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Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Author Robert Spence
ISBN-10 9781447150855
Release 2013-04-04
Pages 110
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A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a remarkable feature of the human visual processing system known as pre-attentive processing, one which supports the recognition of a known image within as little as one hundred milliseconds and without conscious cognitive effort. Knowledge of pre-attentive processing, together with extensive empirical evidence concerning RSVP, has allowed the authors to provide useful guidance to interaction designers wishing to explore the relevance of RSVP to an application, guidance which is supported by a variety of illustrative examples.



Explaining Algorithms Using Metaphors

Explaining Algorithms Using Metaphors Author Michal Forišek
ISBN-10 9781447150190
Release 2013-04-09
Pages 94
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There is a significant difference between designing a new algorithm, proving its correctness, and teaching it to an audience. When teaching algorithms, the teacher's main goal should be to convey the underlying ideas and to help the students form correct mental models related to the algorithm. This process can often be facilitated by using suitable metaphors. This work provides a set of novel metaphors identified and developed as suitable tools for teaching many of the "classic textbook" algorithms taught in undergraduate courses worldwide. Each chapter provides exercises and didactic notes for teachers based on the authors’ experiences when using the metaphor in a classroom setting.



Distributed Computing and Monitoring Technologies for Older Patients

Distributed Computing and Monitoring Technologies for Older Patients Author Juris Klonovs
ISBN-10 9783319270241
Release 2016-01-21
Pages 102
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This book summarizes various approaches for the automatic detection of health threats to older patients at home living alone. The text begins by briefly describing those who would most benefit from healthcare supervision. The book then summarizes possible scenarios for monitoring an older patient at home, deriving the common functional requirements for monitoring technology. Next, the work identifies the state of the art of technological monitoring approaches that are practically applicable to geriatric patients. A survey is presented on a range of such interdisciplinary fields as smart homes, telemonitoring, ambient intelligence, ambient assisted living, gerontechnology, and aging-in-place technology. The book discusses relevant experimental studies, highlighting the application of sensor fusion, signal processing and machine learning techniques. Finally, the text discusses future challenges, offering a number of suggestions for further research directions.



Cognitive Computing for Big Data Systems Over IoT

Cognitive Computing for Big Data Systems Over IoT Author Arun Kumar Sangaiah
ISBN-10 9783319706887
Release 2017-12-30
Pages 375
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This book brings a high level of fluidity to analytics and addresses recent trends, innovative ideas, challenges and cognitive computing solutions in big data and the Internet of Things (IoT). It explores domain knowledge, data science reasoning and cognitive methods in the context of the IoT, extending current data science approaches by incorporating insights from experts as well as a notion of artificial intelligence, and performing inferences on the knowledge The book provides a comprehensive overview of the constituent paradigms underlying cognitive computing methods, which illustrate the increased focus on big data in IoT problems as they evolve. It includes novel, in-depth fundamental research contributions from a methodological/application in data science accomplishing sustainable solution for the future perspective. Mainly focusing on the design of the best cognitive embedded data science technologies to process and analyze the large amount of data collected through the IoT, and aid better decision making, the book discusses adapting decision-making approaches under cognitive computing paradigms to demonstrate how the proposed procedures as well as big data and IoT problems can be handled in practice. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, professionals, researchers, and academicians dealing with the new challenges and advances in the specific areas of cognitive computing and data science approaches.



Emotion Affect and Personality in Speech

Emotion  Affect and Personality in Speech Author Swati Johar
ISBN-10 9783319280479
Release 2015-12-22
Pages 52
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This book explores the various categories of speech variation and works to draw a line between linguistic and paralinguistic phenomenon of speech. Paralinguistic contrast is crucial to human speech but has proven to be one of the most difficult tasks in speech systems. In the quest for solutions to speech technology and sciences, this book narrows down the gap between speech technologists and phoneticians and emphasizes the imperative efforts required to accomplish the goal of paralinguistic control in speech technology applications and the acute need for a multidisciplinary categorization system. This interdisciplinary work on paralanguage will not only serve as a source of information but also a theoretical model for linguists, sociologists, psychologists, phoneticians and speech researchers.



Humor at Work in Teams Leadership Negotiations Learning and Health

Humor at Work in Teams  Leadership  Negotiations  Learning and Health Author Tabea Scheel
ISBN-10 9783319656915
Release 2017-09-04
Pages 143
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This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art on the adaptive and maladaptive functions of humor. Humor is inescapable in our daily interactions - also at the work place. Affiliative, self-enhancing, self-deprecating and aggressive humor can all occur at work and have unique and sometimes ambiguous effects. The volume presents humor research on five important workplace topics: teams, leadership, negotiation, learning, and health. It combines and integrates research from a range of fields, including work and organizational psychology, social psychology, communication, linguistics and sociology. In highlighting research gaps and stating future research questions, the book provides a sufficient starting point for further research on humor in relation to the aforementioned topics. For practitioners, recommendations are provided specific to each area.



Community Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Community Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations Author Georgios Leventakis
ISBN-10 9783319892948
Release 2018-04-26
Pages 131
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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.



Vision based Pedestrian Protection Systems for Intelligent Vehicles

Vision based Pedestrian Protection Systems for Intelligent Vehicles Author David Gerónimo
ISBN-10 9781461479871
Release 2013-08-31
Pages 114
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Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPSs) are on-board systems aimed at detecting and tracking people in the surroundings of a vehicle in order to avoid potentially dangerous situations. These systems, together with other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as lane departure warning or adaptive cruise control, are one of the most promising ways to improve traffic safety. By the use of computer vision, cameras working either in the visible or infra-red spectra have been demonstrated as a reliable sensor to perform this task. Nevertheless, the variability of human’s appearance, not only in terms of clothing and sizes but also as a result of their dynamic shape, makes pedestrians one of the most complex classes even for computer vision. Moreover, the unstructured changing and unpredictable environment in which such on-board systems must work makes detection a difficult task to be carried out with the demanded robustness. In this brief, the state of the art in PPSs is introduced through the review of the most relevant papers of the last decade. A common computational architecture is presented as a framework to organize each method according to its main contribution. More than 300 papers are referenced, most of them addressing pedestrian detection and others corresponding to the descriptors (features), pedestrian models, and learning machines used. In addition, an overview of topics such as real-time aspects, systems benchmarking and future challenges of this research area are presented.



Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science

Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 9780309316859
Release 2015-07-15
Pages 280
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The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic increase in the scale and complexity of scientific research. The growing scale of science has been accompanied by a shift toward collaborative research, referred to as "team science." Scientific research is increasingly conducted by small teams and larger groups rather than individual investigators, but the challenges of collaboration can slow these teams' progress in achieving their scientific goals. How does a team-based approach work, and how can universities and research institutions support teams? Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science synthesizes and integrates the available research to provide guidance on assembling the science team; leadership, education and professional development for science teams and groups. It also examines institutional and organizational structures and policies to support science teams and identifies areas where further research is needed to help science teams and groups achieve their scientific and translational goals. This report offers major public policy recommendations for science research agencies and policymakers, as well as recommendations for individual scientists, disciplinary associations, and research universities. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science will be of interest to university research administrators, team science leaders, science faculty, and graduate and postdoctoral students.



An Introduction to Harmony Search Optimization Method

An Introduction to Harmony Search Optimization Method Author Xiaolei Wang
ISBN-10 9783319083568
Release 2014-07-22
Pages 88
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This brief provides a detailed introduction, discussion and bibliographic review of the nature1-inspired optimization algorithm called Harmony Search. It uses a large number of simulation results to demonstrate the advantages of Harmony Search and its variants and also their drawbacks. The authors show how weaknesses can be amended by hybridization with other optimization methods. The Harmony Search Method with Applications will be of value to researchers in computational intelligence in demonstrating the state of the art of research on an algorithm of current interest. It also helps researchers and practitioners of electrical and computer engineering more generally in acquainting themselves with this method of vector-based optimization.



Attracted to Conflict Dynamic Foundations of Destructive Social Relations

Attracted to Conflict  Dynamic Foundations of Destructive Social Relations Author Robin R. Vallacher
ISBN-10 9783642352805
Release 2014-07-08
Pages 242
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Conflict is inherent in virtually every aspect of human relations, from sport to parliamentary democracy, from fashion in the arts to paradigmatic challenges in the sciences, and from economic activity to intimate relationships. Yet, it can become among the most serious social problems humans face when it loses its constructive features and becomes protracted over time with no obvious means of resolution. This book addresses the subject of intractable social conflict from a new vantage point. Here, these types of conflict represent self-organizing phenomena, emerging quite naturally from the ongoing dynamics in human interaction at any scale—from the interpersonal to the international. Using the universal language and computational framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory in combination with recent insights from social psychology, intractable conflict is understood as a system locked in special attractor states that constrain the thoughts and actions of the parties to the conflict. The emergence and maintenance of attractors for conflict can be described by means of formal models that incorporate the results of computer simulations, experiments, field research, and archival analyses. Multi-disciplinary research reflecting these approaches provides encouraging support for the dynamical systems perspective. Importantly, this text presents new views on conflict resolution. In contrast to traditional approaches that tend to focus on basic, short-lived cause-effect relations, the dynamical perspective emphasizes the temporal patterns and potential for emergence in destructive relations. Attractor deconstruction entails restoring complexity to a conflict scenario by isolating elements or changing the feedback loops among them. The creation of a latent attractor trades on the tendency toward multi-stability in dynamical systems and entails the consolidation of incongruent (positive) elements into a coherent structure. In the bifurcation scenario, factors are identified that can change the number and types of attractors in a conflict scenario. The implementation of these strategies may hold the key to unlocking intractable conflict, creating the potential for constructive social relations.



Brain Computer Interface Research

Brain Computer Interface Research Author Christoph Guger
ISBN-10 9783642360831
Release 2013-03-26
Pages 123
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Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are rapidly developing into a mainstream, worldwide research endeavor. With so many new groups and projects, it can be difficult to identify the best ones. This book summarizes ten leading projects from around the world. About 60 submissions were received in 2011 for the highly competitive BCI Research Award, and an international jury selected the top ten. This Brief gives a concise but carefully illustrated and fully up-to-date description of each of these projects, together with an introduction and concluding chapter by the editors.



Simulating Social Complexity

Simulating Social Complexity Author Bruce Edmonds
ISBN-10 9783540938132
Release 2013-04-04
Pages 754
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Social systems are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible and natural language approaches inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. However, individual- and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. Simulating Social Complexity examines all aspects of using agent- or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having each their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes these elements "social" is that they are usefully interpretable as interacting elements of an observed society. In this, the focus is on human society, but can be extended to include social animals or artificial agents where such work enhances our understanding of human society. The phenomena of interest then result (emerge) from the dynamics of the interaction of social actors in an essential way and are usually not easily simplifiable by, for example, considering only representative actors. The introduction of accessible agent-based modelling allows the representation of social complexity in a more natural and direct manner than previous techniques. In particular, it is no longer necessary to distort a model with the introduction of overly strong assumptions simply in order to obtain analytic tractability. This makes agent-based modelling relatively accessible to a range of scientists. The outcomes of such models can be displayed and animated in ways that also make them more interpretable by experts and stakeholders. This handbook is intended to help in the process of maturation of this new field. It brings together, through the collaborative effort of many leading researchers, summaries of the best thinking and practice in this area and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances are judged. This book will help those entering into the field to avoid "reinventing the wheel" each time, but it will also help those already in the field by providing accessible overviews of current thought. The material is divided into four sections: Introductory, Methodology, Mechanisms, and Applications. Each chapter starts with a very brief section called ‘Why read this chapter?’ followed by an abstract, which summarizes the content of the chapter. Each chapter also ends with a section of ‘Further Reading’ briefly describing three to eight items that a newcomer might read next.



Introduction to Scientific Publishing

Introduction to Scientific Publishing Author Andreas Öchsner
ISBN-10 9783642386466
Release 2013-06-28
Pages 96
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This book is a very concise introduction to the basic knowledge of scientific publishing. It starts with the basics of writing a scientific paper, and recalls the different types of scientific documents. In gives an overview on the major scientific publishing companies and different business models. The book also introduces to abstracting and indexing services and how they can be used for the evaluation of science, scientists, and institutions. Last but not least, this short book faces the problem of plagiarism and publication ethics.



Lightweight Landscape

Lightweight Landscape Author Alessandra Zanelli
ISBN-10 9783319216652
Release 2015-10-13
Pages 109
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This book explains how lightweight materials and structures can be deployed in buildings to meet high environmental and aesthetic standards and emphasizes how the concept of lightness in building technology and design dovetails with the desire to enhance landscape. The first part of the book, on lightweight construction, aims to foster the use of membranes within the specific climatic context and in particular considers how lightweight materials and innovative technologies can enrich the quality of temporary spaces. The second part focuses exclusively on landscape, presenting novel approaches in the search for visual lightness and the quest to improve urban spaces. Particular attention is paid to the Italian experience, where the traditional appreciation of brick and stone has limited the scope for use of lightweight structures and membrane materials, often relegating them to a secondary or inappropriate role. The reader will come to appreciate how this attitude demeans a very advanced productive sector and neglects the ancient tradition of temporary architecture.



Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing and Communication Systems

Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing and Communication Systems Author J. K. Mandal
ISBN-10 9789811068904
Release 2018-03-29
Pages 857
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The volume contains latest research work presented at International Conference on Computing and Communication Systems (I3CS 2016) held at North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong, India. The book presents original research results, new ideas and practical development experiences which concentrate on both theory and practices. It includes papers from all areas of information technology, computer science, electronics and communication engineering written by researchers, scientists, engineers and scholar students and experts from India and abroad.



Practical Decision Making

Practical Decision Making Author Enrique Mu
ISBN-10 9783319338613
Release 2016-08-16
Pages 111
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This book offers a simple introduction to the fundamentals and applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) without a pre-requisite for a sophisticated mathematical background. It provides a quick and intuitive understanding of the methodology using spreadsheet examples and explains in a step-by-step fashion how to use Super Decisions, a freely available software developed by the Creative Decisions Foundations. The book is intended to be a resource for decision makers with little or no exposure to the field of Operations Research (OR); however, the book can be used as a very gentle introduction to the AHP methodology and/or as an AHP hands-on supplement for standard OR textbooks. AHP is an intuitive and mathematically simple methodology in the field of multi-criteria decision making. Because of this, most AHP books assume the reader has basic OR mathematical background. However, AHP simplicity suggests that decision makers from all disciplines can take advantage of the methodology without struggling with the mathematics behind it. To fulfill this need, this book delivers a quick and practical understanding of the method that can be useful for corporate executives.