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Psychological Issues in Eyewitness Identification

Psychological Issues in Eyewitness Identification Author Siegfried L. Sporer
ISBN-10 9781317824633
Release 2014-06-03
Pages 328
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Why do police officers, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and others with an interest in eliciting accurate memory-based testimony need to inform themselves of the research literature in experimental psychology that addresses the question of witness memory? The answer is straightforward, from the perspective of a simple cost/benefit analysis. As with so many matters in the administration of public funds, effectiveness holds important rewards. Those who investigate crimes and decide which line of investigation to pursue and which line to postpone or set aside, necessarily make judgments about the likely guilt of suspects based on the information at hand. If they can make these judgments with a high degree of accuracy, everyone benefits. For many cases eyewitness identification is an important component of evidence, prosecution, and plea negotiation. If witness identification is correctly implemented, investigators and prosecutors can make their judgments effectively, and focus their resources more efficiently. A major component of effectiveness requires avoiding expending scarce resources on erroneous prosecutions. It is in everyone's interest to make the best use of the memory of witnesses: to preserve it without changing it; to render it maximally accessible; to provide an environment in which witnesses feel free to report their recollections; and to accurately assess the probable validity of the witness's report, regardless of the witness's certainty or doubts about its accuracy. This volume gathers evidence from various research domains on eyewitness testimony. Although many of the studies discussed deal with eyewitness identification, it is noteworthy that many of them also touch upon other areas of concern to eyewitness researchers, including chapters on: *voice recognition by humans and computers, with particularly detailed instructions on conducting voice "lineup," *differential aspects of recognition memory in children, *elderly eyewitness' memory, *problems of cross-racial identification, *psychological aspects of facial image reconstruction techniques, *person descriptions, *particular benefits of reinstating context as a means to improve eyewitness memory, *problems associated with various research paradigms in the eyewitness arena, and *recommendations on how to conduct lineups and photospreads and their proper evaluation. Differentiated from other literature on this topic by its non-technical language and accessibility to non-professionals, this volume covers a great deal of ground, raises a host of questions, settles some others, and points the way to more effective use and evaluation of what eyewitnesses have to say.

The Psychology of Eyewitness Identification

The Psychology of Eyewitness Identification Author James M. Lampinen
ISBN-10 9781848728837
Release 2012
Pages 334
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This volume provides a tutorial review and evaluation of scientific research on the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness identification. The book starts with the perspective that there are a variety of conceptual and empirical problems with eyewitness identification as a form of forensic evidence, just as there are a variety of problems with other forms of forensic evidence. There is then an examination of the important results in the study of eyewitness memory and the implications of this research for psychological theory and for social and legal policy. The volume takes the perspective that research on eyewitness identification can be seen as the paradigmatic example of how psychological science can be successfully applied to real-world problems.

Expert Testimony on the Psychology of Eyewitness Identification

Expert Testimony on the Psychology of Eyewitness Identification Author Brian L. Cutler
ISBN-10 0199736634
Release 2009-08-27
Pages 288
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Eyewitness testimony is highly compelling in a criminal trial, and can have an indelible impact on jurors. However, two decades of research on the subject have shown us that eyewitnesses are sometimes wrong, even when they are highly confident that they are making correct identifications. This book brings together an impressive group of researchers and practicing attorneys to provide current overviews and critiques of key topics in eyewitness testimony.

Mistaken Identification

Mistaken Identification Author Brian L. Cutler
ISBN-10 0521445728
Release 1995-08-25
Pages 290
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Examines traditional safeguards against mistaken eyewitness identification.

Adult Eyewitness Testimony

Adult Eyewitness Testimony Author David Frank Ross
ISBN-10 0521432553
Release 1994-03-25
Pages 434
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Investigates the factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.

Eyewitness Testimony

Eyewitness Testimony Author Gary L. Wells
ISBN-10 0521255643
Release 1984-05-25
Pages 384
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Topics examined are eyewitness memory as a function of age, the adequacy of intuition in judging eyewitness memory, & the relationship between confidence & accuracy. Also includes chapters on hypnosis, lie detection, & legal aspects of the dangers inherent in eyewitness identification testimony.

Eyewitness Testimony

Eyewitness Testimony Author
ISBN-10 9994814648
Release 1994
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Eyewitness Testimony has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Eyewitness Testimony also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Eyewitness Testimony book for free.

The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony

The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony Author A. Daniel Yarmey
ISBN-10 UOM:39015000580913
Release 1979
Pages 285
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The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony book for free.

Reform of Eyewitness Identification Procedures

Reform of Eyewitness Identification Procedures Author Brian L. Cutler
ISBN-10 1433812835
Release 2013
Pages 235
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"Psychologists now have a solid understanding of such issues as the effects of suggestive questioning on eyewitness reports, the suggestibility of children, methods of improving eyewitness interviews, the effects of crime factors on identification accuracy, the relation between confidence and identification accuracy, methods of improving identification accuracy, and the effectiveness of safeguards designed to protect defendants from wrongful conviction in eyewitness cases. In this volume, authors focus narrowly on methods of improving identification accuracy. Several factors point to the need for a thorough treatment on this topic"--Introduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Handbook of Forensic Psychology

Handbook of Forensic Psychology Author William O'Donohue
ISBN-10 9780080495101
Release 2004-01-19
Pages 1064
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Forensic psychology has mushroomed into a diverse and increasingly complex field that is equal parts law and psychology. Psychologists act as expert witnesses in legal cases - sometimes without knowing much about the laws involved, and legal professionals rely on the assessment of psychologists sometimes without knowing much about how such assessments are made. The purpose of this handbook is to provide professionals with current, practical, and empirically based information to guide their work in forensic settings, or to better their understanding of the issues and debates in forensic psychology. Divided into four sections, the Handbook of Forensic Psychology covers basic issues, assessment, mental disorders and forensic psychology, and special topics. The basic issue chapters present a primer on law for the psychologist, a primer on psychology for attorneys, an overview of ethical issues relevant to forensic psychology, and a chapter on forensic report writing. The assessment section discusses factors and measures relevant for assessing a variety of behaviors, propensities, and capabilities, including dangerousness, violence, suicide, competency, substance abuse, PTSD and neuropsychological evaluations, as well as discussing interviewing children and child custody evaluations. Additional chapters discuss eyewitness testimony, recovered memory, polygraphs, sexual harassment, juror selection, and issues of ethnicity in forensic psychology.

The Elderly Eyewitness in Court

The Elderly Eyewitness in Court Author Michael P. Toglia
ISBN-10 9781317803003
Release 2014-02-18
Pages 390
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The majority of research on eyewitness memory has traditionally studied children and young adults. By contrast, this volume is designed to provide an overview of empirical research on the cognitive, social, and health related factors that impact the accuracy of eyewitness testimony given by the elderly. The book takes a lifespan developmental perspective that incorporates research on witnesses of all ages, but uses the findings to focus on issues unique to the elderly. This includes research on recognition memory with lineup identifications and recall memory that occurs when an elderly witness is asked to describe an event in court. The Elderly Eyewitness also examines jurors’ reactions to the testimony of an elderly witness, and the legal and social policy issues that emerge when the elderly witness participate in legal proceedings. While reviewing what is known about the elderly witness, the book also provides a direction for future research into this new frontier of scientific inquiry. Its audience spans researchers in cognitive and developmental psychology, and professionals working in the growing area of psychology and law.

Beyond Common Sense

Beyond Common Sense Author Eugene Borgida
ISBN-10 0470695692
Release 2008-04-30
Pages 448
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Beyond Common Sense addresses the many important and controversial issues that arise from the use of psychological and social science in the courtroom. Each chapter identifies areas of scientific agreement and disagreement, and discusses how psychological science advances our understanding of human behavior beyond common sense. Features original chapters written by some of the leading experts in the field of psychology and law including Elizabeth Loftus, Saul Kassin, Faye Crosby, Alice Eagly, Gary Wells, Louise Fitzgerald, Craig Anderson, and Phoebe Ellsworth The 14 issues addressed include eyewitness identification, gender stereotypes, repressed memories, Affirmative Action and the death penalty Commentaries written by leading social science and law scholars discuss key legal and scientific themes that emerge from the science chapters and illustrate how psychological science is or can be used in the courts

Conviction of the Innocent

Conviction of the Innocent Author Brian L. Cutler
ISBN-10 1433810212
Release 2012
Pages 370
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Over the last several decades over 250 citizens convicted of major felonies were found innocent and were exonerated. Today, thanks to the work of psychologists and other criminal justice researchers, the psychological foundations that underlie conviction of the innocent are becoming clear. There is real hope that these findings can lead to positive reforms, reduce the risk of miscarriages of justice, and avoid the consequences of wrongful convictions to victims and society. In this book, Editor Brian Cutler presents a state-of-the-field review of current psychological research on conviction of the innocent. Chapter authors investigate how the roles played by suspects, investigators, eyewitnesses, and trial witnesses and how pervasive systemic issues contribute to conspire to increase the risk of conviction of the innocent. The chapters skillfully examine psychological perspectives on such topics as police interrogations, confessions, eyewitness identification, trial procedures, juries, and forensic science, as well as broader issues such as racism and tunnel vision within the justice system. This comprehensive volume represents an important milestone for research on miscarriages of justice. By bringing psychological theories and research to bear on this social problem, the authors derive compelling recommendations for future research and practical reform in police and legal procedures.

Evaluating Eyewitness Identification

Evaluating Eyewitness Identification Author Brian Cutler
ISBN-10 0199706883
Release 2010-01-25
Pages 168
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Forensic mental health assessment (FMHA) has grown into a specialization informed by research and professional guidelines. This series presents up-to-date information on the most important and frequently conducted forms of FMHA. The 19 topical volumes address best approaches to practice for particular types of evaluation in the criminal, civil, and juvenile/family areas. Each volume contains a thorough discussion of the relevant legal and psychological concepts, followed by a step-by-step description of the assessment process from preparing for the evaluation to writing the report and testifying in court. Volumes include the following helpful features: · Boxes that zero in on important information for use in evaluations · Tips for best practice and cautions against common pitfalls · Highlighting of relevant case law and statutes · Separate list of assessment tools for easy reference · Helpful glossary of key terms for the particular topic In making recommendations for best practice, authors consider empirical support, legal relevance, and consistency with ethical and professional standards. These volumes offer invaluable guidance for anyone involved in conducting or using forensic evaluations.

Eyewitness Identification

Eyewitness Identification Author Roger L. Terry
ISBN-10 1436319390
Release 2008
Pages 316
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Roger L. Terry grew up in Danbury, Connecticut; and after a year at Danbury High School, he transferred to Deerfield Academy in Massachusetts and graduated in 1954. He started his training in psychology at Yale University, receiving his bachelor of arts degree in 1962. He earned his master of science degree in psychology in 1964 at Auburn University where he spent a year as a graduate assistant teaching introductory psychology. Moving on to the social psychology program at the University of Missouri at Columbia, he was a part-time research assistant and full-time research associate in the Center for Research in Social Behavior, primarily responsible for the collection of survey data from samples of public school teachers in the United States, England, New Zealand, and Australia. His teaching experience included more courses in introductory psychology and conducting the correspondence course in social psychology. He was awarded his doctor of philosophy degree in social psychology in 1968. Upon receiving his doctorate, he joined the psychology faculty of Hanover College in Indiana where he spent the entirety of his postdoctoral career. During that time, he advanced through the academic ranks from assistant professor to associate professor to professor of psychology, including multiple stints as chair of the department of psychology. His primary teaching responsibilities included social psychology; cognitive psychology; social research methods; learning, motivation, and personality theory; and, of course, introductory psychology. He also taught courses in life span development, human sexuality, social conflict, research controversies, and educational psychology and learning disabilities. Periodically, he taught off-campus classes in social psychology, child psychology, educational psychology, and abnormal psychology for Purdue University and Indiana University. All of these courses dealt with the gamut of behavior generally while social psychology covered such specific issues of eyewitness identification as person perception (e.g., impression formation), social judgment (e.g., attribution of responsibility), attitude change (e.g., testimonial persuasiveness), and group dynamics (e.g., jury deliberation); and cognitive psychology dealt extensively with the nature of human memory and forgetting (e.g., face recognition). With respect to postdoctoral research experiences, part of his teaching responsibilities included baccalaureate thesis supervision. Over the years, he consulted and supervised more than one hundred undergraduate research theses on all sorts of behavioral science topics, mostly inspired by the students themselves. He is the sole author or coauthor of more than fifty professional conference presentations at the state, regional, national, and international levels; about seventy-five publications in scientific journals; and countless classroom projects, pretests, and pilot studies. The overwhelming majority of published articles report original research investigations; a few articles are nonempirical without statistical analyses of original data (e.g., literature and book reviews, theoretical statements, etc.). The articles appeared in more than forty different periodicals in the United States and abroad. While most of this research dealt with topics of social and cognitive psychology generally, such specific issues of eyewitness testimony as social perception, impression formation, effects of disguises on face recognition, and lineup bias were covered. These interests can be seen in a sample of a halfdozen references: "Contextual similarities in subjective probabilities of rape and other events" (Journal of Social Psychology 113 [1981]: 293 294), "Social and personality effects of vision correctives" (Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 5 [1990]: 683 695), "How wearing eyeglasses affects facial recognition" (Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social 12 [1993]: 151 162), "

The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology Volume II

The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology  Volume II Author R.C.L. Lindsay
ISBN-10 9781135608187
Release 2013-05-13
Pages 740
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The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for th

Eyewitness Testimony

Eyewitness Testimony Author Elizabeth F. Loftus
ISBN-10 0674287770
Release 1996
Pages 253
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By shedding light on the many factors that can intervene and create inaccurate testimony, Elizabeth Loftus illustrates how memory can be radically altered by the way an eyewitness is questioned, and how new memories can be implanted and old ones changed in subtle ways.