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Qualitative HCI Research

Qualitative HCI Research Author Ann Blandford
ISBN-10 9781681731940
Release 2016-04-07
Pages 115
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Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) addresses problems of interaction design: understanding user needs to inform design, delivering novel designs that meet user needs, and evaluating new and existing designs to determine their success in meeting user needs. Qualitative methods have an essential role to play in this enterprise, particularly in understanding user needs and behaviours and evaluating situated use of technology. Qualitative methods allow HCI researchers to ask questions where the answers are more complex and interesting than "true" or "false," and may also be unexpected. In this lecture, we draw on the analogy of making a documentary film to discuss important issues in qualitative HCI research: historically, films were presented as finished products, giving the viewer little insight into the production process; more recently, there has been a trend to go behind the scenes to expose some of the painstaking work that went into creating the final cut. Similarly, in qualitative research, the essential work behind the scenes is rarely discussed. There are many "how to" guides for particular methods, but few texts that start with the purpose of a study and then discuss the important details of how to select a suitable method, how to adapt it to fit the study context, or how to deal with unexpected challenges that arise. We address this gap by presenting a repertoire of qualitative techniques for understanding user needs, practices and experiences with technology for the purpose of informing design. We also discuss practical considerations such as tactics for recruiting participants and ways of getting started when faced with a pile of interview transcripts. Our particular focus is on semi-structured qualitative studies, which occupy a space between ethnography and surveys—typically involving observations, interviews and similar methods for data gathering, and methods of analysis based on systematic coding of data. Just as a documentary team faces challenges that often go unreported when arranging expeditions or interviews and gathering and editing footage within time and budget constraints, so the qualitative research team faces challenges in obtaining ethical clearance, recruiting participants, analysing data, choosing how and what to report, etc. We present illustrative examples drawn from prior experience to bring to life the purpose, planning and practical considerations of doing qualitative studies for interaction design. We include takeaway checklists for planning, conducting, reporting and evaluating semi-structured qualitative studies.



Experience centered Design

Experience centered Design Author Peter Charles Wright
ISBN-10 9781608450442
Release 2010
Pages 107
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Experience-centered design, experience-based design, experience design, designing for experience, user experience design. All of these terms have emerged and gained acceptance in the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Interaction Design relatively recently. In this book, we set out our understanding of experience-centered design as a humanistic approach to designing digital technologies and media that enhance lived experience. The book is divided into three sections. In Section 1, we outline the historical origins and basic concepts that led into and flow out from our understanding of experience as the heart of people's interactions with digital technology. In Section 2, we describe three examples of experience-centered projects and use them to illustrate and explain our dialogical approach. In Section 3, we recapitulate some of the main ideas and themes of the book and discuss the potential of experience-centered design to continue the humanist agenda by giving a voice to those who might otherwise be excluded from design and by creating opportunities for people to enrich their lived experience with and through technology. Table of Contents: How Did We Get Here? / Some Key Ideas Behind Experience-Centered Design / Making Sense of Experience in Experience-Centered Design / Experience-Centered Design as Dialogue / What do We Mean by Dialogue? / Valuing Experience-Centered Design / Where Do We Go from Here?



Research in the Wild

Research in the Wild Author Yvonne Rogers
ISBN-10 9781681731971
Release 2017-04-04
Pages 97
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The phrase "in-the-wild" is becoming popular again in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing approaches to HCI research and accounts of user experience phenomena that differ from those derived from other lab-based methods. The phrase first came to the forefront 20-25 years ago when anthropologists Jean Lave (1988), Lucy Suchman (1987), and Ed Hutchins (1995) began writing about cognition being in-the-wild. Today, it is used more broadly to refer to research that seeks to understand new technology interventions in everyday living. A reason for its resurgence in contemporary HCI is an acknowledgment that so much technology is now embedded and used in our everyday lives. Researchers have begun following suit—decamping from their usability and living labs and moving into the wild; carrying out in-situ development and engagement, sampling experiences, and probing people in their homes and on the streets. The aim of this book is to examine what this new direction entails and what it means for HCI theory, practice, and design. The focus is on the insights, demands and concerns. But how does research in the wild differ from the other applied approaches in interaction design, such as contextual design, action research, or ethnography? What is added by labeling user research as being in-the-wild? One main difference is where the research starts and ends: unlike user-centered, and more specifically, ethnographic approaches which typically begin by observing existing practices and then suggesting general design implications or system requirements, in-the-wild approaches create and evaluate new technologies and experiences in situ(Rogers, 2012). Moreover, novel technologies are often developed to augment people, places, and settings, without necessarily designing them for specific user needs. There has also been a shift in design thinking. Instead of developing solutions that fit in with existing practices, researchers are experimenting with new technological possibilities that can change and even disrupt behavior. Opportunities are created, interventions installed, and different ways of behaving are encouraged. A key concern is how people react, change and integrate these in their everyday lives. This book outlines the emergence and development of research in the wild. It is structured around a framework for conceptualizing and bringing together the different strands. It covers approaches, methods, case studies, and outcomes. Finally, it notes that there is more in the wild research in HCI than usability and other kinds of user studies in HCI and what the implications of this are for the field.



Studies of Work and the Workplace in HCI

Studies of Work and the Workplace in HCI Author Graham Button
ISBN-10 9781598299878
Release 2009
Pages 95
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This book has two purposes. First, to introduce the study of work and the workplace as a method for informing the design of computer systems to be used at work. We primarily focus on the predominant way in which the organization of work has been approached within the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), which is from the perspective of ethnomethodology. We locate studies of work in HCI within its intellectual antecedents, and describe paradigmatic examples and case studies. Second, we hope to provide those who are intending to conduct the type of fieldwork that studies of work and the workplace draw off with suggestions as to how they can go about their own work of developing observations about the settings they encounter. These suggestions take the form of a set of maxims that we have found useful while conducting the studies we have been involved in. We draw from our own fieldwork notes in order to illustrate these maxims. In addition we also offer some homilies about how to make observations; again, these are ones we have found useful in our own work. Table of Contents: Motivation / Overview: A Paradigmatic Case / Scientific Foundations / Detailed Description / Case Study / How to Conduct Ethnomethodological Studies of Work / Making Observations / Current Status



Interacting with Information

Interacting with Information Author Ann Blandford
ISBN-10 9781608450268
Release 2010
Pages 85
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We live in an "information age," but information is only useful when it is interpreted by people and applied in the context of their goals and activities. The volume of information to which people have access is growing at an incredible rate, vastly outstripping people's ability to assimilate and manage it. In order to design technologies that better support information work, it is necessary to better understand the details of that work. In this lecture, we review the situations (physical, social and temporal) in which people interact with information. We also discuss how people interact with information in terms of an "information journey," in which people, iteratively, do the following: recognise a need for information, find information, interpret and evaluate that information in the context of their goals, and use the interpretation to support their broader activities. People's information needs may be explicit and clearly articulated but, conversely, may be tacit, exploratory and evolving. Widely used tools supporting information access, such as searching on the Web and in digital libraries, support clearly defined information requirements well, but they provide limited support for other information needs. Most other stages of the information journey are poorly supported at present. Novel design solutions are unlikely to be purely digital, but to exploit the rich variety of information resources, digital, physical and social, that are available. Theories of information interaction and sensemaking can highlight new design possibilities that augment human capabilities. We review relevant theories and findings for understanding information behaviours, and we review methods for evaluating information working tools, to both assess existing tools and identify requirements for the future. Table of Contents: Introduction: Pervasive Information Interactions / Background: Information Interaction at the Crossroads of Research Traditions / The Situations: Physical, Social and Temporal / The Behaviors: Understanding the "Information Journey" / The Technologies: Supporting the Information Journey / Studying User Behaviors and Needs for Information Interaction / Looking to the Future / Further Reading



Interaction Design

Interaction Design Author Jenny Preece
ISBN-10 9781119020752
Release 2015-05-26
Pages 584
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This is an ideal resource for learning the interdisciplinary skills needed for interaction design, human computer interaction, information design, web design and ubiquitous computing. This text offers a cross-disciplinary, practical and process-oriented introduction to the field, showing not just what principles ought to apply to interaction design, but crucially how they can be applied.



Experience Design

Experience Design Author Marc Hassenzahl
ISBN-10 9781608450473
Release 2010
Pages 85
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In his In the blink of an eye, Walter Murch, the Oscar-awarded editor of The English Patient, Apocalypse Now, and many other outstanding movies, devises the Rule of Six -- six criteria for what makes a good cut. On top of his list is "to be true to the emotion of the moment," a quality more important than advancing the story or being rhythmically interesting. The cut has to deliver a meaningful, compelling, and emotion-rich "experience" to the audience. Because, "what they finally remember is not the editing, not the camerawork, not the performances, not even the story---it's how they felt." Technology for all the right reasons applies this insight to the design of interactive products and technologies -- the domain of Human-Computer Interaction, Usability Engineering, and Interaction Design. It takes an experiential approach, putting experience before functionality and leaving behind oversimplified calls for ease, efficiency, and automation or shallow beautification. Instead, it explores what really matters to humans and what it needs to make technology more meaningful. The book clarifies what experience is, and highlights five crucial aspects and their implications for the design of interactive products. It provides reasons why we should bother with an experiential approach, and presents a detailed working model of experience useful for practitioners and academics alike. It closes with the particular challenges of an experiential approach for design. The book presents its view as a comprehensive, yet entertaining blend of scientific findings, design examples, and personal anecdotes. Table of Contents: Follow me! / Crucial Properties of Experience / Three Good Reasons to Consider Experience / A Model of Experience / Reflections on Experience Design



Geographical Design

Geographical Design Author Stephen C. Hirtle
ISBN-10 9781608455959
Release 2011
Pages 55
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With GIS technologies ranging from Google Maps and Google Earth to the use of smart phones and in-car navigation systems, spatial knowledge is often acquired and communicated through geographic information technologies. This monograph describes the interplay between spatial cognition research and use of spatial interfaces. It begins by reviewing what is known about how humans process spatial concepts and then moves on to discuss how interfaces can be improved to take advantage to those capabilities. Special attention is given to a variety of innovative geographical platforms that provide users with an intuitive understanding and support the further acquisition of spatial knowledge. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the number of outstanding issues, including the changing nature of maps as the primary spatial interface, concerns about privacy for spatial information, and a look at the future of user-centered spatial information systems. Table of Contents: Introduction / Spatial Cognition / Technologies / Cognitive Interfaces for Wayfinding / Open Issues / For More Information



Human Computer Interaction INTERACT 2009

Human Computer Interaction   INTERACT 2009 Author Tom Gross
ISBN-10 9783642036583
Release 2009-08-20
Pages 992
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INTERACT 2009 was the 12th of a series of INTERACT international c- ferences supported by the IFIP Technical Committee 13 on Human–Computer Interaction. This year,INTERACT washeld in Uppsala (Sweden), organizedby the Swedish Interdisciplinary Interest Group for Human–Computer Interaction (STIMDI) in cooperation with the Department of Information Technology at Uppsala University. Like its predecessors, INTERACT 2009 highlighted, both to the academic and to the industrial world, the importance of the human–computer interaction (HCI) area and its most recent breakthroughs on current applications. Both - perienced HCI researchers and professionals, as well as newcomers to the HCI ?eld, interested in designing or evaluating interactive software, developing new interaction technologies, or investigating overarching theories of HCI, found in INTERACT 2009 a great forum for communication with people of similar int- ests, to encourage collaboration and to learn. INTERACT 2009 had Research and Practice as its special theme. The r- son we selected this theme is that the research within the ?eld has drifted away from the practicalapplicability of its results and that the HCI practice has come to disregard the knowledge and development within the academic community.



HCI Theory

HCI Theory Author Yvonne Rogers
ISBN-10 9781608459018
Release 2012-06-01
Pages 129
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Theory is the bedrock of many sciences, providing a rigorous method to advance knowledge, through testing and falsifying hypotheses about observable phenomena. To begin with, the nascent field of HCI followed the scientific method borrowing theories from cognitive science to test theories about user performance at the interface. But HCI has emerged as an eclectic interdiscipline rather than a well-defined science. It now covers all aspects of human life, from birth to bereavement, through all manner of computing, from device ecologies to nano-technology. It comes as no surprise that the role of theory in HCI has also greatly expanded from the early days of scientific testing to include other functions such as describing, explaining, critiquing, and as the basis for generating new designs. The book charts the theoretical developments in HCI, both past and present, reflecting on how they have shaped the field. It explores both the rhetoric and the reality: how theories have been conceptualized, what was promised, how they have been used and which has made the most impact in the field -- and the reasons for this. Finally, it looks to the future and asks whether theory will continue to have a role, and, if so, what this might be. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Backdrop to HCI Theory / The Role and Contribution of Theory in HCI / Classical Theories / Modern Theories / Contemporary Theory / Discussion / Summary



Surface Computing and Collaborative Analysis Work

Surface Computing and Collaborative Analysis Work Author Judith Brown
ISBN-10 9781627051262
Release 2013-09-01
Pages 168
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Large surface computing devices (wall-mounted or tabletop) with touch interfaces and their application to collaborative data analysis, an increasingly important and prevalent activity, is the primary topic of this book. Our goals are to outline the fundamentals of surface computing (a still maturing technology), review relevant work on collaborative data analysis, describe frameworks for understanding collaborative processes, and provide a better understanding of the opportunities for research and development. We describe surfaces as display technologies with which people can interact directly, and emphasize how interaction design changes when designing for large surfaces. We review efforts to use large displays, surfaces or mixed display environments to enable collaborative analytic activity. Collaborative analysis is important in many domains, but to provide concrete examples and a specific focus, we frequently consider analysis work in the security domain, and in particular the challenges security personnel face in securing networks from attackers, and intelligence analysts encounter when analyzing intelligence data. Both of these activities are becoming increasingly collaborative endeavors, and there are huge opportunities for improving collaboration by leveraging surface computing. This work highlights for interaction designers and software developers the particular challenges and opportunities presented by interaction with surfaces. We have reviewed hundreds of recent research papers, and report on advancements in the fields of surface-enabled collaborative analytic work, interactive techniques for surface technologies, and useful theory that can provide direction to interaction design work. We also offer insight into issues that arise when developing applications for multi-touch surfaces derived from our own experiences creating collaborative applications. We present these insights at a level appropriate for all members of the software design and development team. Table of Contents: List of Figures / Acknowledgments / Figure Credits / Purpose and Direction / Surface Technologies and Collaborative Analysis Systems / Interacting with Surface Technologies / Collaborative Work Enabled by Surfaces / The Theory and the Design of Surface Applications / The Development of Surface Applications / Concluding Comments / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies



HCI Remixed

HCI Remixed Author Thomas Erickson
ISBN-10 9780262292641
Release 2007-12-21
Pages 360
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Over almost three decades, the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) has produced a rich and varied literature. Although the focus of attention today is naturally on new work, older contributions that played a role in shaping the trajectory and character of the field have much to tell us. The contributors to HCI Remixed were asked to reflect on a single work at least ten years old that influenced their approach to HCI. The result is this collection of fifty-one short, engaging, and idiosyncratic essays, reflections on a range of works in a variety of forms that chart the emergence of a new field. An article, a demo, a book: any of these can solve a problem, demonstrate the usefulness of a new method, or prompt a shift in perspective. HCI Remixed offers us glimpses of how this comes about. The contributors consider such HCI classics as Sutherland's Sketchpad, Englebart's demo of NLS, and Fitts on Fitts' Law--and such forgotten gems as Pulfer's NRC Music Machine, and Galloway and Rabinowitz's Hole in Space. Others reflect on works somewhere in between classic and forgotten--Kidd's "The Marks Are on the Knowledge Worker," King Beach's "Becoming a Bartender," and others. Some contributors turn to works in neighboring disciplines--Henry Dreyfuss's book on industrial design, for example--and some range farther afield, to Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis and Jane Jacobs's The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Taken together, the essays offer an accessible, lively, and engaging introduction to HCI research that reflects the diversity of the field's beginnings.Thomas Erickson is Research Staff Member at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center. David W. McDonald is Assistant Professor at the Information School at the University of Washington, Seattle.



Human Factors in Computing and Informatics

Human Factors in Computing and Informatics Author Andreas Holzinger
ISBN-10 9783642390623
Release 2013-06-26
Pages 845
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Conference on Human Factors in Computing and Informatics, SouthCHI 2013, held in Maribor, Slovenia, in July 2013. SouthCHI is the successor of the USAB Conference series and promotes all aspects of human-computer interaction. The 38 revised full papers presented together with 12 short papers, 4 posters and 3 doctoral thesis papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 169 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: measurement and usability evaluation; usability evaluation - medical environments; accessibility methodologies; game-based methodologies; Web-based systems and attribution research; virtual environments; design culture for ageing well: designing for "situated elderliness"; input devices; adaptive systems and intelligent agents; and assessing the state of HCI research and practice in South-Eastern Europe.



Designing for Gesture and Tangible Interaction

Designing for Gesture and Tangible Interaction Author Mary Lou Maher
ISBN-10 9781681731964
Release 2017-03-15
Pages 111
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Interactive technology is increasingly integrated with physical objects that do not have a traditional keyboard and mouse style of interaction, and many do not even have a display. These objects require new approaches to interaction design, referred to as post-WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointer) or as embodied interaction design. This book provides an overview of the design opportunities and issues associated with two embodied interaction modalities that allow us to leave the traditional keyboard behind: tangible and gesture interaction. We explore the issues in designing for this new age of interaction by highlighting the significance and contexts for these modalities. We explore the design of tangible interaction with a reconceptualization of the traditional keyboard as a Tangible Keyboard, and the design of interactive three-dimensional (3D) models as Tangible Models. We explore the design of gesture interaction through the design of gesture-base commands for a walk-up-and-use information display, and through the design of a gesture-based dialogue for the willful marionette. We conclude with design principles for tangible and gesture interaction and a call for research on the cognitive effects of these modalities.



The Evolution of TV Systems Content and Users Towards Interactivity

The Evolution of TV Systems  Content  and Users Towards Interactivity Author Pablo Cesar
ISBN-10 9781601982568
Release 2009-08-01
Pages 108
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The Evolution of TV Systems, Content, and Users towards Interactivity provides an overview of the evolution of TV systems, TV content, and TV users towards interactivity, with a special focus on sociability aspects. Three basic concepts are introduced, namely, content editing, content sharing, and content control.



Distributed Ambient and Pervasive Interactions

Distributed  Ambient  and Pervasive Interactions Author Norbert Streitz
ISBN-10 9783642393518
Release 2013-07-02
Pages 519
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2013, held as part of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2013, held in Las Vegas, USA in July 2013, jointly with 12 other thematically similar conferences. The total of 1666 papers and 303 posters presented at the HCII 2013 conferences was carefully reviewed and selected from 5210 submissions. These papers address the latest research and development efforts and highlight the human aspects of design and use of computing systems. The papers accepted for presentation thoroughly cover the entire field of human-computer interaction, addressing major advances in knowledge and effective use of computers in a variety of application areas. The total of 54 contributions was carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the DAPI proceedings. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: natural interaction; context-awareness in smart and intelligent environments; design and evaluation of smart and intelligent environments; smart cities; multi-user, group and collaborative interaction; smart everyday living and working environments.



Fieldwork for Healthcare

Fieldwork for Healthcare Author Dominic Furniss
ISBN-10 9781627053204
Release 2014-01-01
Pages 129
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Performing fieldwork in healthcare settings is significantly different from fieldwork in other domains and it presents unique challenges to researchers. Whilst results are reported in research papers, the details of how to actually perform these fieldwork studies are not. This is the first of two volumes designed as a collective graduate guidebook for conducting fieldwork in healthcare. This volume brings together the experiences of established researchers who do fieldwork in clinical and non-clinical settings, focusing on how people interact with healthcare technology, in the form of case studies. These case studies are all personal, reflective accounts of challenges faced and lessons learned, which future researchers might also learn from. We open with an account of studies in the Operating Room, focusing on the role of the researcher, and how participants engage and resist engaging with the research process. Subsequent case studies address themes in a variety of hospital settings, which highlight the variability that is experienced across study settings and the importance of context in shaping what is possible when conducting research in hospitals. Recognising and dealing with emotions, strategies for gaining access, and data gathering are themes that pervade the studies. Later case studies introduce research involving collaborative design and intervention studies, which seek to have an immediate impact on practice. Mental health is a theme of two intervention studies as we move out of the hospital to engage with vulnerable participants suffering from long-term conditions and people in the home. This volume closes with an intervention study in the developing world that ends with some tips for conducting studies in healthcare. Such tips are synthesised through the thematic chapters presented in the companion volume.