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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals

Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals Author Committee on Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals
ISBN-10 9780309128346
Release 2009-12-14
Pages 196
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The use of animals in research adheres to scientific and ethical principles that promote humane care and practice. Scientific advances in our understanding of animal physiology and behavior often require theories to be revised and standards of practice to be updated to improve laboratory animal welfare. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals, the second of two reports revising the 1992 publication Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals from the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR), focuses on pain experienced by animals used in research. This book aims to educate laboratory animal veterinarians; students, researchers and investigators; Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee members; and animal care staff and animal welfare officers on the current scientific and ethical issues associated with pain in laboratory animals. It evaluates pertinent scientific literature to generate practical and pragmatic guidelines for recognizing and alleviating pain in laboratory animals, focusing specifically on the following areas: physiology of pain in commonly used laboratory species; pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic principles to control pain; identification of humane endpoints; and principles for minimizing pain associated with experimental procedures. Finally, the report identifies areas in which further scientific investigation is needed to improve laboratory animal welfare.



Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals

Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals Author Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals
ISBN-10 9780309042758
Release 1992-01-01
Pages 160
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Clear guidelines on the proper care and use of laboratory animals are being sought by researchers and members of the many committees formed to oversee animal care at universities as well as the general public. This book provides a comprehensive overview of what we know about behavior, pain, and distress in laboratory animals. The volume explores: Stressors in the laboratory and the animal behaviors they cause, including in-depth discussions of the physiology of pain and distress and the animal's ecological relationship to the laboratory as an environment. A review of euthanasia of lab animals--exploring the decision, the methods, and the emotional effects on technicians. Also included is a highly practical, extensive listing, by species, of dosages and side effects of anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers.



Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals

Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals Author Committee on Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals
ISBN-10 9780309108171
Release 2008-03-10
Pages 136
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Scientific advances in our understanding of animal physiology and behavior often require theories to be revised and standards of practice to be updated to improve laboratory animal welfare. This new book from the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) at the National Research Council, Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals, focuses on the stress and distress which is experienced by animals when used in laboratory research. This book aims to educate laboratory animal veterinarians; students, researchers, and investigators; animal care staff, as well as animal welfare officers on the current scientific and ethical issues associated with stress and distress in laboratory animals. It evaluates pertinent scientific literature to generate practical and pragmatic guidelines. Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals focuses specifically on the scientific understanding of the causes and the functions of stress and distress, the transformation of stress to distress, and the identification of principles for the recognition and alleviation of distress. This book discusses the role of humane endpoints in situations of distress and principles for the minimization of distress in laboratory animals. It also identifies areas in which further scientific investigation is needed to improve laboratory animal welfare in order to adhere to scientific and ethical principles that promote humane care and practice.



Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals

Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals Author Committee on Regulatory Issues in Animal Care and Use
ISBN-10 9780309072915
Release 2000-12-26
Pages 132
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In this first in a proposed series of workshops on regulatory issues in animal care and use, the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) has addressed the existing and proposed requirements for reporting pain and distress in laboratory animals. The Animal Welfare Act, administered by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), mandates that pain and distress in laboratory animals be minimized. USDA is considering two policy changes with regard to this specific mandate. Firstly, since there has been no functional definition of "distress," USDA has prepared such a definition and requested feedback from the scientific community on its usefulness for regulatory and reporting requirements. The second issue concerns the pain and distress categorization scheme for reporting to USDA. Various groups and individuals have questioned the efficacy of the current categories, and specific changes have been proposed by the Humane Society of the United States. USDA is considering these and other potential changes to the existing scheme. Thus, given these potential changes to animal welfare policy, the aim of the ILAR/NIH joint workshop was to provide feedback to the USDA. The speakers were asked to address these two issues as well as to comment upon whether the information contained in the 1992 ILAR report Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals is still useful to investigators in assisting them to comply with regulations. The speakers provided perspectives based on their individual expertise in the areas of science of pain and distress, animal welfare policy, protocol review, and/or as representatives of relevant organizations or institutions. The following proceedings are an edited transcript of their presentations.



Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research

Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research Author Committee on Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research
ISBN-10 9780309089036
Release 2003-08-22
Pages 224
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Expanding on the National Research Council’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, this book deals specifically with mammals in neuroscience and behavioral research laboratories. It offers flexible guidelines for the care of these animals, and guidance on adapting these guidelines to various situations without hindering the research process. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research offers a more in-depth treatment of concerns specific to these disciplines than any previous guide on animal care and use. It treats on such important subjects as: The important role that the researcher and veterinarian play in developing animal protocols. Methods for assessing and ensuring an animal’s well-being. General animal-care elements as they apply to neuroscience and behavioral research, and common animal welfare challenges this research can pose. The use of professional judgment and careful interpretation of regulations and guidelines to develop performance standards ensuring animal well-being and high-quality research. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research treats the development and evaluation of animal-use protocols as a decision-making process, not just a decision. To this end, it presents the most current, in-depth information about the best practices for animal care and use, as they pertain to the intricacies of neuroscience and behavioral research.



Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Author Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
ISBN-10 9780309154000
Release 2010-12-27
Pages 248
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A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including aquatic species, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use: Key concepts of animal care and use. The Guide sets the framework for the humane care and use of laboratory animals. Animal care and use program. The Guide discusses the concept of a broad Program of Animal Care and Use, including roles and responsibilities of the Institutional Official, Attending Veterinarian and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Animal environment, husbandry, and management. A chapter on this topic is now divided into sections on terrestrial and aquatic animals and provides recommendations for housing and environment, husbandry, behavioral and population management, and more. Veterinary care. The Guide discusses veterinary care and the responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian. It includes recommendations on animal procurement and transportation, preventive medicine (including animal biosecurity), and clinical care and management. The Guide addresses distress and pain recognition and relief, and issues surrounding euthanasia. Physical plant. The Guide identifies design issues, providing construction guidelines for functional areas; considerations such as drainage, vibration and noise control, and environmental monitoring; and specialized facilities for animal housing and research needs. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.



Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Author
ISBN-10 NAP:13195
Release 1988-01-01
Pages 102
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The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that animal experimentation raises complex questions and generates strong emotions. The recognition that animals are essential in scientific research is critical in making decisions about their use, but these decisions are also made in the broad context of social and ethical values. This report addresses these issues and examines how and why animals are used in research and how society oversees that research. Specifically discussed in this volume are animal use patterns, benefits from the use of animals, alternative research methods, and the use of pound animals. The appendixes include the 1896 statement on this subject by the National Academy of Sciences. Commission and committee members are listed in this report. (CW)



Laboratory Animal Management

Laboratory Animal Management Author Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources
ISBN-10 9780309047449
Release 1994-01-01
Pages 152
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This newly revised edition incorporates the regulatory requirements and improved practices for laboratory animal care that have developed over the past two decades. The volume covers Selection of dogs as research models. Design, construction, and maintenance of facilities. Temperature, humidity, food, water, bedding, sanitation, animal identification, record keeping, and transportation. General veterinary care, as well as special care of breeding animals and random-source animals. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs examines controversies over proper cage sizes and interpretation of federal requirements for exercise and offers recommendations for researchers. Guidelines are provided on how to recognize and alleviate pain and distress in research dogs and on the sensitive topic of euthanasia. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs discusses how to assemble a proper research protocol and how to handle conflicts. Outlined are procedures for institutional animal care and use and committee review. The volume also presents guidelines for handling aging dogs, use of radiation in experiments, and a wide range of other special circumstances. Thoroughly referenced, this guide will be indispensable to researchers, research administrators, review committees, and others concerned about laboratory dogs.



Applied Ethics in Animal Research

Applied Ethics in Animal Research Author John P. Gluck
ISBN-10 1557531374
Release 2002
Pages 188
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This volume is a collection of chapters all contributed by individuals who have presented their ideas at conferences and who take moderate stands with the use of animals in research. Specifically the chapters bear of the issues of: notions of the moral standings of animals, history of the methods of argumentation, knowledge of the animal mind, nature and value of regulatory structures, how respect for animals can be converted from theory to action in the laboratory. The chapters have been tempered by open discussion with individuals with different opinions and not audiences of true believers. It is the hope of all, that careful consideration of the positions in these chapters will leave reader with a deepened understanding--not necessarily a hardened position.



Harkness and Wagner s Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents

Harkness and Wagner s Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents Author John E. Harkness
ISBN-10 9781118708903
Release 2013-03-22
Pages 472
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Harkness and Wagner's Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, Fifth Edition is a practical reference in small mammal husbandry and health, encompassing the fields of laboratory animal medicine and pet practice. Part of ACLAM's series of laboratory animal books, this text offers concise but complete coverage on rabbits and the most common rodent species, with an emphasis on biology, clinical procedures, clinical signs, and diseases and conditions. By providing useful, accessible assessment and diagnostic information, Harkness and Wagner's Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents aids the practitioner in diagnosing and treating conditions in small mammals.



Experimental Surgical Models in the Laboratory Rat

Experimental Surgical Models in the Laboratory Rat Author Alfredo Rigalli
ISBN-10 1420093274
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 232
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An All-Inclusive Guide to Surgical Techniques on Rats The design of an adequate surgical model, like the choice of the animal model itself, is extremely important for obtaining reliable valuable data. Experimental Surgical Models in the Laboratory Rat summarizes a series of techniques that were applied in the Bone Biology Laboratories, School of Medicine, Rosario National University, Argentina. Stopping just short of an exhaustive analysis of the techniques, this manual describes the basics of each surgical technique, the necessary materials, precautions to consider, the methodology to apply, and the possible results to be obtained in similar experiments. CD-ROM: 250 Illustrations of Surgery Techniques with Step-by-Step Instruction With succinct descriptions, color photographs, and easy-to-follow steps, the attached CD-ROM is a practical, full-color roadmap for performing various surgery techniques, such as catheterization, tracheostomy, intramuscular injection, subcutaneous injection, intraperitoneal injection, and oral intubation. This definitive work provides technical and practical data including volumes and concentrations of solutions, catheters used, equipment, and biological variables on the rat. Experimental Surgical Models in the Laboratory Rat is a complete reference for today’s biomedical sciences investigator.



OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals Section 5 Other Test Guidelines Test No 504 Residues in Rotational Crops Limited Field Studies

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals   Section 5  Other Test Guidelines Test No  504  Residues in Rotational Crops  Limited Field Studies Author OECD
ISBN-10 9789264013384
Release 2007-01-25
Pages 9
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This Test Guideline describes a method to determine the amount of pesticide residues which may be accumulated into rotational crops via soil uptake following realistic agricultural practices. These data may be used to establish crop rotation ...



What Animals Want

What Animals Want Author Larry Carbone
ISBN-10 9780199721887
Release 2004-04-01
Pages 320
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Larry Carbone, a veterinarian who is in charge of the lab animal welfare assurance program at a major research university, presents this scholarly history of animal rights. Biomedical researchers, and the less fanatical among the animal rights activists will find this book reasonable, humane, and novel in its perspective. It brings a novel, sociological perspective to an area that has been addressed largely from a philosophical perspective, or from the entrenched positions of highly committed advocates of a particular position in the debate.



Small Animal Imaging

Small Animal Imaging Author Fabian Kiessling
ISBN-10 9783319422022
Release 2017-06-04
Pages 870
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This textbook is a practical guide to the use of small animal imaging in preclinical research that will assist in the choice of imaging modality and contrast agent and in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. All established imaging modalities are discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. While the focus of the new edition remains on practical basics, it has been updated to encompass a variety of emerging imaging modalities, methods, and applications. Additional useful hints are also supplied on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods and data postprocessing are considered in depth. This new edition of Small Animal Imaging will be an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians involved in research into and applications of small animal imaging.



Laboratory Animal Welfare

Laboratory Animal Welfare Author Kathryn Bayne
ISBN-10 9780123851048
Release 2013-09-02
Pages 336
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Laboratory Animal Welfare provides a comprehensive, up-to-date look into the new science of animal welfare within laboratory research. Animals specifically considered include rodents, cats and dogs, nonhuman primates, agricultural animals, avian animals and aquatic animals. The book examines the impact of experiment design and environment on animal welfare, as well as emergency situations and euthanasia practices. Readers will benefit from a review of regulations and policy guidelines concerning lab animal use, as well as information on assessing animal welfare. With discussions of the history and ethics of animals in research, and a debate on contemporary and international issues, this book is a go-to resource for laboratory animal welfare.



Anaesthetic and Sedative Techniques for Aquatic Animals

Anaesthetic and Sedative Techniques for Aquatic Animals Author Lindsay G. Ross
ISBN-10 9781444302271
Release 2009-01-22
Pages 240
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The second edition of Anaesthetic and Sedative Techniques for Aquatic Animals provided the fisheries and aquaculture industry with vital information on the use of sedation and anaesthetics in the avoidance of stress and physical damage, which can easily be caused by crowding, capture, handling, transportation and release. Now fully revised and expanded, the third edition has maintained its accessible format and incorporates much new emphasis on: • Fish pain and welfare: a rapidly developing area of interest and debate • Anaesthesia and legislation: with an international perspective Personnel involved in the aquaculture industry including fish farmers, fish veterinarians, fisheries scientists and fish biologists along with small animal veterinarians, animal laboratory managers and government and regulatory personnel will find this book a valuable and practical resource.



The COST Manual of Laboratory Animal Care and Use

The COST Manual of Laboratory Animal Care and Use Author Bryan Howard
ISBN-10 9781439824931
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 439
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Judge Your Practices Against This Benchmark Manual COST Action B-24 established four working groups to research and discuss issues relevant to laboratory animal science. These included the housing of animals, environmental needs, refinement of procedures, genetically modified animals, and cost-benefit analysis. Based on the groups’ findings, The COST Manual of Laboratory Animal Care and Use: Refinement, Reduction, and Research provides a consensual European view of best practices for individuals and institutions caring for and working with laboratory animals. What is COST? COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is an intergovernmental initiative that promotes coordination of nationally funded science and research at a European level. This book focuses on reduction and refinement strategies and includes insightful contributions from 44 experts drawn from various EU countries. Addressing only the most commonly used mammalian species—rats, mice, and rabbits—each chapter of the book follows a similar structure: Objectives outline the breadth of the chapter’s coverage Key Factors summarize the central issues that underpin good practice Questions Unresolved close each chapter, identifying areas of uncertainty and prompting investigations directed at advancing knowledge and application within relevant fields The COST Manual of Laboratory Animal Care and Use: Refinement, Reduction, and Research is the reference sure to be found in the lab coats of those responsible for the care and welfare of animals and those overseeing and conducting activities related to the use of animals for scientific purposes.