman Michael Dralle
ISBN-10 9783319777979
Release 2018-04-24
Pages 373
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This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of unbundling and, in particular, ownership unbundling policies from the perspective of international economic law. It does so by focusing on the prominent example of the EU’s energy sector and its Third Energy Package. Unbundling has become an increasingly crucial competition instrument in network-bound industries worldwide. It is designed to ensure access to bottleneck infrastructures on fair and non-discriminatory terms and thus to suppress the anti-competitive potential deriving from vertical integration in natural monopoly situations. While promoting important public policy objectives, unbundling policies have also raised a number of legal issues. This book analyzes how international economic law limits the adoption and maintenance of unbundling and related measures and also outlines how international trade law can play a ‘positive’ role in this field. As a result, it provides a valuable reference for academics, practitioners and policy-makers.



Regulatory Autonomy in International Economic Law

Regulatory Autonomy in International Economic Law Author Andrew D. Mitchell
ISBN-10 9781785368172
Release 2017-11-15
Pages
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Regulatory Autonomy in International Economic Law provides the first extensive legal analysis of Australia’s trade and investment treaties in the context of their impact on national regulatory autonomy. This thought-provoking study offers compelling lessons for not only Australia but also countries around the globe in relation to pressing current problems, including the uncertain future of the World Trade Organization and widespread concerns about the legitimacy of investor–State dispute settlement.



International Economic Law and Governance

International Economic Law and Governance Author Julien Chaisse
ISBN-10 9780191084133
Release 2016-08-11
Pages 624
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Nation states have long and successfully claimed to be the proper and sovereign forum for determining a country's international economic policies. Increasingly, however, supranational and non-governmental actors are moving to the front of the stage. New forms of multilateral and global policy-making have emerged, including states and national administrations, key international organizations, international conferences, multinational enterprises, and a wide range of transnational pressure groups and NGOs that all claim their share in exercising power and influence on international and domestic policy-making. In honour of Professor Mitsuo Matsushita's intellectual contributions to the field of international economic law, this volume reflects on the current state and the future of international economic law. The book addresses a broad spectrum of themes in contemporary international economic regulations and focuses specifically on the significant areas of Professor Matsushita's scholarship, including the rise of the soft-law mechanism in international economic regulation, the role of the WTO and dispute settlement, and specific areas such as competition, subsidies, anti-dumping, intellectual property, and natural resources. Part one of the volume provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of the rule-based international dispute settlement mechanisms; Part two investigates the normative influences to and from WTO law; and Part three focuses on policy and law-making issues.



Regulatory Autonomy and International Trade in Services

Regulatory Autonomy and International Trade in Services Author Bregt Natens
ISBN-10 9781785364310
Release 2016-07-27
Pages 360
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This book considers how the interplay between multilateral and preferential liberalisation of trade in services increasingly raises concerns, both from the perspective of the beneficiaries of such liberalisation (whose rights are uncertain) and that of regulators (whose regulatory autonomy is constrained). The author shows how these concerns lead to vast underutilisation of, and strong prejudices against, the benefits of services liberalisation. The book meticulously analyses and compares the EU's obligations under the GATS and the services chapters of several RTAs to finally assess the merits of the raised concerns.



Good Faith and International Economic Law

Good Faith and International Economic Law Author Andrew D. Mitchell
ISBN-10 9780191060359
Release 2015-05-21
Pages 224
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The past two decades have seen a significant proliferation of trade and investment treaties around the world. States are increasingly negotiating agreements that regulate both trade and investment, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. The number of investor-state dispute settlement cases is rapidly accumulating each year, yet states' enthusiasm for investor-state arbitration has become more qualified as concern has intensified that the system can be abused by foreign investors. Good faith is therefore becoming increasingly important as a principle, particularly in the investment context, due to disputes about investor conduct such as corporate restructuring in order to gain the protection of a particular investment treaty regarding an existing or foreseeable dispute, and States' responses to public policy concerns through attempts to modify or terminate investment treaties in the face of ongoing or expected claims. Tribunals adjudicating investment disputes have used the principle of good faith in a haphazard and uncoordinated manner, causing serious problems of uncertainty and inconsistency. In response to these developments, this book contains the first comprehensive and integrated analysis of the treatment of good faith in international investment law, noting the broader implications of good faith in public international law and international trade law.



Regulatory Assessment Toolkit

Regulatory Assessment Toolkit Author Martín Molinuevo
ISBN-10 9781464800580
Release 2014-03-11
Pages 128
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This toolkit is to offer a practical methodology to government officials and staff from development organizations on how to identify and assess laws and regulations that affect international trade and investment in the services sector.



The European Union and International Dispute Settlement

The European Union and International Dispute Settlement Author Marise Cremona
ISBN-10 9781509903245
Release 2017-09-07
Pages 320
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This monograph explores the connections between the European Union and international dispute settlement. It highlights the legal challenges faced by the principal players in the field: namely the EU as a political actor and the Court of Justice of the EU as an international and domestic judiciary. In addition, it places the subject in its broader context of international dispute settlement, and the participation of the EU and its Member States in international disputes. It focuses on horizontal and cross-cutting themes, bringing together insights from the different sectors of trade, investment and human rights, and offering a variety of perspectives from academics, policymakers and practitioners.