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Red Brethren

Red Brethren Author David J. Silverman
ISBN-10 9781501704796
Release 2016-02-04
Pages 296
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New England Indians created the multitribal Brothertown and Stockbridge communities during the eighteenth century with the intent of using Christianity and civilized reforms to cope with white expansion. In Red Brethren, David J. Silverman considers the stories of these communities and argues that Indians in early America were racial thinkers in their own right and that indigenous people rallied together as Indians not only in the context of violent resistance but also in campaigns to adjust peacefully to white dominion. All too often, the Indians discovered that their many concessions to white demands earned them no relief. In the era of the American Revolution, the pressure of white settlements forced the Brothertowns and Stockbridges from New England to Oneida country in upstate New York. During the early nineteenth century, whites forced these Indians from Oneida country, too, until they finally wound up in Wisconsin. Tired of moving, in the 1830s and 1840s, the Brothertowns and Stockbridges became some of the first Indians to accept U.S. citizenship, which they called "becoming white," in the hope that this status would enable them to remain as Indians in Wisconsin. Even then, whites would not leave them alone. Red Brethren traces the evolution of Indian ideas about race under this relentless pressure. In the early seventeenth century, indigenous people did not conceive of themselves as Indian. They sharpened their sense of Indian identity as they realized that Christianity would not bridge their many differences with whites, and as they fought to keep blacks out of their communities. The stories of Brothertown and Stockbridge shed light on the dynamism of Indians' own racial history and the place of Indians in the racial history of early America.



Colonial America

Colonial America Author Stanley Nider Katz
ISBN-10 0415879566
Release 2010-11-01
Pages 587
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Now in its sixth edition, Colonial America is the most respected and well-known anthology of readings by top scholars in the field of early American history. The collection offers an insightful and critical view of the colonial period, and exposes students to the most significant developments in recent American colonial history scholarship. The new edition features 17 new essays, emphasizing a comparative approach to colonial worlds, with added content on the Atlantic and North American interior. Drawing its material from a greater range of sources than ever before, the text also highlights the themes of race, gender, and family throughout the collection of articles. Colonial America includes: maps of the eighteenth century Atlantic World, West Indies, and British North American colonies new introductions to key essays from the fifth edition seventeen new essays with contextualizing introductions discussion questions for students recent scholarship on Indian-colonial relations, the Atlantic, comparative colonialism, gender, slavery and bound labor, and imperial history. With contributions from: Fred Anderson, T.H. Breen, Anne S. Brown, Denver Brunsman, Colin G. Calloway, Jared Diamond, David Eltis, Aaron S. Fogleman, Alan Gallay, David D. Hall, April Lee Hatfield, Frank Lambert, Barry J. Levy, Kenneth A. Lockridge, Brendan McConville, Peter N. Moogk, Philip D. Morgan, John M. Murrin, Jenny Hale Pulsipher, Martin H. Quitt, Daniel K. Richter, Brett Rushforth, David J. Silverman, Owen Stanwood, John K. Thornton, Alden T. Vaughan, Wendy Anne Warren, and David J. Weber, The sixth edition of Colonial America is the best resource on the market to give students a feel for the newest themes in colonial history, and to leave them with a sense of the conversation shared among early American historians. Stanley N. Katz is Director of the Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies at Princetonâe(tm)s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. He has written widely on political, legal, and constitutional history, and is the Editor in Chief of the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History. John M. Murrin is Professor Emeritus of History at Princeton University. He is co-author of Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. Douglas Greenberg is Professor of History and Executive Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. David J. Silverman is Associate Professor of History at The George Washington University. He is the author of Red Brethren: The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and the Problem of Race in Early America. Denver Brunsman is Assistant Professor of History at Wayne State University. He is the co-editor of Revolutionary Detroit: Portraits in Political and Cultural Change, 1760-1805.



The American Revolution Reader

The American Revolution Reader Author Denver Brunsman
ISBN-10 0415537568
Release 2014
Pages 460
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The American Revolution Reader is a collection of leading essays on the American revolutionary era from the eve of the imperial crisis through George Washington's presidency. Articles have been chosen to represent classic themes, such as the British-colonial relationship during the eighteenth century, the political and ideological issues underlying colonial protests, the military conflict, the debates over the Constitution, and the rise of political parties. The volume also captures how the field has been reshaped in recent years, including essays that cover class strife and street politics, the international context of the Revolution, and the roles of women, African Americans and Native Americans, as well as the reshaping of the British Empire after the war. With essays by Gordon S. Wood, Mary Beth Norton, T.H. Breen, John M. Murrin, Gary B. Nash, Woody Holton, Rosemarie Zagarri, John Shy, Alan Taylor, Maya Jasanoff, and many other prominent historians, the collection is ideal for classroom use and any student of the American Revolution.



Professional Indian

Professional Indian Author Michael Leroy Oberg
ISBN-10 9780812292145
Release 2015-02-02
Pages 280
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Born in 1788, Eleazer Williams was raised in the Catholic Iroquois settlement of Kahnawake along the St. Lawrence River. According to some sources, he was the descendant of a Puritan minister whose daughter was taken by French and Mohawk raiders; in other tales he was the Lost Dauphin, second son to Louis XVI of France. Williams achieved regional renown as a missionary to the Oneida Indians in central New York; he was also instrumental in their removal, allying with white federal officials and the Ogden Land Company to persuade Oneidas to relocate to Wisconsin. Williams accompanied them himself, making plans to minister to the transplanted Oneidas, but he left the community and his young family for long stretches of time. A fabulist and sometime confidence man, Eleazer Williams is notoriously difficult to comprehend: his own record is complicated with stories he created for different audiences. But for author Michael Leroy Oberg, he is an icon of the self-fashioning and protean identity practiced by native peoples who lived or worked close to the centers of Anglo-American power. Professional Indian follows Eleazer Williams on this odyssey across the early American republic and through the shifting spheres of the Iroquois in an era of dispossession. Oberg describes Williams as a "professional Indian," who cultivated many political interests and personas in order to survive during a time of shrinking options for native peoples. He was not alone: as Oberg shows, many Indians became missionaries and settlers and played a vital role in westward expansion. Through the larger-than-life biography of Eleazer Williams, Professional Indian uncovers how Indians fought for place and agency in a world that was rapidly trying to erase them.



The Settlers Empire

The Settlers  Empire Author Bethel Saler
ISBN-10 9780812291216
Release 2014-10-29
Pages 392
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The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which officially recognized the United States as a sovereign republic, also doubled the territorial girth of the original thirteen colonies. The fledgling nation now stretched from the coast of Maine to the Mississippi River and up to the Great Lakes. With this dramatic expansion, argues author Bethel Saler, the United States simultaneously became a postcolonial republic and gained a domestic empire. The competing demands of governing an empire and a republic inevitably collided in the early American West. The Settlers' Empire traces the first federal endeavor to build states wholesale out of the Northwest Territory, a process that relied on overlapping colonial rule over Euro-American settlers and the multiple Indian nations in the territory. These entwined administrations involved both formal institution building and the articulation of dominant cultural customs that, in turn, served also to establish boundaries of citizenship and racial difference. In the Northwest Territory, diverse populations of newcomers and Natives struggled over the region's geographical and cultural definition in areas such as religion, marriage, family, gender roles, and economy. The success or failure of state formation in the territory thus ultimately depended on what took place not only in the halls of government but also on the ground and in the everyday lives of the region's Indians, Francophone creoles, Euro- and African Americans, and European immigrants. In this way, The Settlers' Empire speaks to historians of women, gender, and culture, as well as to those interested in the early national state, the early West, settler colonialism, and Native history.



Anglicizing America

Anglicizing America Author Ignacio Gallup-Diaz
ISBN-10 9780812246988
Release 2015-03-18
Pages 336
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The thirteen mainland colonies of early America were arguably never more British than on the eve of their War of Independence from Britain. Though home to settlers of diverse national and cultural backgrounds, colonial America gradually became more like Britain in its political and judicial systems, material culture, economies, religious systems, and engagements with the empire. At the same time and by the same process, these politically distinct and geographically distant colonies forged a shared cultural identity--one that would bind them together as a nation during the Revolution. Anglicizing America revisits the theory of Anglicization, considering its application to the history of the Atlantic world, from Britain to the Caribbean to the western wildernesses, at key moments before, during, and after the American Revolution. Ten essays by senior historians trace the complex processes by which global forces, local economies, and individual motives interacted to reinforce a more centralized and unified social movement. They examine the ways English ideas about labor influenced plantation slavery, how Great Britain's imperial aspirations shaped American militarization, the influence of religious tolerance on political unity, and how Americans' relationship to Great Britain after the war impacted the early republic's naval and taxation policies. As a whole, Anglicizing America offers a compelling framework for explaining the complex processes at work in the western hemisphere during the age of revolutions. Contributors: Denver Brunsman, William Howard Carter, Ignacio Gallup-Diaz, Anthony M. Joseph, Simon P. Newman, Geoffrey Plank, Nancy L. Rhoden, Andrew Shankman, Jeremy A. Stern, David J. Silverman.



Ninigret Sachem of the Niantics and Narrangansetts

Ninigret  Sachem of the Niantics and Narrangansetts Author Julie A. Fisher
ISBN-10 9780801470462
Release 2014-05-09
Pages 200
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Ninigret was a sachem of the Niantic and Narragansett Indians of what is now Rhode Island from the mid-1630s through the mid-1670s. For Ninigret and his contemporaries, Indian Country and New England were multipolar political worlds shaped by ever-shifting intertribal rivalries. In the first biography of Ninigret, Julie A. Fisher and David J. Silverman assert that he was the most influential Indian leader of his era in southern New England. As such, he was a key to the balance of power in both Indian-colonial and intertribal relations. Ninigret was at the center of almost every major development involving southern New England Indians between the Pequot War of 1636–37 and King Philip’s War of 1675–76. He led the Narrangansetts’ campaign to become the region’s major power, including a decades-long war against the Mohegans led by Uncas, Ninigret’s archrival. To offset growing English power, Ninigret formed long-distance alliances with the powerful Mohawks of the Iroquois League and the Pocumtucks of the Connecticut River Valley. Over the course of Ningret’s life, English officials repeatedly charged him with plotting to organize a coalition of tribes and even the Dutch to roll back English settlement. Ironically, though, he refused to take up arms against the English in King Philip’s War. Ninigret died at the end of the war, having guided his people through one of the most tumultuous chapters of the colonial era.



Dry Bones and Indian Sermons

Dry Bones and Indian Sermons Author Kristina Bross
ISBN-10 0801489385
Release 2004
Pages 257
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Native converts to Christianity, dubbed "praying Indians" by seventeenth-century English missionaries, have long been imagined as benign cultural intermediaries between English settlers and "savages." More recently, praying Indians have been dismissed as virtual inventions of the colonists: "good" Indians used to justify mistreatment of "bad" ones. In a new consideration of this religious encounter, Kristina Bross argues that colonists used depictions of praying Indians to create a vitally important role for themselves as messengers on an evangelical "errand into the wilderness" that promised divine significance not only for the colonists who had embarked on the errand, but also for their metropolitan sponsors in London. In Dry Bones and Indian Sermons, Bross traces the response to events such as the English civil wars and Restoration, New England's Antinomian Controversy, and "King Philip's" war. Whatever the figure's significance to English settlers, praying Indians such as Waban and Samuel Ponampam used their Christian identity to push for status and meaning in the colonial order. Through her focused attention to early evangelical literature and to that literature's historical and cultural contexts, Bross demonstrates how the people who inhabited, manipulated, and consumed the praying Indian identity found ways to use it for their own, disparate purposes.



Times Are Altered with Us

 Times Are Altered with Us Author Roger M. Carpenter
ISBN-10 9781118733158
Release 2015-01-20
Pages 312
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"Times Are Altered with Us": American Indians from Contact to the New Republic offers a concise and engaging introduction to the turbulent 300-year-period of the history of Native Americans and their interactions with Europeans—and then Americans—from 1492 to 1800. Considers the interactions of American Indians at many points of "First Contact" across North America, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts Explores the early years of contact, trade, reciprocity, and colonization, from initial engagement of different Indian and European peoples—Spanish, French, Dutch, English, and Russian—up to the start of tenuous and stormy relations with the new American government Charts the rapid decline in American Indian populations due to factors including epidemic Old World diseases, genocide and warfare by explorers and colonists, tribal warfare, and the detrimental effects of resource ruination and displacement from traditional lands Features a completely up-to-date synthesis of the literature of the field Incorporates useful student features, including maps, illustrations, and a comprehensive and evaluative Bibliographical Essay Written in an engaging style by an expert in Native American history and designed for use in both the U.S. history survey as well as dedicated courses in Native American studies



Faithful Bodies

Faithful Bodies Author Heather Miyano Kopelson
ISBN-10 9781479852345
Release 2014-07-18
Pages 416
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In the seventeenth-century English Atlantic, religious beliefs and practices played a central role in creating racial identity. English Protestantism provided a vocabulary and structure to describe and maintain boundaries between insider and outsider. In this path-breaking study, Heather Miyano Kopelson peels back the layers of conflicting definitions of bodies and competing practices of faith in the puritan Atlantic, demonstrating how the categories of “white,” “black,” and “Indian” developed alongside religious boundaries between “Christian” and “heathen” and between “Catholic” and “Protestant.” Faithful Bodies focuses on three communities of Protestant dissent in the Atlantic World: Bermuda, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. In this “puritan Atlantic,” religion determined insider and outsider status: at times Africans and Natives could belong as long as they embraced the Protestant faith, while Irish Catholics and English Quakers remained suspect. Colonists’ interactions with indigenous peoples of the Americas and with West Central Africans shaped their understandings of human difference and its acceptable boundaries. Prayer, religious instruction, sexual behavior, and other public and private acts became markers of whether or not blacks and Indians were sinning Christians or godless heathens. As slavery became law, transgressing people of color counted less and less as sinners in English puritans’ eyes, even as some of them made Christianity an integral part of their communities. As Kopelson shows, this transformation proceeded unevenly but inexorably during the long seventeenth century.



Native Tongues

Native Tongues Author Sean P. Harvey
ISBN-10 9780674289932
Release 2015-01-05
Pages 338
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Exploring the morally entangled territory of language and race in 18th- and 19th-century America, Sean Harvey shows that whites’ theories of an “Indian mind” inexorably shaped by Indian languages played a crucial role in the subjugation of Native peoples and informed the U.S. government’s efforts to extinguish Native languages for years to come.



Race and Redemption in Puritan New England

Race and Redemption in Puritan New England Author Richard A. Bailey
ISBN-10 9780195366594
Release 2011-05-26
Pages 209
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While much has been written about race in early America, scholars have generally focused on the southern colonies in the 18th century. Here, Bailey turns his gaze northward and to an earlier period, to the origins of puritan New England, and contends that as colonial New Englanders offered spiritual redemption to their neighbors they began creating raced identities for their Native American and African neighbors.



The Atlantic in World History

The Atlantic in World History Author Karen Ordahl Kupperman
ISBN-10 9780199986552
Release 2012-08-08
Pages 168
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As Europeans began to move into the Atlantic in the late fifteenth century, first encountering islands and then two continents across the sea, they initiated a process that revolutionized the lives of people everywhere. American foods enriched their diets. Furs, precious metals, dyes, and many other products underwrote new luxury trades, and tobacco became the first consumer craze as the price plummeted with ever-enlarging production. Much of the technology that made new initiatives, such as sailing out of sight of land, possibly drew on Asian advances that came into Europe through North Africa. Sugar and other crops came along the same routes, and Europeans found American environments ideal for their cultivation. Leaders along the African coast controlled the developing trade with Europeans, and products from around the Atlantic entered African life. As American plantations were organized on an industrial scale, they became voracious consumers of labor. American Indians, European indentured servants, and enslaved Africans were all employed, and over time slavery became the predominant labor system in the plantation economies. American Indians adopted imported technologies and goods to enhance their own lives, but diseases endemic in the rest of the world to which Americans had no acquired immunity led to dramatic population decline in some areas. From Brazil to Canada, Indians withdrew into the interior, where they formed large and powerful new confederations. Atlantic exchange opened new possibilities. All around the ocean, states that had been marginal to the main centers in the continents' interiors now found themselves at the forefront of developing trades with the promise of wealth and power. European women and men whose prospects were circumscribed at home saw potential in emigration. Economic aspirations beckoned large numbers, but also, in the maelstrom following the Reformation, others sought the chance to worship as they saw fit. Many saw their hopes dashed, but some succeeded as they had desired. Ultimately, as people of African and European descent came to predominate in American populations, they broke political ties to Europe and reshaped transatlantic relationships.



Faith and Boundaries

Faith and Boundaries Author David J. Silverman
ISBN-10 9781316583029
Release 2005-04-04
Pages
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It was indeed possible for Indians and Europeans to live peacefully in early America and for Indians to survive as distinct communities. Faith and Boundaries uses the story of Martha's Vineyard Wampanoags to examine how. On an island marked by centralized English authority, missionary commitment, and an Indian majority, the Wampanoags' adaptation to English culture, especially Christianity, checked violence while safeguarding their land, community, and ironically, even customs. Yet the colonists' exploitation of Indian land and labor exposed the limits of Christian fellowship and thus hardened racial division. The Wampanoags learned about race through this rising bar of civilization - every time they met demands to reform, colonists moved the bar higher until it rested on biological difference. Under the right circumstances, like those on Martha's Vineyard, religion could bridge wide difference between the peoples of early America, but its transcendent power was limited by the divisiveness of race.



The Collected Writings of Samson Occom Mohegan

The Collected Writings of Samson Occom  Mohegan Author Samson Occom
ISBN-10 0195346882
Release 2006-11-09
Pages 480
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This volume brings together for the first time the known writings of the pioneering Native American religious and political leader, intellectual, and author, Samson Occom (Mohegan; 1723-1792). The largest surviving archive of American Indian writing before Charles Eastman (Santee Sioux; 1858-1939), Occom's writings offer unparalleled views into a Native American intellectual and cultural universe in the era of colonialization and the early United States. His letters, sermons, journals, prose, petitions, and hymns--many of them never before published--document the emergence of pantribal political consciousness among the Native peoples of New England as well as Native efforts to adapt Christianity as a tool of decolonialization. Presenting previously unpublished and newly recovered writings, this collection more than doubles available Native American writing from before 1800.



Thundersticks

Thundersticks Author David J. Silverman
ISBN-10 9780674974746
Release 2016-10-10
Pages 360
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David Silverman argues against the notion that Indians prized flintlock muskets more for their pyrotechnics than for their efficiency as tools of war. Native peoples fully recognized the potential of firearms to assist them in their struggles against colonial forces, and mostly against one another, as arms races erupted across North America.



Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South

Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South Author Malinda Maynor Lowery
ISBN-10 0807898287
Release 2010-04-15
Pages 368
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With more than 50,000 enrolled members, North Carolina's Lumbee Indians are the largest Native American tribe east of the Mississippi River. Malinda Maynor Lowery, a Lumbee herself, describes how, between Reconstruction and the 1950s, the Lumbee crafted and maintained a distinct identity in an era defined by racial segregation in the South and paternalistic policies for Indians throughout the nation. They did so against the backdrop of some of the central issues in American history, including race, class, politics, and citizenship. Lowery argues that "Indian" is a dynamic identity that, for outsiders, sometimes hinged on the presence of "Indian blood" (for federal New Deal policy makers) and sometimes on the absence of "black blood" (for southern white segregationists). Lumbee people themselves have constructed their identity in layers that tie together kin and place, race and class, tribe and nation; however, Indians have not always agreed on how to weave this fabric into a whole. Using photographs, letters, genealogy, federal and state records, and first-person family history, Lowery narrates this compelling conversation between insiders and outsiders, demonstrating how the Lumbee People challenged the boundaries of Indian, southern, and American identities.