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Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding Author Arnel R. Hallauer
ISBN-10 1441907661
Release 2010-09-28
Pages 664
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Maize is used in an endless list of products that are directly or indirectly related to human nutrition and food security. Maize is grown in producer farms, farmers depend on genetically improved cultivars, and maize breeders develop improved maize cultivars for farmers. Nikolai I. Vavilov defined plant breeding as plant evolution directed by man. Among crops, maize is one of the most successful examples for breeder-directed evolution. Maize is a cross-pollinated species with unique and separate male and female organs allowing techniques from both self and cross-pollinated crops to be utilized. As a consequence, a diverse set of breeding methods can be utilized for the development of various maize cultivar types for all economic conditions (e.g., improved populations, inbred lines, and their hybrids for different types of markets). Maize breeding is the science of maize cultivar development. Public investment in maize breeding from 1865 to 1996 was $3 billion (Crosbie et al., 2004) and the return on investment was $260 billion as a consequence of applied maize breeding, even without full understanding of the genetic basis of heterosis. The principles of quantitative genetics have been successfully applied by maize breeders worldwide to adapt and improve germplasm sources of cultivars for very simple traits (e.g. maize flowering) and very complex ones (e.g., grain yield). For instance, genomic efforts have isolated early-maturing genes and QTL for potential MAS but very simple and low cost phenotypic efforts have caused significant and fast genetic progress across genotypes moving elite tropical and late temperate maize northward with minimal investment. Quantitative genetics has allowed the integration of pre-breeding with cultivar development by characterizing populations genetically, adapting them to places never thought of (e.g., tropical to short-seasons), improving them by all sorts of intra- and inter-population recurrent selection methods, extracting lines with more probability of success, and exploiting inbreeding and heterosis. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding has improved the odds of developing outstanding maize cultivars from genetically broad based improved populations such as B73. The inbred-hybrid concept in maize was a public sector invention 100 years ago and it is still considered one of the greatest achievements in plant breeding. Maize hybrids grown by farmers today are still produced following this methodology and there is still no limit to genetic improvement when most genes are targeted in the breeding process. Heterotic effects are unique for each hybrid and exotic genetic materials (e.g., tropical, early maturing) carry useful alleles for complex traits not present in the B73 genome just sequenced while increasing the genetic diversity of U.S. hybrids. Breeding programs based on classical quantitative genetics and selection methods will be the basis for proving theoretical approaches on breeding plans based on molecular markers. Mating designs still offer large sample sizes when compared to QTL approaches and there is still a need to successful integration of these methods. There is a need to increase the genetic diversity of maize hybrids available in the market (e.g., there is a need to increase the number of early maturing testers in the northern U.S.). Public programs can still develop new and genetically diverse products not available in industry. However, public U.S. maize breeding programs have either been discontinued or are eroding because of decreasing state and federal funding toward basic science. Future significant genetic gains in maize are dependent on the incorporation of useful and unique genetic diversity not available in industry (e.g., NDSU EarlyGEM lines). The integration of pre-breeding methods with cultivar development should enhance future breeding efforts to maintain active public breeding programs not only adapting and improving genetically broad-based germplasm but also developing unique products and training the next generation of maize breeders producing research dissertations directly linked to breeding programs. This is especially important in areas where commercial hybrids are not locally bred. More than ever public and private institutions are encouraged to cooperate in order to share breeding rights, research goals, winter nurseries, managed stress environments, and latest technology for the benefit of producing the best possible hybrids for farmers with the least cost. We have the opportunity to link both classical and modern technology for the benefit of breeding in close cooperation with industry without the need for investing in academic labs and time (e.g., industry labs take a week vs months/years in academic labs for the same work). This volume, as part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding series, aims to increase awareness of the relative value and impact of maize breeding for food, feed, and fuel security. Without breeding programs continuously developing improved germplasm, no technology can develop improved cultivars. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding presents principles and data that can be applied to maximize genetic improvement of germplasm and develop superior genotypes in different crops. The topics included should be of interest of graduate students and breeders conducting research not only on breeding and selection methods but also developing pure lines and hybrid cultivars in crop species. This volume is a unique and permanent contribution to breeders, geneticists, students, policy makers, and land-grant institutions still promoting quality research in applied plant breeding as opposed to promoting grant monies and indirect costs at any short-term cost. The book is dedicated to those who envision the development of the next generation of cultivars with less need of water and inputs, with better nutrition; and with higher percentages of exotic germplasm as well as those that pursue independent research goals before searching for funding. Scientists are encouraged to use all possible breeding methodologies available (e.g., transgenics, classical breeding, MAS, and all possible combinations could be used with specific sound long and short-term goals on mind) once germplasm is chosen making wise decisions with proven and scientifically sound technologies for assisting current breeding efforts depending on the particular trait under selection. Arnel R. Hallauer is C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture (Emeritus) at Iowa State University (ISU). Dr. Hallauer has led maize-breeding research for mid-season maturity at ISU since 1958. His work has had a worldwide impact on plant-breeding programs, industry, and students and was named a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Hallauer is a native of Kansas, USA. José B. Miranda Filho is full-professor in the Department of Genetics, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - University of São Paulo located at Piracicaba, Brazil. His research interests have emphasized development of quantitative genetic theory and its application to maize breeding. Miranda Filho is native of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. M.J. Carena is professor of plant sciences at North Dakota State University (NDSU). Dr. Carena has led maize-breeding research for short-season maturity at NDSU since 1999. This program is currently one the of the few public U.S. programs left integrating pre-breeding with cultivar development and training in applied maize breeding. He teaches Quantitative Genetics and Crop Breeding Techniques at NDSU. Carena is a native of Buenos Aires, Argentina. http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/plantsci/faculty/Carena.htm



Quantitative Genetics Genomics and Plant Breeding

Quantitative Genetics  Genomics  and Plant Breeding Author Manjit S. Kang
ISBN-10 0851997872
Release 2002-09-20
Pages 432
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This book provides an overview of the rapidly developing integration and interdependence of quantitative genetics, genomics, bioinformatics and their application to plant breeding. Chapters have been developed from a symposium held in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in March 2001, although additional contributions have also been commissioned especially for this volume. The main topics covered include: quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genomics, bioinformatics and marker-assisted selection; tissue culture and alien introgression for crop improvement; and advances in genotype by environment interaction/stability analysis.



Quantitative Genetics and Selection in Plant Breeding

Quantitative Genetics and Selection in Plant Breeding Author Günter Wricke
ISBN-10 9783110837520
Release 1986-01-01
Pages 418
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Quantitative Genetics and Selection in Plant Breeding has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Quantitative Genetics and Selection in Plant Breeding also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Quantitative Genetics and Selection in Plant Breeding book for free.



Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding Author George Acquaah
ISBN-10 9781118313695
Release 2012-08-16
Pages 760
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To respond to the increasing need to feed the world's population as well as an ever greater demand for a balanced and healthy diet there is a continuing need to produce improved new cultivars or varieties of plants, particularly crop plants. The strategies used to produce these are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, particularly genetics, but involves a multidisciplinary understanding that optimizes the approaches taken. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2nd Edition introduces both classical and molecular tools for plant breeding. Topics such as biotechnology in plant breeding, intellectual property, risks, emerging concepts (decentralized breeding, organic breeding), and more are addressed in the new, updated edition of this text. Industry highlight boxes are included throughout the text to contextualize the information given through the professional experiences of plant breeders. The final chapters provide a useful reference on breeding the largest and most common crops. Up-to-date edition of this bestselling book incorporating the most recent technologies in the field Combines both theory and practice in modern plant breeding Updated industry highlights help to illustrate the concepts outlined in the text Self assessment questions at the end of each chapter aid student learning Accompanying website with artwork from the book available to instructors



Molecular Plant Breeding

Molecular Plant Breeding Author Yunbi Xu
ISBN-10 9781845933920
Release 2010
Pages 734
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Recent advances in plant genomics and molecular biology have revolutionized our understanding of plant genetics, providing new opportunities for more efficient and controllable plant breeding. Successful techniques require a solid understanding of the underlying molecular biology as well as experience in applied plant breeding. Bridging the gap between developments in biotechnology and its applications in plant improvement, Molecular Plant Breeding provides an integrative overview of issues from basic theories to their applications to crop improvement including molecular marker technology, gene mapping, genetic transformation, quantitative genetics, and breeding methodology.



Cereals

Cereals Author Marcelo J. Carena
ISBN-10 0387722971
Release 2009-04-21
Pages 426
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Agriculture depends on improved cultivars, and cultivars are developed through proper plant breeding. Unfortunately, applied plant breeding programs that are focused on cereal commodity crops are under serious erosion because of lack of funding. This loss of public support affects breeding continuity, objectivity, and, perhaps equally important, the training of future plant breeders and the utilization and improvement of plant genetic resources currently available. Breeding programs should focus not only on short-term research goals but also on long-term genetic improvement of germplasm. The research products of breeding programs are important not only for food security but also for commodity-oriented public and private programs, especially in the fringes of crop production. Breeding strategies used for long-term selection are often neglected but the reality is that long-term research is needed for the success of short-term products. An excellent example is that genetically broad-based public germplasm has significantly been utilized and recycled by industry, producing billions of dollars for industry and farmers before intellectual property rights were available. Successful examples of breeding continuity have served the sustainable cereal crop production that we currently have. The fact that farmers rely on public and private breeding institutions for solving long-term challenges should influence policy makers to reverse this trend of reduced funding. Joint cooperation between industry and public institutions would be a good example to follow. The objective of this volume is to increase the utilization of useful genetic resources and increase awareness of the relative value and impact of plant breeding and biotechnology. That should lead to a more sustainable crop production and ultimately food security. Applied plant breeding will continue to be the foundation to which molecular markers are applied. Focusing useful molecular techniques on the right traits will build a strong linkage between genomics and plant breeding and lead to new and better cultivars. Therefore, more than ever there is a need for better communication and cooperation among scientists in the plant breeding and biotechnology areas. We have an opportunity to greatly enhance agricultural production by applying the results of this research to meet the growing demands for food security and environmental conservation. Ensuring strong applied plant breeding programs with successful application of molecular markers will be essential in ensuring such sustainable use of plant genetic resources.



Principles of Plant Breeding

Principles of Plant Breeding Author Robert Wayne Allard
ISBN-10 0471023094
Release 1999-05-10
Pages 254
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As ancient as agriculture itself, plant breeding is one of civilization\'s oldest activities. Today, world food production is more dependent than ever on the successful cultivation of only a handful of major crops, while continuing advances in agriculture rely on successfully breeding new varieties that are well-adapted to their human-influenced ecological circumstances. Plant breeding involves elements of both natural and cultural selection-a process which operates on individual plants and on plant populations. This book offers the most recent detailed knowledge of plant reproduction and their environmental interaction, which can help guide new breeding programs and help insure continuing progress in providing more food for growing populations produced with better care of the environment.



Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants

Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants Author Rex Novero Bernardo
ISBN-10 0972072411
Release 2010-01-01
Pages 390
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Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants book for free.



Breeding Field Crops

Breeding Field Crops Author John M. Poehlman
ISBN-10 9789401572712
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 724
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While preparing the first edition of this textbook I attended an extension short course on writing agricultural publications. The message I remember was "select your audience and write to it. " There has never been any doubt about the audience for which this textbook was written, the introductory course in crop breeding. In addition, it has become a widely used reference for the graduate plant-breeding student and the practicing plant breeder. In its prepa ration, particular attention has been given to advances in plant-breeding theo ry and their utility in plant-breeding practice. The blend of the theoretical with the practical has set this book apart from other plant-breeding textbooks. The basic structure and the objectives of the earlier editions remain un changed. These objectives are (1) to review essential features of plant re production, Mendelian genetic principles, and related genetic developments applicable in plant-breeding practice; (2) to describe and evaluate established and new plant-breeding procedures and techniques, and (3) to discuss plant breeding objectives with emphasis on the importance of proper choice of objec tive for achieving success in variety development. Because plant-breeding activities are normally organized around specific crops, there are chapters describing breeding procedures and objectives for the major crop plants; the crops were chosen for their economic importance or diversity in breeding sys tems. These chapters provide a broad overview of the kinds of problems with which the breeder must cope.



Selection Methods in Plant Breeding

Selection Methods in Plant Breeding Author Izak Bos
ISBN-10 9781402063701
Release 2007-10-26
Pages 461
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Written for plant breeders, researchers and post-graduate students, this excellent new book provides a comprehensive review of the methods and underlying theoretical foundations used for selection in plant breeding programs. The authors review basic elements of population and quantitative genetic theory, moving on to consider in a unique way the tackling of the problems presented by soil heterogeneity and intergenotypic competition when selecting quantitative characters.



Statistical Genetics and Plant Breeding

Statistical Genetics and Plant Breeding Author Warren Durward Hanson
ISBN-10 NAP:14289
Release 1963
Pages 623
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Statistical Genetics and Plant Breeding has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Statistical Genetics and Plant Breeding also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Statistical Genetics and Plant Breeding book for free.



Genetics Genomics and Breeding of Maize

Genetics  Genomics and Breeding of Maize Author Ramakrishna Wusirika
ISBN-10 9781482228137
Release 2014-08-05
Pages 310
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Sequencing of the maize genome has opened up new opportunities in maize breeding, genetics and genomics research. This book highlights modern trends in development of hybrids, analysis of genetic diversity, molecular breeding, comparative and functional genomics, epigenomicsand proteomics in maize. The use of maize in biofuels, phytoremediation and pharmaceuticals is also highlighted. Current research trends, future research directions and challenges are discussed by a panel of experts from all over the world.



Handbook of Maize

Handbook of Maize Author Jeff L. Bennetzen
ISBN-10 9780387778631
Release 2009-01-16
Pages 800
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Maize is one of the world’s highest value crops, with a multibillion dollar annual contribution to agriculture. The great adaptability and high yields available for maize as a food, feed and forage crop have led to its current production on over 140 million hectares worldwide, with acreage continuing to grow at the expense of other crops. In terms of tons of cereal grain produced worldwide, maize has been number one for many years. Moreover, maize is expanding its contribution to non-food uses, including as a major source of ethanol as a fuel additive or fuel alternative in the US. In addition, maize has been at the center of the transgenic plant controversy, serving as the first food crop with released transgenic varieties. By 2008, maize will have its genome sequence released, providing the sequence of the first average-size plant genome (the four plant genomes that are now sequenced come from unusually tiny genomes) and of the most complex genome sequenced from any organism. Among plant science researchers, maize has the second largest and most productive research community, trailing only the Arabidopsis community in scale and significance. At the applied research and commercial improvement levels, maize has no peers in agriculture, and consists of thousands of contributors worthwhile. A comprehensive book on the biology of maize has not been published. The "Handbook of Maize: the Genetics and Genomics" center on the past, present and future of maize as a model for plant science research and crop improvement. The books include brief, focused chapters from the foremost maize experts and feature a succinct collection of informative images representing the maize germplasm collection.



Handbook of Maize

Handbook of Maize Author Jeff L. Bennetzen
ISBN-10 9780387778631
Release 2009-01-16
Pages 800
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Maize is one of the world’s highest value crops, with a multibillion dollar annual contribution to agriculture. The great adaptability and high yields available for maize as a food, feed and forage crop have led to its current production on over 140 million hectares worldwide, with acreage continuing to grow at the expense of other crops. In terms of tons of cereal grain produced worldwide, maize has been number one for many years. Moreover, maize is expanding its contribution to non-food uses, including as a major source of ethanol as a fuel additive or fuel alternative in the US. In addition, maize has been at the center of the transgenic plant controversy, serving as the first food crop with released transgenic varieties. By 2008, maize will have its genome sequence released, providing the sequence of the first average-size plant genome (the four plant genomes that are now sequenced come from unusually tiny genomes) and of the most complex genome sequenced from any organism. Among plant science researchers, maize has the second largest and most productive research community, trailing only the Arabidopsis community in scale and significance. At the applied research and commercial improvement levels, maize has no peers in agriculture, and consists of thousands of contributors worthwhile. A comprehensive book on the biology of maize has not been published. The "Handbook of Maize: the Genetics and Genomics" center on the past, present and future of maize as a model for plant science research and crop improvement. The books include brief, focused chapters from the foremost maize experts and feature a succinct collection of informative images representing the maize germplasm collection.



Genetic Data Analysis for Plant and Animal Breeding

Genetic Data Analysis for Plant and Animal Breeding Author Fikret Isik
ISBN-10 9783319551777
Release 2017-09-09
Pages 400
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This book fills the gap between textbooks of quantitative genetic theory, and software manuals that provide details on analytical methods but little context or perspective on which methods may be most appropriate for a particular application. Accordingly this book is composed of two sections. The first section (Chapters 1 to 8) covers topics of classical phenotypic data analysis for prediction of breeding values in animal and plant breeding programs. In the second section (Chapters 9 to 13) we provide the concept and overall review of available tools for using DNA markers for predictions of genetic merits in breeding populations. With advances in DNA sequencing technologies, genomic data, especially single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, have become available for animal and plant breeding programs in recent years. Analysis of DNA markers for prediction of genetic merit is a relatively new and active research area. The algorithms and software to implement these algorithms are changing rapidly. This section represents state-of-the-art knowledge on the tools and technologies available for genetic analysis of plants and animals. However, readers should be aware that the methods or statistical packages covered here may not be available or they might be out of date in a few years. Ultimately the book is intended for professional breeders interested in utilizing these tools and approaches in their breeding programs. Lastly, we anticipate the usage of this volume for advanced level graduate courses in agricultural and breeding courses.



Essentials of Plant Breeding

Essentials of Plant Breeding Author Rex Bernardo
ISBN-10 097207242X
Release 2014
Pages 252
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Essentials of Plant Breeding has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Essentials of Plant Breeding also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Essentials of Plant Breeding book for free.



Handbook of Maize Its Biology

Handbook of Maize  Its Biology Author Jeff L. Bennetzen
ISBN-10 0387794182
Release 2008-12-25
Pages 587
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Handbook of Maize: Its Biology centers on the past, present and future of maize as a model for plant science research and crop improvement. The book includes brief, focused chapters from the foremost maize experts and features a succinct collection of informative images representing the maize germplasm collection.