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Real Time Systems

Real Time Systems Author Hermann Kopetz
ISBN-10 9780306470554
Release 2006-04-18
Pages 338
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7. 6 Performance Comparison: ET versus TT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 7. 7 The Physical Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Points to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Chapter 8: The Time-Triggered Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 8. 1 Introduction to Time-Triggered Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 8. 2 Overview of the TTP/C Protocol Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 8. 3 TheBasic CNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Internal Operation of TTP/C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 8. 4 8. 5 TTP/A for Field Bus Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Review Questions and Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Chapter 9: Input/Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 9. 1 The Dual Role of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 9. 2 Agreement Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 9. 3 Sampling and Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 9. 4 Interrupts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 9. 5 Sensors and Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 9. 6 Physical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Chapter 10: Real-Time Operating Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 10. 1 Task Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 10. 2 Interprocess Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 10. 3 Time Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 10. 4 Error Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 10. 5 A Case Study: ERCOS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Bibliographic Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Chapter 11: Real-Time Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 11. 1 The Scheduling Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 11. 2 The Adversary Argument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 11. 3 Dynamic Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 x TABLE OF CONTENTS 11. 4 Static Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Bibliographic Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Review Questions and Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Chapter 12: Validation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 12. 1 Building aConvincing Safety Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 12. 2 Formal Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 12. 3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Real Time Systems

Real Time Systems Author Hermann Kopetz
ISBN-10 1475770537
Release 2014-09-01
Pages 356
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Real Time Systems has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Real Time Systems also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Real Time Systems book for free.



Real Time Systems

Real Time Systems Author Hermann Kopetz
ISBN-10 1441982388
Release 2011-04-17
Pages 396
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Real Time Systems has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Real Time Systems also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Real Time Systems book for free.



Hard Real Time Computing Systems

Hard Real Time Computing Systems Author Giorgio Buttazzo
ISBN-10 9780585280059
Release 2007-08-19
Pages 381
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Real-time computing plays a crucial role in our society since an increasing num ber of complex systems rely, in part or completely, on processor control. Ex amples of applications that require real-time computing include nuclear power plants, railway switching systems, automotive electronics, air traffic control, telecommunications, robotics, and military systems. In spite of this large application domain, most of the current real-time systems are still designed and implemented using low-level programming and empirical techniques, without the support of a scientific methodology. This approach results in a lack of reliability, which in critical applications may cause serious environmental damage or even loss of life. This book is a basic treatise on real-time computing, with particular emphasis on predictable scheduling algorithms. The main objectives of the book are to introduce the basic concepts of real-time computing, illustrate the most sig nificant results in the field, and provide the basic methodologies for designing predictable computing systems useful in supporting critical control applica tions. The book is written for instructional use and is organized to enable readers without a strong knowledge of the subject matter to quickly grasp the material. Technical concepts are clearly defined at the beginning of each chapter, and algorithm descriptions are reinforced through concrete examples, illustrations, and tables.



Real Time Systems Development

Real Time Systems Development Author Rob Williams
ISBN-10 9780080456409
Release 2005-10-28
Pages 320
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Real-Time Systems Development introduces computing students and professional programmers to the development of software for real-time applications. Based on the academic and commercial experience of the author, the book is an ideal companion to final year undergraduate options or MSc modules in the area of real-time systems design and implementation. Assuming a certain level of general systems design and programming experience, this text will extend students’ knowledge and skills into an area of computing which has increasing relevance in a modern world of telecommunications and ‘intelligent’ equipment using embedded microcontrollers. This book takes a broad, practical approach in discussing real-time systems. It covers topics such as basic input and output; cyclic executives for bare hardware; finite state machines; task communication and synchronization; input/output interfaces; structured design for real-time systems; designing for multitasking; UML for real-time systems; object oriented approach to real-time systems; selecting languages for RTS development; Linux device drivers; and hardware/software co-design. Programming examples using GNU/Linux are included, along with a supporting website containing slides; solutions to problems; and software examples. This book will appeal to advanced undergraduate Computer Science students; MSc students; and, undergraduate software engineering and electronic engineering students. * Concise treatment delivers material in manageable sections * Includes handy glossary, references and practical exercises based on familiar scenarios * Supporting website contains slides, solutions to problems and software examples



Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems Author Xiaocong Fan
ISBN-10 9780128017180
Release 2015-02-25
Pages 686
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This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you learn the key concept of embedded systems; Part one introduces the development process, and includes two chapters on microprocessors and interrupts---fundamental topics for software engineers; Part two is dedicated to modeling techniques for real-time systems; Part three looks at the design of software architectures and Part four covers software implementations, with a focus on POSIX-compliant operating systems. With this book you will learn: The pros and cons of different architectures for embedded systems POSIX real-time extensions, and how to develop POSIX-compliant real time applications How to use real-time UML to document system designs with timing constraints The challenges and concepts related to cross-development Multitasking design and inter-task communication techniques (shared memory objects, message queues, pipes, signals) How to use kernel objects (e.g. Semaphores, Mutex, Condition variables) to address resource sharing issues in RTOS applications The philosophy underpinning the notion of "resource manager" and how to implement a virtual file system using a resource manager The key principles of real-time scheduling and several key algorithms Coverage of the latest UML standard (UML 2.4) Over 20 design patterns which represent the best practices for reuse in a wide range of real-time embedded systems Example codes which have been tested in QNX---a real-time operating system widely adopted in industry



Real Time Systems Design and Analysis

Real Time Systems Design and Analysis Author Phillip A. Laplante
ISBN-10 9781118136591
Release 2011-10-24
Pages 584
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The leading text in the field explains step by step how to write software that responds in real time From power plants to medicine to avionics, the world increasingly depends on computer systems that can compute and respond to various excitations in real time. The Fourth Edition of Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis gives software designers the knowledge and the tools needed to create real-time software using a holistic, systems-based approach. The text covers computer architecture and organization, operating systems, software engineering, programming languages, and compiler theory, all from the perspective of real-time systems design. The Fourth Edition of this renowned text brings it thoroughly up to date with the latest technological advances and applications. This fully updated edition includes coverage of the following concepts: Multidisciplinary design challenges Time-triggered architectures Architectural advancements Automatic code generation Peripheral interfacing Life-cycle processes The final chapter of the text offers an expert perspective on the future of real-time systems and their applications. The text is self-contained, enabling instructors and readers to focus on the material that is most important to their needs and interests. Suggestions for additional readings guide readers to more in-depth discussions on each individual topic. In addition, each chapter features exercises ranging from simple to challenging to help readers progressively build and fine-tune their ability to design their own real-time software programs. Now fully up to date with the latest technological advances and applications in the field, Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis remains the top choice for students and software engineers who want to design better and faster real-time systems at minimum cost.



Real Time Simulation Technologies Principles Methodologies and Applications

Real Time Simulation Technologies  Principles  Methodologies  and Applications Author Katalin Popovici
ISBN-10 9781439847237
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 660
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Real-Time Simulation Technologies: Principles, Methodologies, and Applications is an edited compilation of work that explores fundamental concepts and basic techniques of real-time simulation for complex and diverse systems across a broad spectrum. Useful for both new entrants and experienced experts in the field, this book integrates coverage of detailed theory, acclaimed methodological approaches, entrenched technologies, and high-value applications of real-time simulation—all from the unique perspectives of renowned international contributors. Because it offers an accurate and otherwise unattainable assessment of how a system will behave over a particular time frame, real-time simulation is increasingly critical to the optimization of dynamic processes and adaptive systems in a variety of enterprises. These range in scope from the maintenance of the national power grid, to space exploration, to the development of virtual reality programs and cyber-physical systems. This book outlines how, for these and other undertakings, engineers must assimilate real-time data with computational tools for rapid decision making under uncertainty. Clarifying the central concepts behind real-time simulation tools and techniques, this one-of-a-kind resource: Discusses the state of the art, important challenges, and high-impact developments in simulation technologies Provides a basis for the study of real-time simulation as a fundamental and foundational technology Helps readers develop and refine principles that are applicable across a wide variety of application domains As science moves toward more advanced technologies, unconventional design approaches, and unproven regions of the design space, simulation tools are increasingly critical to successful design and operation of technical systems in a growing number of application domains. This must-have resource presents detailed coverage of real-time simulation for system design, parallel and distributed simulations, industry tools, and a large set of applications.



Embedded and Real Time Operating Systems

Embedded and Real Time Operating Systems Author K.C. Wang
ISBN-10 9783319515175
Release 2017-03-21
Pages 481
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This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs).“/div>divThroughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and implementation techniques. The content is suitable for advanced-level and graduate students working in software engineering, programming, and systems theory.



Mission Critical and Safety Critical Systems Handbook

Mission Critical and Safety Critical Systems Handbook Author Kim Fowler
ISBN-10 0080942555
Release 2009-11-19
Pages 592
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This handbook provides a consolidated, comprehensive information resource for engineers working with mission and safety critical systems. Principles, regulations, and processes common to all critical design projects are introduced in the opening chapters. Expert contributors then offer development models, process templates, and documentation guidelines from their own core critical applications fields: medical, aerospace, and military. Readers will gain in-depth knowledge of how to avoid common pitfalls and meet even the strictest certification standards. Particular emphasis is placed on best practices, design tradeoffs, and testing procedures. *Comprehensive coverage of all key concerns for designers of critical systems including standards compliance, verification and validation, and design tradeoffs *Real-world case studies contained within these pages provide insight from experience



Real Time Systems

Real Time Systems Author Liu
ISBN-10 8177585754
Release 2000-09-01
Pages 624
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Real Time Systems has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Real Time Systems also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Real Time Systems book for free.



Self Organization in Embedded Real Time Systems

Self Organization in Embedded Real Time Systems Author M. Teresa Higuera-Toledano
ISBN-10 9781461419693
Release 2012-11-09
Pages 210
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This book describes the emerging field of self-organizing, multicore, distributed and real-time embedded systems. Self ‐organization of both hardware and software can be a key technique to handle the growing complexity of modern computing systems. Distributed systems running hundreds of tasks on dozens of processors, each equipped with multiple cores, requires self‐organization principles to ensure efficient and reliable operation. This book addresses various, so-called Self‐X features such as self-configuration, self‐optimization, self‐adaptation, self‐healing and self‐protection.



Real Time and Distributed Real Time Systems

Real Time and Distributed Real Time Systems Author Amitava Gupta
ISBN-10 9781466598492
Release 2016-04-27
Pages 153
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Digital computers have revolutionized computation and transformed how computers are used to control systems in real life, giving birth to real-time systems. Furthermore, massive developments in the communications domain have made it possible for real-time systems to perform coordinated actions over communication interfaces, resulting in the evolution of distributed real-time systems. Real-Time and Distributed Real-Time Systems: Theory and Applications presents a variety of techniques to design, analyze, implement, verify, and validate such systems. The book begins by introducing the basic principles of real-time and distributed real-time systems and then: Delivers a detailed analysis of a number of common, real-time communication protocols Discusses advancements beyond the standard-switched Ethernet, including multi-stream transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) Depicts the design of distributed real-time systems applications using methodology based on a finite state machine (FSM) representation of a real-time system and its corresponding implementation using Simulink® Stateflow® Demonstrates how MATLAB® can be used to develop real-time applications and integrate those applications over a communication network to form a distributed real-time system Describes the MATLAB/Simulink-based TrueTime as a tool used for the simulation of protocols and distributed real-time system applications in a MATLAB environment Delineates the classification of distributed real-time systems applications in terms of failure criticality and severity, safety and integrity levels, life cycle stages, and verification and validation techniques Individual chapters are supplemented by numerical and analytical problems or simulation exercises to ensure the reader gains a solid grasp of the concepts.



Real Time C

Real Time C  Author Christopher Kormanyos
ISBN-10 9783662567180
Release 2018-05-02
Pages 426
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With this book, Christopher Kormanyos delivers a highly practical guide to programming real-time embedded microcontroller systems in C++. It is divided into three parts plus several appendices. Part I provides a foundation for real-time C++ by covering language technologies, including object-oriented methods, template programming and optimization. Next, part II presents detailed descriptions of a variety of C++ components that are widely used in microcontroller programming. It details some of C++’s most powerful language elements, such as class types, templates and the STL, to develop components for microcontroller register access, low-level drivers, custom memory management, embedded containers, multitasking, etc. Finally, part III describes mathematical methods and generic utilities that can be employed to solve recurring problems in real-time C++. The appendices include a brief C++ language tutorial, information on the real-time C++ development environment and instructions for building GNU GCC cross-compilers and a microcontroller circuit. For this third edition, the most recent specification of C++17 in ISO/IEC 14882:2017 is used throughout the text. Several sections on new C++17 functionality have been added, and various others reworked to reflect changes in the standard. Also several new sample projects are introduced and existing ones extended, and various user suggestions have been incorporated. To facilitate portability, no libraries other than those specified in the language standard itself are used. Efficiency is always in focus and numerous examples are backed up with real-time performance measurements and size analyses that quantify the true costs of the code down to the very last byte and microsecond. The target audience of this book mainly consists of students and professionals interested in real-time C++. Readers should be familiar with C or another programming language and will benefit most if they have had some previous experience with microcontroller electronics and the performance and size issues prevalent in embedded systems programming.



Better Embedded System Software

Better Embedded System Software Author Philip Koopman
ISBN-10 0984449000
Release 2010
Pages 368
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Better Embedded System Software has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Better Embedded System Software also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Better Embedded System Software book for free.



Real Time Concepts for Embedded Systems

Real Time Concepts for Embedded Systems Author Qing Li
ISBN-10 9781482280821
Release 2003-01-04
Pages 366
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'... a very good balance between the theory and practice of real-time embedded system designs.' —Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino, Ph.D., Research Laboratory, Internet Initiative Japan Inc., IETF IPv6 Operations Working Group (v6ops) co-chair 'A cl



Real Time Software Design for Embedded Systems

Real Time Software Design for Embedded Systems Author Hassan Gomaa
ISBN-10 9781107041097
Release 2016-03-03
Pages 592
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This tutorial reference takes the reader from use cases to complete architectures for real-time embedded systems using SysML, UML, and MARTE and shows how to apply the COMET/RTE design method to real-world problems. The author covers key topics such as architectural patterns for distributed and hierarchical real-time control and other real-time software architectures, performance analysis of real-time designs using real-time scheduling, and timing analysis on single and multiple processor systems. Complete case studies illustrating design issues include a light rail control system, a microwave oven control system, and an automated highway toll system. Organized as an introduction followed by several self-contained chapters, the book is perfect for experienced software engineers wanting a quick reference at each stage of the analysis, design, and development of large-scale real-time embedded systems, as well as for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses in software engineering, computer engineering, and software design.