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Reconfiguring the World

Reconfiguring the World Author Margaret J. Osler
ISBN-10 9780801896552
Release 2010-07-27
Pages 184
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Tracing the views of the natural world to their biblical, Greek, and Arabic sources, Osler demonstrates the impact of the Renaissance recovery of ancient texts, printing, the Protestant Reformation, and the exploration of the New World. She shows how the traditional disciplinary boundaries established by Aristotle changed dramatically during this period and finds the tensions of science and religion expressed as differences between natural philosophy and theology. --from publisher description.

Competing with the Soviets

Competing with the Soviets Author Audra J. Wolfe
ISBN-10 9781421409016
Release 2012-11-16
Pages 176
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For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the supposedly objective scholarly enterprise. Based on the assumption that scientists are participants in the culture in which they live, Competing with the Soviets looks beyond the debate about whether military influence distorted science in the Cold War. Scientists’ choices and opportunities have always been shaped by the ideological assumptions, political mandates, and social mores of their times. The idea that American science ever operated in a free zone outside of politics is, Wolfe argues, itself a legacy of the ideological Cold War that held up American science, and scientists, as beacons of freedom in contrast to their peers in the Soviet Union. Arranged chronologically and thematically, the book highlights how ideas about the appropriate relationships among science, scientists, and the state changed over time. -- Michael D. Gordin, Princeton University

Mixing Races

Mixing Races Author Paul Lawrence Farber
ISBN-10 1421402580
Release 2010-12-29
Pages 136
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As such, Mixing Races offers a unique perspective on how contentious debates taking place on college campuses reflected radical shifts in race relations in the larger society.

Central Neural States Relating Sex and Pain

Central Neural States Relating Sex and Pain Author Richard J. Bodnar
ISBN-10 0801868270
Release 2002-04-03
Pages 258
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"Explores the authors' novel and provocative hypothesis that neural mechanisms controlling reproductive behavior and pain are intricately intertwined." -- Karen J. Berkley, Ph.D., Florida State University

The Anatomy of Blackness

The Anatomy of Blackness Author Andrew S. Curran
ISBN-10 9781421401508
Release 2011-08-15
Pages 310
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This volume examines the Enlightenment-era textualization of the Black African in European thought. Andrew S. Curran rewrites the history of blackness by replicating the practices of eighteenth-century readers. Surveying French and European travelogues, natural histories, works of anatomy, pro- and anti-slavery tracts, philosophical treatises, and literary texts, Curran shows how naturalists and philosophes drew from travel literature to discuss the perceived problem of human blackness within the nascent human sciences. He also describes how a number of now-forgotten anatomists revolutionized the era’s understanding of black Africans and charts the shift of the slavery debate from the moral, mercantile, and theological realms toward that of the "black body" itself. In tracing this evolution, he shows how blackness changed from a mere descriptor in earlier periods into a thing to be measured, dissected, handled, and often brutalized. "A definitive statement on the complex, painful, and richly revealing topic of how the major figures of the French Enlightenment reacted to the enslavement of black Africans, often to their discredit. The fields of race studies and of Enlightenment studies are more than ready to embrace the type of analysis in which Curran engages, and all the more so in that his book is beautifully written and illustrated."— Symposium "This is an important contribution to an important topic. But it is also a model of how intellectual history should be done."— New Books in History "The breadth of Andrew Curran's knowledge about the Enlightenment is astonishing... The book makes the convincing point not only that Africa is a major focus in the Enlightenment's imagination, but also that natural history and anthropology are central to understanding not only its scientific agenda, but also its humanitarian politics."— Centaurus "Curran's Francotropism and medical background enable him to develop insights that should prove important to the ongoing transnationalization and discipline-blurring of literary and cultural studies."— Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment "Curran's ability to dissect and explain complicated arguments of the period's major thinkers is impressive."— Choice

Science and the Enlightenment

Science and the Enlightenment Author Thomas L. Hankins
ISBN-10 0521286190
Release 1985-04-26
Pages 216
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This book is a general history of eighteenth-century developments in physical and life sciences.

Scientific Cosmology and International Orders

Scientific Cosmology and International Orders Author Bentley B. Allan
ISBN-10 9781108271431
Release 2018-04-19
Pages 362
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Scientific Cosmology and International Orders shows how scientific ideas have transformed international politics since 1550. Allan argues that cosmological concepts arising from Western science made possible the shift from a sixteenth century order premised upon divine providence to the present order centred on economic growth. As states and other international associations used scientific ideas to solve problems, they slowly reconfigured ideas about how the world works, humanity's place in the universe, and the meaning of progress. The book demonstrates the rise of scientific ideas across three cases: natural philosophy in balance of power politics, 1550–1815; geology and Darwinism in British colonial policy and international colonial orders, 1860–1950; and cybernetic-systems thinking and economics in the World Bank and American liberal order, 1945–2015. Together, the cases trace the emergence of economic growth as a central end of states from its origins in colonial doctrines of development and balance of power thinking about improvement.

Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America

Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America Author Jorge I. Domínguez
ISBN-10 9781421409801
Release 2013-07-12
Pages 408
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After more than a century of assorted dictatorships and innumerable fiscal crises, the majority of Latin America's states are governed today by constitutional democratic regimes. Some analysts and scholars argue that Latin America weathered the 2008 fiscal crisis much better than the United States. How did this happen? Jorge I. Domínguez and Michael Shifter asked area specialists to examine the electoral and governance factors that shed light on this transformation and the region's prospects. They gather their findings in the fourth edition of Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America. This new edition is completely updated. Part I is thematic, covering issues of media, constitutionalism, the commodities boom, and fiscal management vis-à-vis governance. Part II focuses on eight important countries in the region—Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Already widely used in courses, Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America will continue to interest students of Latin American politics, democratization studies, and comparative politics as well as policymakers. -- Richard Feinberg

The Natural and the Supernatural in the Middle Ages

The Natural and the Supernatural in the Middle Ages Author Robert Bartlett
ISBN-10 9780521878326
Release 2008-03-17
Pages 170
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Exploration of how medieval people categorized the world, concentrating on the division between the natural and the supernatural.

Black Power

Black Power Author Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar
ISBN-10 0801882753
Release 2005-05-05
Pages 258
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Uses archival sources and interviews with participants in the Nation of Islam, Black Panther Party, and other groups to explore how the Black Power movement of the 1960s affected African American identity and politics.

Chasing Sound

Chasing Sound Author Susan Schmidt Horning
ISBN-10 9781421410227
Release 2013-10-14
Pages 292
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The recording studio, she argues, is at the center of musical culture in the twentieth century.

A Land Between

A Land Between Author Rebecca Fish Ewan
ISBN-10 0801864615
Release 2000-11-03
Pages 221
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"Owens Valley is a land between, a place tucked behind high mountains, arid yet soaked in water history, draped in desert vegetation yet remembered for its verdant farms, sparsely dotted with towns—some no more than dreams on a map. It exists between stories, between vitality and decline, between granite mountains."—from the Introduction A unique landscape history, A Land Between explores the central idea of how people's preconceptions and perceptions of a place—in this case, Owens Valley—influence their interventions on the land. Rebecca Fish Ewan draws on primary sources, oral histories, and conversations, offering a story that reaches beyond the oft-told tale of water wars with Los Angeles. Ewan's gentle and poetic essays, illustrated with historical images and her own photographs of the region, provide a complex, multifaceted perspective on the land, the history, and the people of Owens Valley. Beginning with the land itself, the book's introduction describes the physical setting of Owens Valley and examines first impressions of the land—including accounts from Numu myth, observations by nineteenth-century settlers, and excerpts from the author's journal of her own travels on horseback from the valley into the Sierra Nevada. The first essay explores the valley's natural history, focusing on the water, mountains, and plants to show a connection between the ecology of place and human use. The second essay chronicles the major periods of human occupation, beginning with the Numu (also referred to as Owens Valley Paiute in many sources) and ending in 1913, when the Department of Water and Power first diverted Owens River into the Los Angeles aqueduct. The third essay considers the valley after the diversion of water, from 1913 to the present—including its use as a World War II Japanese internment camp and as a scenic locale for movies, especially westerns. Owens Valley is renowned for its unique topography and its striking contrasts in elevation—rising from the below-sea-level depths of Death Valley to the 14,496-foot peak of Mt. Whitney. To search for the natural and cultural history embedded in Owens Valley, the author hiked to the top of that mountain, traveled on horseback across the meadows of the Kern Plateau, ventured on every forgotten dirt road in the valley that her truck could negotiate, and rambled on foot over the ancient stones of the Alabama Hills. A Land Between tells the stories of the people who have lived in the valley and uncovers the marks they have left on the land.

Moments of Truth in Genetic Medicine

Moments of Truth in Genetic Medicine Author M. Susan Lindee
ISBN-10 9780801881756
Release 2005-08-26
Pages 270
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Susan Lindee's original study explores the institutions, disciplines, and ideas that initiated the reconfiguration of genetic medicine from a marginal field in the mid-1950s to a core research frontier of biomedicine. Focusing on benchmarks in the field she tracks the emergence of a biomedical consensus that nearly all disease is genetic disease.

The Genealogy of a Gene

The Genealogy of a Gene Author Myles W. Jackson
ISBN-10 9780262028660
Release 2015-02-20
Pages 352
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The history of the CCR5 gene as a lens through which to view such issues as intellectual property, Big Pharma, personalized medicine, and race and genomics.

Santorini and Its Eruptions

Santorini and Its Eruptions Author Ferdinand A. Fouqué
ISBN-10 0801856140
Release 1998
Pages 495
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Ferdinand Fouqué's study of the Santorini archipelago in the Aegean Sea was first published in French in 1879. It quickly became known as a valued resource, not only on Santorini but also on volcanoes, their characteristics, and the remarkable archaeological artifacts that Fouqué discovered under the volcanic rock of Santorini's most famous eruption. In short, the work proved invaluable to geologists and archaeologists alike. For geologists, Fouqué's detailed analysis of the volcano provided the first well-documented evidence that large volcanic depressions, such as the one forming the bay of Santorini, are the result of wholesale collapse following voluminous eruptions of ash and pumice. In the field of archaeology, Fouqué discovered the buried city of Akrotiri and began the excavations that showed the first evidence of an advanced bronze-age civilization in the Aegean. (Like Pompeii, Akrotiri was buried by a major volcanic eruption which, according to one popular theory, was also responsible for the sudden demise of the Minoan civilization on Crete.) He was the first to use the petrographic microscope to study the sources of clay used in ancient ceramics and discovered the nature of "Egyptian blue"pigment. Fouqué's studies laid the foundation for much of the intense research carried out on the island today, but because the book is exceedingly rare—more often cited than read—his remarkable observations and insights have gone largely unnoticed. Now noted volcanologist Alexander R. McBirney provides the first annotated English translation of the original French text of 1879. Most of the original work's illustrations are included, among them a fourteen-page color insert, and a large, full-color geological map of the Santorini islands. Also included are a brief biography of Fouqé and a summary of more recent geological and archaeological studies at Santorini.

Scientific Babel

Scientific Babel Author Michael D. Gordin
ISBN-10 9780226000329
Release 2015-04-13
Pages 424
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English is the language of science today. No matter which languages you know, if you want your work seen, studied, and cited, you need to publish in English. But that hasn’t always been the case. Though there was a time when Latin dominated the field, for centuries science has been a polyglot enterprise, conducted in a number of languages whose importance waxed and waned over time—until the rise of English in the twentieth century. So how did we get from there to here? How did French, German, Latin, Russian, and even Esperanto give way to English? And what can we reconstruct of the experience of doing science in the polyglot past? With Scientific Babel, Michael D. Gordin resurrects that lost world, in part through an ingenious mechanism: the pages of his highly readable narrative account teem with footnotes—not offering background information, but presenting quoted material in its original language. The result is stunning: as we read about the rise and fall of languages, driven by politics, war, economics, and institutions, we actually see it happen in the ever-changing web of multilingual examples. The history of science, and of English as its dominant language, comes to life, and brings with it a new understanding not only of the frictions generated by a scientific community that spoke in many often mutually unintelligible voices, but also of the possibilities of the polyglot, and the losses that the dominance of English entails. Few historians of science write as well as Gordin, and Scientific Babel reveals his incredible command of the literature, language, and intellectual essence of science past and present. No reader who takes this linguistic journey with him will be disappointed.

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers Author J.M. Steele
ISBN-10 9789401595285
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 324
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Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.