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Reasoning in Physics

Reasoning in Physics Author Laurence Viennot
ISBN-10 9780306476365
Release 2007-05-08
Pages 230
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For a meaningful understanding of physics, it is necessary to realise that this corpus of knowledge operates in a register different from natural thought. This book aims at situating the main trends of common reasoning in physics with respect to some essential aspects of accepted theory. It analyses a great many research results based on studies of pupils and students at various academic levels, involving a range of physical situations. It shows the impressive generality of the trends of common thought, as well as their resistance to teaching. The book's main focus is to underline to what extent natural thought is organised. As a result of this mapping out of trends of reasoning, some suggestions for teaching are presented; these have already influenced recent curricula in France. This book is intended for teachers and teacher trainers principally, but students can also benefit from it to improve their understanding of physics and of their own ways of reasoning.



Reasoning in Physics

Reasoning in Physics Author Laurence Viennot
ISBN-10 0792371402
Release 2001-08-31
Pages 230
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For a meaningful understanding of physics, it is necessary to realise that this corpus of knowledge operates in a register different from natural thought. This book aims at situating the main trends of common reasoning in physics with respect to some essential aspects of accepted theory. It analyses a great many research results based on studies of pupils and students at various academic levels, involving a range of physical situations. It shows the impressive generality of the trends of common thought, as well as their resistance to teaching. The book's main focus is to underline to what extent natural thought is organised. As a result of this mapping out of trends of reasoning, some suggestions for teaching are presented; these have already influenced recent curricula in France. This book is intended for teachers and teacher trainers principally, but students can also benefit from it to improve their understanding of physics and of their own ways of reasoning.



Thinking in Physics

Thinking in Physics Author Laurence Viennot
ISBN-10 9789401786669
Release 2014-03-18
Pages 161
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Read this book if you care about students really understanding physics and getting genuine intellectual satisfaction from doing so. Read it too if you fear that this goal is out of reach – you may be surprised! Laurence Viennot here shows ways to deal with the awkward fact that common sense thinking is often not the same as scientific thinking. She analyses examples of frequent and widespread errors and confusions, which provide a real eye-opener for the teacher. More than that, she shows ways to avoid and overcome them. The book argues against over-emphasis on “fun” applications, demonstrating that students also enjoy and value clear thinking. The book has three parts: • making sense of special scientific ways of reasoning (words, images, functions) • making connections between very different topics, each illuminating the other • simplifying, looking for consistency and avoiding incoherent over-simplification The book is enhanced with supplementary online materials that will allow readers to further expand their teaching or research interests and think about them more deeply.



Causal Reasoning in Physics

Causal Reasoning in Physics Author Mathias Frisch
ISBN-10 9781316062395
Release 2014-10-09
Pages
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Much has been written on the role of causal notions and causal reasoning in the so-called 'special sciences' and in common sense. But does causal reasoning also play a role in physics? Mathias Frisch argues that, contrary to what influential philosophical arguments purport to show, the answer is yes. Time-asymmetric causal structures are as integral a part of the representational toolkit of physics as a theory's dynamical equations. Frisch develops his argument partly through a critique of anti-causal arguments and partly through a detailed examination of actual examples of causal notions in physics, including causal principles invoked in linear response theory and in representations of radiation phenomena. Offering a new perspective on the nature of scientific theories and causal reasoning, this book will be of interest to professional philosophers, graduate students, and anyone interested in the role of causal thinking in science.



Teaching Physics

Teaching Physics Author Laurence Viennot
ISBN-10 1402012764
Release 2003-06-30
Pages 235
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This book seeks to narrow the current gap between educational research and classroom practice in the teaching of physics. Research is now moving beyond the recording of the specific forms of common thought to construct and evaluate teaching interventions appropriate to conventional institutional contexts. The approach adopted here makes a detailed analysis of research findings derived from experiments involving pupils, students and teachers in the field. Clear guidelines are laid down for the development and evaluation of sequences, drawing attention to "critical details" of the practice of teaching that may spell success or failure for the project. Five sequences illustrate the discussion with the following topics: contact, friction and propulsion, pressure in fluids, superposition of electric fields, superposition of coherent waves and optical imaging, and colour phenomena. This all feeds into a discussion of sequence evaluation procedures, underlining the vital importance of teachers' reactions to the detailed aspects of practice proposed to them. The book is intended for researchers in science teaching, teacher trainers and teachers of physics.



Commonsense Reasoning

Commonsense Reasoning Author Erik T. Mueller
ISBN-10 9780128016473
Release 2014-11-11
Pages 516
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To endow computers with common sense is one of the major long-term goals of artificial intelligence research. One approach to this problem is to formalize commonsense reasoning using mathematical logic. Commonsense Reasoning: An Event Calculus Based Approach is a detailed, high-level reference on logic-based commonsense reasoning. It uses the event calculus, a highly powerful and usable tool for commonsense reasoning, which Erik Mueller demonstrates as the most effective tool for the broadest range of applications. He provides an up-to-date work promoting the use of the event calculus for commonsense reasoning, and bringing into one place information scattered across many books and papers. Mueller shares the knowledge gained in using the event calculus and extends the literature with detailed event calculus solutions that span many areas of the commonsense world. The Second Edition features new chapters on commonsense reasoning using unstructured information including the Watson system, commonsense reasoning using answer set programming, and techniques for acquisition of commonsense knowledge including crowdsourcing. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications Erik Mueller shows you the keys to mastering commonsense reasoning. You’ll be able to: Understand techniques for automated commonsense reasoning Incorporate commonsense reasoning into software solutions Acquire a broad understanding of the field of commonsense reasoning. Gain comprehensive knowledge of the human capacity for commonsense reasoning



Formal Theories of the Commonsense World

Formal Theories of the Commonsense World Author Jerry R. Hobbs
ISBN-10 0893912131
Release 1985
Pages 455
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This volume is a collection of original contributions about the core knowledge in fundamental domains. It includes work on naive physics, such as formal specifications of intuitive theories of spatial relations, time causality, substance and physical objects, and on naive psychology.



Common Sense Reasoning and Rationality

Common Sense  Reasoning  and Rationality Author Renée Elio
ISBN-10 0195147677
Release 2002
Pages 278
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While common sense and rationality often have been viewed as two distinct features in a unitifed cognitive map, this this volume offers novel, even paradoxical views of the relationship. Touching on various disciplines, it considers what constitutes human rationality, behavior, and intelligence.



Representations of Commonsense Knowledge

Representations of Commonsense Knowledge Author Ernest Davis
ISBN-10 9781483221137
Release 2014-07-10
Pages 550
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Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce other facts known with absolute certainty. This book discusses as well some prominent issues in plausible inference. The final chapter deals with commonsense knowledge about the interrelations and interactions among agents and discusses some issues in human and social interactions that have been studied in the artificial intelligence literature. This book is a valuable resource for students on a graduate course on knowledge representation.



Common Sense Reasoning and Rationality

Common Sense  Reasoning  and Rationality Author Renee Elio
ISBN-10 9780198033684
Release 2002-02-07
Pages 288
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As the eleventh volume in the New Directions in Cognitive Science series (formerly the Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science series), this work promises superb scholarship and interdisciplinary appeal. It addresses three areas of current and varied interest: common sense, reasoning, and rationality. While common sense and rationality often have been viewed as two distinct features in a unified cognitive map, this volume offers novel, even paradoxical, views of the relationship. Comprised of outstanding essays from distinguished philosophers, it considers what constitutes human rationality, behavior, and intelligence covering diverse areas of philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and computer science. Indeed, it is at the forefront of cognitive research and promises to be of unprecedented influence across numerous disciplines.



Everything Is Obvious

Everything Is Obvious Author Duncan J. Watts
ISBN-10 9780385531696
Release 2011-03-29
Pages 352
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Drawing on the latest scientific research, along with a wealth of historical and contemporary examples, Watts shows how common sense reasoning and history conspire to mislead us into believing that we understand more about the world of human behavior than we do; and in turn, why attempts to predict, manage, or manipulate social and economic systems so often go awry. It seems obvious, for example, that people respond to incentives; yet policy makers and managers alike frequently fail to anticipate how people will respond to the incentives they create. Social trends often seem to be driven by certain influential people; yet marketers have been unable to identify these “influencers” in advance. And although successful products or companies always seem in retrospect to have succeeded because of their unique qualities, predicting the qualities of the next hit product or hot company is notoriously difficult even for experienced professionals. Only by understanding how and when common sense fails, Watts argues, can we improve how we plan for the future, as well as understand the present—an argument that has important implications in politics, business, and marketing, as well as in science and everyday life.



Defying common sense

Defying common sense Author David Morris Hammer
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822030045991
Release 1991
Pages 560
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Defying common sense has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Defying common sense also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Defying common sense book for free.



Qualitative Spatial Reasoning with Topological Information

Qualitative Spatial Reasoning with Topological Information Author Jochen Renz
ISBN-10 9783540433460
Release 2002-02-27
Pages 212
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Spatial knowledge representation and reasoning with spatial knowledge are relevant issues for many application areas such as robotics, geographical information systems, and computer vision. Exceeding purely quantitative approaches, more recently initiated qualitative approaches allow for dealing with spatial information on a more abstract level that is closer to the way humans think and speak. Starting out with the qualitative, topological constraint calculus RCC8 proposed by Randell, Cui, and Cohn, this work presents answers to a variety of open questions regarding RCC8. The open issues concerning computational properties are solved by exploiting a broad variety of results and methods from logic and theoretical computer science. Questions concerning practical performance are addressed by large-scale empirical computational experiments. The most impressive result is probably the complete classification of computational properties for all fragments of RCC8.



Naive Physics and Commonsense Reasoning for Everyday Robot Manipulation

Naive Physics and Commonsense Reasoning for Everyday Robot Manipulation Author Lars Kunze
ISBN-10 OCLC:876865656
Release 2013
Pages 189
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Naive Physics and Commonsense Reasoning for Everyday Robot Manipulation has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Naive Physics and Commonsense Reasoning for Everyday Robot Manipulation also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Naive Physics and Commonsense Reasoning for Everyday Robot Manipulation book for free.



Recent Advances in Qualitative Physics

Recent Advances in Qualitative Physics Author Boi Faltings
ISBN-10 0262061422
Release 1992
Pages 453
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These twenty-eight contributions report advances in one of the most active research areas in artificial intellgence. Qualitative modeling techniques are an essential part of building second generation knowledge-based systems. This book provides a timely overview of the field while also giving some indications about applications that appear to be feasible now or in the near future. Chapters are organized into sections covering modeling and simulation, ontologies, computational issues, and qualitative analysis.Modeling a physical system in order to simulate it or solve particular problems regarding the system is an important motivation of qualitative physics, involving formal procedures and concepts. The chapters in the section on modeling address the problem of how to set up and structure qualitative models, particularly for use in simulation. Ontology, or the science of being, is the basis for all modeling. Accordingly, chapters on ontologies discuss problems fundamental for finding representational formalism and inference mechanisms appropriate for different aspects of reasoning about physical systems.Computational issues arising from attempts to turn qualitative theories into practical software are then taken up. In addition to simulation and modeling, qualitative physics can be used to solve particular problems dealing with physical systems, and the concluding chapters present techniques for tasks ranging from the analysis of behavior to conceptual design.Boi Faltings is Associate Professor of Computer Science at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne. Peter Struss is Head of the Advanced Reasoning Methods Group at Siemens Corporate Research and Development in Munich.



Program of the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society 25 28 July 1990 Cambridge Massachusetts

Program of the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society  25 28 July 1990  Cambridge  Massachusetts Author
ISBN-10 0805809384
Release 1990
Pages 1074
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First published in 1990. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.



Entropy Demystified

Entropy Demystified Author
ISBN-10 9789814338394
Release 2008
Pages 223
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Entropy Demystified has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Entropy Demystified also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Entropy Demystified book for free.