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Psychological Issues in Eyewitness Identification

Psychological Issues in Eyewitness Identification Author Siegfried L. Sporer
ISBN-10 9781317824633
Release 2014-06-03
Pages 328
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Why do police officers, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and others with an interest in eliciting accurate memory-based testimony need to inform themselves of the research literature in experimental psychology that addresses the question of witness memory? The answer is straightforward, from the perspective of a simple cost/benefit analysis. As with so many matters in the administration of public funds, effectiveness holds important rewards. Those who investigate crimes and decide which line of investigation to pursue and which line to postpone or set aside, necessarily make judgments about the likely guilt of suspects based on the information at hand. If they can make these judgments with a high degree of accuracy, everyone benefits. For many cases eyewitness identification is an important component of evidence, prosecution, and plea negotiation. If witness identification is correctly implemented, investigators and prosecutors can make their judgments effectively, and focus their resources more efficiently. A major component of effectiveness requires avoiding expending scarce resources on erroneous prosecutions. It is in everyone's interest to make the best use of the memory of witnesses: to preserve it without changing it; to render it maximally accessible; to provide an environment in which witnesses feel free to report their recollections; and to accurately assess the probable validity of the witness's report, regardless of the witness's certainty or doubts about its accuracy. This volume gathers evidence from various research domains on eyewitness testimony. Although many of the studies discussed deal with eyewitness identification, it is noteworthy that many of them also touch upon other areas of concern to eyewitness researchers, including chapters on: *voice recognition by humans and computers, with particularly detailed instructions on conducting voice "lineup," *differential aspects of recognition memory in children, *elderly eyewitness' memory, *problems of cross-racial identification, *psychological aspects of facial image reconstruction techniques, *person descriptions, *particular benefits of reinstating context as a means to improve eyewitness memory, *problems associated with various research paradigms in the eyewitness arena, and *recommendations on how to conduct lineups and photospreads and their proper evaluation. Differentiated from other literature on this topic by its non-technical language and accessibility to non-professionals, this volume covers a great deal of ground, raises a host of questions, settles some others, and points the way to more effective use and evaluation of what eyewitnesses have to say.



The Psychology of Eyewitness Identification

The Psychology of Eyewitness Identification Author James M. Lampinen
ISBN-10 9781848728837
Release 2012
Pages 334
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This volume provides a tutorial review and evaluation of scientific research on the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness identification. The book starts with the perspective that there are a variety of conceptual and empirical problems with eyewitness identification as a form of forensic evidence, just as there are a variety of problems with other forms of forensic evidence. There is then an examination of the important results in the study of eyewitness memory and the implications of this research for psychological theory and for social and legal policy. The volume takes the perspective that research on eyewitness identification can be seen as the paradigmatic example of how psychological science can be successfully applied to real-world problems.



Expert Testimony on the Psychology of Eyewitness Identification

Expert Testimony on the Psychology of Eyewitness Identification Author Brian L. Cutler
ISBN-10 0199736634
Release 2009-08-27
Pages 288
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Eyewitness testimony is highly compelling in a criminal trial, and can have an indelible impact on jurors. However, two decades of research on the subject have shown us that eyewitnesses are sometimes wrong, even when they are highly confident that they are making correct identifications. This book brings together an impressive group of researchers and practicing attorneys to provide current overviews and critiques of key topics in eyewitness testimony.



Mistaken Identification

Mistaken Identification Author Brian L. Cutler
ISBN-10 0521445728
Release 1995-08-25
Pages 290
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Examines traditional safeguards against mistaken eyewitness identification.



Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology

Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology Author Michael P. Toglia
ISBN-10 0805851518
Release 2007
Pages 703
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The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for the courts. For the first time, extensive reviews of factors influencing witnesses of all ages—children, adults, and the elderly—are compiled in a single pair of volumes. The disparate research currently being conducted in eyewitness memory in psychology, criminal justice, and legal studies is coherently presented in this work. Controversial topics such as the use of hypnosis, false and recovered memories, the impact of stress, and the accuracy of psychologically impaired witnesses are expertly examined. Leading eyewitness researchers also discuss the subjects of conversational memory, alibi evidence, witness credibility, facial memory, earwitness testimony, lineup theory, and expert testimony. The impact of witness testimony in court is considered, and each volume concludes with a legal commentary chapter. The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology is an invaluable aid to researchers, legal scholars, and practicing lawyers who need access to the most recent research in the field, accompanied by the interpretations and commentary of many of the world's leading authorities on these topics.



Adult Eyewitness Testimony

Adult Eyewitness Testimony Author David Frank Ross
ISBN-10 0521432553
Release 1994-03-25
Pages 434
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Investigates the factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.



Reform of Eyewitness Identification Procedures

Reform of Eyewitness Identification Procedures Author Brian L. Cutler
ISBN-10 1433812835
Release 2013
Pages 235
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"Psychologists now have a solid understanding of such issues as the effects of suggestive questioning on eyewitness reports, the suggestibility of children, methods of improving eyewitness interviews, the effects of crime factors on identification accuracy, the relation between confidence and identification accuracy, methods of improving identification accuracy, and the effectiveness of safeguards designed to protect defendants from wrongful conviction in eyewitness cases. In this volume, authors focus narrowly on methods of improving identification accuracy. Several factors point to the need for a thorough treatment on this topic"--Introduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).



The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony

The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony Author A. Daniel Yarmey
ISBN-10 UOM:39015000580913
Release 1979
Pages 285
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The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony book for free.



The Elderly Eyewitness in Court

The Elderly Eyewitness in Court Author Michael P. Toglia
ISBN-10 9781317803003
Release 2014-02-18
Pages 390
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The majority of research on eyewitness memory has traditionally studied children and young adults. By contrast, this volume is designed to provide an overview of empirical research on the cognitive, social, and health related factors that impact the accuracy of eyewitness testimony given by the elderly. The book takes a lifespan developmental perspective that incorporates research on witnesses of all ages, but uses the findings to focus on issues unique to the elderly. This includes research on recognition memory with lineup identifications and recall memory that occurs when an elderly witness is asked to describe an event in court. The Elderly Eyewitness also examines jurors’ reactions to the testimony of an elderly witness, and the legal and social policy issues that emerge when the elderly witness participate in legal proceedings. While reviewing what is known about the elderly witness, the book also provides a direction for future research into this new frontier of scientific inquiry. Its audience spans researchers in cognitive and developmental psychology, and professionals working in the growing area of psychology and law.



Eyewitness Testimony

Eyewitness Testimony Author
ISBN-10 9994814648
Release 1994
Pages
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Eyewitness Testimony has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Eyewitness Testimony also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Eyewitness Testimony book for free.



Conviction of the Innocent

Conviction of the Innocent Author Brian L. Cutler
ISBN-10 1433810212
Release 2012
Pages 370
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Over the last several decades over 250 citizens convicted of major felonies were found innocent and were exonerated. Today, thanks to the work of psychologists and other criminal justice researchers, the psychological foundations that underlie conviction of the innocent are becoming clear. There is real hope that these findings can lead to positive reforms, reduce the risk of miscarriages of justice, and avoid the consequences of wrongful convictions to victims and society. In this book, Editor Brian Cutler presents a state-of-the-field review of current psychological research on conviction of the innocent. Chapter authors investigate how the roles played by suspects, investigators, eyewitnesses, and trial witnesses and how pervasive systemic issues contribute to conspire to increase the risk of conviction of the innocent. The chapters skillfully examine psychological perspectives on such topics as police interrogations, confessions, eyewitness identification, trial procedures, juries, and forensic science, as well as broader issues such as racism and tunnel vision within the justice system. This comprehensive volume represents an important milestone for research on miscarriages of justice. By bringing psychological theories and research to bear on this social problem, the authors derive compelling recommendations for future research and practical reform in police and legal procedures.



Beyond Common Sense

Beyond Common Sense Author Eugene Borgida
ISBN-10 0470695692
Release 2008-04-30
Pages 448
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Beyond Common Sense addresses the many important and controversial issues that arise from the use of psychological and social science in the courtroom. Each chapter identifies areas of scientific agreement and disagreement, and discusses how psychological science advances our understanding of human behavior beyond common sense. Features original chapters written by some of the leading experts in the field of psychology and law including Elizabeth Loftus, Saul Kassin, Faye Crosby, Alice Eagly, Gary Wells, Louise Fitzgerald, Craig Anderson, and Phoebe Ellsworth The 14 issues addressed include eyewitness identification, gender stereotypes, repressed memories, Affirmative Action and the death penalty Commentaries written by leading social science and law scholars discuss key legal and scientific themes that emerge from the science chapters and illustrate how psychological science is or can be used in the courts



Evaluating Eyewitness Identification

Evaluating Eyewitness Identification Author Brian Cutler
ISBN-10 0199706883
Release 2010-01-25
Pages 168
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Forensic mental health assessment (FMHA) has grown into a specialization informed by research and professional guidelines. This series presents up-to-date information on the most important and frequently conducted forms of FMHA. The 19 topical volumes address best approaches to practice for particular types of evaluation in the criminal, civil, and juvenile/family areas. Each volume contains a thorough discussion of the relevant legal and psychological concepts, followed by a step-by-step description of the assessment process from preparing for the evaluation to writing the report and testifying in court. Volumes include the following helpful features: · Boxes that zero in on important information for use in evaluations · Tips for best practice and cautions against common pitfalls · Highlighting of relevant case law and statutes · Separate list of assessment tools for easy reference · Helpful glossary of key terms for the particular topic In making recommendations for best practice, authors consider empirical support, legal relevance, and consistency with ethical and professional standards. These volumes offer invaluable guidance for anyone involved in conducting or using forensic evaluations.



Eyewitness Testimony

Eyewitness Testimony Author Gary L. Wells
ISBN-10 0521255643
Release 1984-05-25
Pages 384
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Topics examined are eyewitness memory as a function of age, the adequacy of intuition in judging eyewitness memory, & the relationship between confidence & accuracy. Also includes chapters on hypnosis, lie detection, & legal aspects of the dangers inherent in eyewitness identification testimony.



Picking Cotton

Picking Cotton Author Jennifer Thompson-Cannino
ISBN-10 9781429962155
Release 2010-01-05
Pages 304
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The New York Times best selling true story of an unlikely friendship forged between a woman and the man she incorrectly identified as her rapist and sent to prison for 11 years. Jennifer Thompson was raped at knifepoint by a man who broke into her apartment while she slept. She was able to escape, and eventually positively identified Ronald Cotton as her attacker. Ronald insisted that she was mistaken-- but Jennifer's positive identification was the compelling evidence that put him behind bars. After eleven years, Ronald was allowed to take a DNA test that proved his innocence. He was released, after serving more than a decade in prison for a crime he never committed. Two years later, Jennifer and Ronald met face to face-- and forged an unlikely friendship that changed both of their lives. With Picking Cotton, Jennifer and Ronald tell in their own words the harrowing details of their tragedy, and challenge our ideas of memory and judgment while demonstrating the profound nature of human grace and the healing power of forgiveness.



Psychology and Law

Psychology and Law Author Neil Brewer
ISBN-10 9781462532346
Release 2017-02-13
Pages 516
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From the initial investigation of a crime to the sentencing of an offender, many everyday practices within the criminal justice system involve complex psychological processes. This volume analyzes the processes involved in such tasks as interviewing witnesses, detecting deception, and eliciting eyewitness reports and identification from adults and children. Factors that influence decision making by jurors and judges are examined as well. Throughout, findings from experimental research are translated into clear recommendations for improving the quality of evidence and the fairness of investigative and legal proceedings. The book also addresses salient methodological questions and identifies key directions for future investigation.



Handbook Of Eyewitness Psychology 2 Volume Set

Handbook Of Eyewitness Psychology 2 Volume Set Author Rod C. L. Lindsay
ISBN-10 9781317777823
Release 2014-05-12
Pages 1392
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The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for the courts. For the first time, extensive reviews of factors influencing witnesses of all ages – children, adults, and the elderly – are compiled in a single pair of volumes. The disparate research currently being conducted in eyewitness memory in psychology, criminal justice, and legal studies is coherently presented in this work. Volume 1 covers memory for events. Volume 2 cover memory for people.