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Refocusing Crime Prevention

Refocusing Crime Prevention Author Stephen Schneider
ISBN-10 9780802084200
Release 2007
Pages 359
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Despite widespread concern over urban crime, public participation in local crime prevention programs is generally low and limited to a small, homogeneous group of middle-class home-owing residents. Conspicuously absent from these programs are the very people who are the most vulnerable to crime: the poor, immigrants, and visible minorities. In Refocusing Crime Prevention Stephen Schneider explores the capacity of disadvantaged neighbourhoods to organize around issues related to local crime and disorder. It identifies obstacles to community mobilization, many of which are strongly related to demographic and socio-psychological factors, including low socio-economic status.



Crime Prevention

Crime Prevention Author Stephen Schneider
ISBN-10 9781498721974
Release 2014-12-16
Pages 532
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In Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, Dr. Schneider has updated every chapter in this reliable text using the latest research, the most recently published articles and books, and feedback from professors and students using the first edition. Providing an introduction to dominant approaches, key concepts, theories, and research, the book supplies concrete advice on planning, implementing, and evaluating a crime prevention plan. This edition includes a new chapter applying crime prevention through social development principles to adolescents and young adults. This chapter is a recognition of the disproportionate rate of offending by adolescents and young adults as well as the distinctive risk factors faced by these groups. It also emphasizes the unique nature of applying social problem-solving solutions to adolescents and young adults who have been in formal contact with the criminal justice system. The focus is on recidivism prevention, an often-ignored, but critical aspect of crime prevention. Laying out a systematic blueprint for a successful crime prevention project, the book also updates the extant literature on crime prevention—in particular the addition of research that has been published since the first edition of this book. Updated case studies reflecting new data present real examples of crime prevention programs and organizations and illustrate the conceptual, theoretical, and empirical elements of the book. Learning objectives, discussion questions, and exercises facilitate learning and retention and a companion website provides ancillary material for students and professors.



Global Perspectives on Crime Prevention and Community Resilience

Global Perspectives on Crime Prevention and Community Resilience Author Diana Scharff Peterson
ISBN-10 9781315351476
Release 2017-11-02
Pages 340
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Inspired by the dialogue between practitioners and academics of nearly thirty countries, this edited volume includes updated articles on global crime prevention initiatives and best practices in building community resilience presented at the International Police Executive Symposium’s (IPES) 25th annual meeting in Sofia, Bulgaria in 2014. A new book in the highly-regarded IPES Co-Publications series, Global Perspectives on Crime Prevention and Community Resilience offers strategies for crime and violence prevention and community initiatives for crime reduction, while promoting current best practices for police effectiveness, safety, and professionalism. The book includes eighteen chapters from police leaders, practitioners and academics around the world in efforts to demonstrate effective strategies for the prevention of crime and innovative techniques in assisting crime victims. In an increasingly global reality, this text gives voice to valuable members of the international policing community.



Preventing Crime

Preventing Crime Author Tore Bjørgo
ISBN-10 9781137560483
Release 2016-01-26
Pages 302
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Traditional "schools" of crime prevention, like the criminal justice model, social crime prevention or situational crime prevention, have proved to be too narrow and do not combine well with other approaches. However, each of these models provides important insights and contributions for reducing crime. By extracting the main preventive mechanisms of these diverse approaches, this book develops a more holistic, general model that consists of nine preventive mechanisms: building normative barriers to crime, reducing recruitment, deterrence, disruption, incapacitation, protecting vulnerable targets, reducing benefits of crime, reducing harm, and facilitating desistance. The measures to activate the preventive mechanisms may differ according to the type of crime, as may the actors in charge of implementing the relevant measures. However, Tore Bjørgo demonstrates how his model of crime prevention can be effectively applied to diverse forms of crime, from domestic burglaries to criminal youth gangs and driving under the influence to organized crime and terrorism. In doing so, this important book will be of interest to scholars and students of policing, security studies and criminology, as well as practitioners and policy-makers.



Refocusing Prevention Practices

Refocusing Prevention Practices Author Ibukunoluwa Adebisi Sorinmade
ISBN-10 OCLC:871827791
Release 2012
Pages
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In exploring current responses to crime, particularly youth involvement in gangs, this thesis examines two approaches: Crime Prevention through Social Development (CPSD) and risk-based prevention. The former is associated with the provision of socially-designed measures to address and eliminate the risk factor associated with persistent offending. The latter, however, refers to the implementation of risk management and statistical assessment to manage the risk factor associated with persistent offending. In light of these two approaches, this thesis examines a debate which purported that crime prevention practices has wholly shifted away from an emphasis on CPSD towards risk-based prevention. This thesis also examines the opposing debate which explains that CPSD and risk-based prevention have emerged into a balanced approach. Taking into account 19 youth gang prevention projects in Canada, the above debates are investigated. Drawing from the analysed project, this thesis concludes that, the crime prevention practices of the analyzed projects significantly rely on risk-based prevention. As a result, the approaches of CPSD still exist in rhetoric and in practice however, its influence on crime prevention initiatives is very limited. Hence, current approaches neither reflect a total shift away from CPSD nor a balanced approach.



Neighbourhood Watch in a Digital Age

Neighbourhood Watch in a Digital Age Author Vasco Lub
ISBN-10 9783319677477
Release 2017-10-18
Pages 150
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Drawing on data from 340 municipalities in the Netherlands as well as ethnographic fieldwork, this book presents original research on neighbourhood watch groups to illustrate how their actions contribute to collective efficacy and lower crime levels. Technological developments like social media and smartphones have changed the landscape of coproduction in public safety, and this book addresses the resultant issues involved with creating effective policy. While digital innovations and securitization have made neighbourhood watch groups effective, they have simultaneously increased the risk of vigilantism, and Lub reveals how stigmatization, ethnic profiling and excessive social control are very real issues, especially in suburban middle-class districts. Crucially, this study raises questions about how the increasing popularity of community crime prevention in a digital age should be framed: as a welcome civic contribution to crime control, or as a social phenomenon adding to an undesirable culture of control. Criminologists, city officials, policy makers and anyone studying neighbourhood activism will find this a fascinating work on crime control.



Handbook of Behavioural Economics and Smart Decision Making

Handbook of Behavioural Economics and Smart Decision Making Author Morris Altman
ISBN-10 9781782549598
Release 2017-05-26
Pages 616
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This Handbook is a unique and original contribution of over thirty chapters on behavioural economics, examining and addressing an important stream of research where the starting assumption is that decision-makers are for the most part relatively smart or rational. This particular approach is in contrast to a theme running through much contemporary work where individuals’ behaviour is deemed irrational, biased, and error-prone, often due to how people are hardwired. In the smart people approach, where errors or biases occur and when social dilemmas arise, more often than not, improving the decision-making environment can repair these problems without hijacking or manipulating the preferences of decision-makers. This book covers a wide-range of themes from micro to macro, including various sub-disciplines within economics such as economic psychology, heuristics, fast and slow-thinking, neuroeconomics, experiments, the capabilities approach, institutional economics, methodology, nudging, ethics, and public policy.



Preventing Crime and Violence

Preventing Crime and Violence Author Brent Teasdale
ISBN-10 9783319441245
Release 2016-11-29
Pages 388
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This insightful volume integrates criminological theories, prevention science, and empirical findings to create an up-to-date survey of crime prevention research and strategies. Its interdisciplinary perspective expands on our knowledge of risk factors to isolate the malleable mechanisms that produce criminal outcomes, and can therefore be targeted for intervention. In addition, the text identifies developmental, lifespan, and social areas for effective intervention. Reviews of family-, community-, and criminal justice-based crime prevention approaches not only detail a wide gamut of successful techniques, but also provide evidence for why they succeed. And as an extra research dimension, the book’s chapters on methodological issues and challenges uncover rich possibilities for the next generation of crime prevention studies. Included in the coverage: Integrating criminology and prevention research Social disorganization theory: its history and relevance to crime prevention Research designs in crime and violence prevention Macro- and micro-approaches to crime prevention and intervention programs Implications of life course: approaches for prevention science Promising avenues for prevention, including confronting sexual victimization on college campuses Spotlighting current progress and continuing evolution of the field, Preventing Crime and Violence will enhance the work of researchers, practitioners, academicians, and policymakers in public health, prevention science, criminology, and criminal justice, as well as students interested in criminology and criminal justice.



Crime Control and Everyday Life in the Victorian City

Crime Control and Everyday Life in the Victorian City Author David Churchill
ISBN-10 9780198797845
Release 2018-01-11
Pages 304
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The history of modern crime control is usually presented as a narrative of how the state wrested control over the governance of crime from the civilian public. Most accounts trace the decline of a participatory, discretionary culture of crime control in the early modern era, and its replacement by a centralized, bureaucratic system of responding to offending. The formation of the 'new' professional police forces in the nineteenth century is central to this narrative: henceforth, it is claimed, the priorities of criminal justice were to be set by the state, as ordinary people lost what authority they had once exercised over dealing with offenders. This book challenges this established view, and presents a fundamental reinterpretation of changes to crime control in the age of the new police. It breaks new ground by providing a highly detailed, empirical analysis of everyday crime control in Victorian provincial cities - revealing the tremendous activity which ordinary people displayed in responding to crime - alongside a rich survey of police organization and policing in practice. With unique conceptual clarity, it seeks to reorient modern criminal justice history away from its established preoccupation with state systems of policing and punishment, and move towards a more nuanced analysis of the governance of crime. More widely, the book provides a unique and valuable vantage point from which to rethink the role of civil society and the state in modern governance, the nature of agency and authority in Victorian England, and the historical antecedents of pluralized modes of crime control which characterize contemporary society.



Crime and Planning

Crime and Planning Author Derek J. Paulsen, Ph.D.
ISBN-10 9781466588714
Release 2013-03-21
Pages 205
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The form and layout of a built environment has a significant influence on crime by creating opportunities for it and, in turn, shaping community crime patterns. Effective urban planners and designers will consider crime when making planning and design decisions. A co-publication with the American Planning Association, Crime and Planning: Building Socially Sustainable Communities presents a comprehensive discussion of the interconnections between urban planning, criminal victimization, and crime prevention. An introduction into the main concerns at the intersection of criminology and community planning, the book first provides an overview of crime patterns. It then explores major issues within planning and their impact on crime. Critical topics discussed include connectivity, mixed-use developments, land use and zoning, transit-oriented design, and pedestrian trails, greenways, and parks. The remaining chapters explore: Crime prevention theories Crime prevention as a central component of sustainability How to incorporate social sustainability and planning guidelines into local planning decisions Policy discussion of issues such as zoning How tools such as smart growth and form-based codes relate to crime and crime prevention Examples of how planning decisions can impact crime patterns in both a residential and retail setting, and what has already worked in real-world communities As communities continue to grapple with foreclosure, sprawl, and infill/redevelopment, a sound understanding of how the built environment impacts crime is of increasing importance. This book provides planners with the tools and knowledge necessary to minimize the impact of crime on communities with the goal of creating socially sustainable communities.



Crime and Public Policy

Crime and Public Policy Author James Q. Wilson
ISBN-10 9780199968237
Release 2012-06-01
Pages 656
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Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.



Essays on the Evolution of the Post Apartheid State

Essays on the Evolution of the Post Apartheid State Author Mapungubwe Institute for Strategic Reflection (MISTRA)
ISBN-10 9781920655877
Release 2014-10-01
Pages 344
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This book critically examines the challenges, successes, and failures of the post-1994 South African state against the humane values enshrined in its constitution: nonracial democracy and respect for all generations of human rights—civil, political, social, economic, resources and the environment and gender and communication. The book sheds light on the difficulties faced by the State when trying to bring together a diverse society comprised of traditional South African, Western-based and "other" African (immigrant) cultures into a cohesive nation with a common South African identity. The views of the essays may not be entirely consistent and the issues they raise may be contentious. This merely affirms the truism that the State is a contested terrain. The aim of this book is to deepen the search for an understanding of the theory of the State as it applies to a transforming society such as ours and to trudge the dividing line between theory and practice so they can feed into each other in a progressive spiral towards the desired end-state.



Crime and Everyday Life

Crime and Everyday Life Author Marcus Felson
ISBN-10 9781483342658
Release 2009-12-02
Pages 264
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Crime and Everyday Life, Fourth Edition, provides an illuminating glimpse into roots of criminal behavior, explaining how crime can touch us all in both small and large ways. This innovative text shows how opportunity is a necessary condition for crime to occur, while exploring realistic ways to reduce or eliminate crime and criminal behavior by removing the opportunity to complete the act. Encouraging students to take a closer look at the true nature of crime and its effects on their lives, author Marcus Felson and new co-author Rachel L. Boba (an expert on crime prevention, crime analysis and mapping, and school safety) maintain the book’s engaging, readable, and informative style, while incorporating the most current research on criminal behavior and routine activity theory. The authors emphasize that routine daily activities set the stage for illegal acts, thus challenging conventional wisdom and offering students a fresh perspective, novel solutions for reducing crime . . . and renewed hope. New and Proven Features Includes new coverage of gangs, bar problems, and barhopping; new discussion of the dynamic crime triangle; and expanded coverage of technology, Internet fraud, identity theft, and other Internet pitfalls The now-famous “fallacies about crime” are reduced to nine and are organized and explained even more clearly than in past editions Offers updated research on crime as well as new examples of practical application of theory, with the most current crime and victimization statistics throughout Features POP (Problem-Oriented Policing) Center guidelines and citations, including Closing Streets and Alleys to Reduce Crime, Speeding in Residential Areas, Robbery of Convenience Stores, and use of the Situational Crime Prevention Evaluation Database Updated “Projects and Challenges” at the end of each chapter



The Criminology of Place

The Criminology of Place Author David Weisburd
ISBN-10 9780199709106
Release 2012-10-01
Pages 288
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The study of crime has focused primarily on why particular people commit crime or why specific communities have higher crime levels than others. In The Criminology of Place, David Weisburd, Elizabeth Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang present a new and different way of looking at the crime problem by examining why specific streets in a city have specific crime trends over time. Based on a 16-year longitudinal study of crime in Seattle, Washington, the book focuses our attention on small units of geographic analysis-micro communities, defined as street segments. Half of all Seattle crime each year occurs on just 5-6 percent of the city's street segments, yet these crime hot spots are not concentrated in a single neighborhood and street by street variability is significant. Weisburd, Groff, and Yang set out to explain why. The Criminology of Place shows how much essential information about crime is inevitably lost when we focus on larger units like neighborhoods or communities. Reorienting the study of crime by focusing on small units of geography, the authors identify a large group of possible crime risk and protective factors for street segments and an array of interventions that could be implemented to address them. The Criminology of Place is a groundbreaking book that radically alters traditional thinking about the crime problem and what we should do about it.



Shopping and Crime

Shopping and Crime Author J. Bamfield
ISBN-10 9780230393554
Release 2012-03-13
Pages 325
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An interdisciplinary study of retail crime as a cultural phenomenon, drawing on economics, criminology and management to present a comprehensive explanation for the growth in retail thefts. This topical study explores crime prevention as a management issue, using criminomics, a concept based on commercial realities rather than maximising arrests.



More Guns Less Crime

More Guns  Less Crime Author John R. Lott
ISBN-10 0226493679
Release 2013-01-29
Pages 472
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On its initial publication in 1998, John R. Lott’s More Guns, Less Crime drew both lavish praise and heated criticism. More than a decade later, it continues to play a key role in ongoing arguments over gun-control laws: despite all the attacks by gun-control advocates, no one has ever been able to refute Lott’s simple, startling conclusion that more guns mean less crime. Relying on the most rigorously comprehensive data analysis ever conducted on crime statistics and right-to-carry laws, the book directly challenges common perceptions about the relationship of guns, crime, and violence. For this third edition, Lott draws on an additional ten years of data—including provocative analysis of the effects of gun bans in Chicago and Washington, D.C—that brings the book fully up to date and further bolsters its central contention.



The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice

The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice Author Barry C. Feld
ISBN-10 9780190208837
Release 2011-12-23
Pages 960
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Over the last two decades, researchers have made significant discoveries about the causes and origins of delinquency. Specifically, we have learned a great deal about adolescent development and its relationship to decision-making, about multiple factors that contribute to delinquency, and about the processes and contexts associated with the course of delinquent careers. Over the same period, public officials have made sweeping jurisprudential, jurisdictional, and procedural changes in our juvenile justice systems. The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice presents a timely compilation of state-of-the-art critical reviews of knowledge about causes of delinquency and their significance for justice policy, and about developments in the juvenile justice system to prevent and control youth crime. The first half of the handbook focuses on juvenile crime and examines trends and patterns in delinquency and victimization, explores causes of delinquency-at the individual, micro-social, and macro-social levels, and from natural and social science perspectives-and their implications for structuring a youth justice system. The second half of the handbook concentrates on juvenile justice and examines a range of issues-including the historical origins and re-invention of the juvenile court; juvenile offenders' mental health status and considerations of trial competence and culpability; intake, diversion, detention, and juvenile courts; and transfer/waiver strategies-and considers how the juvenile justice system itself influences delinquency. The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice provides a comprehensive overview of juvenile crime and juvenile justice administration by authors who are all leading scholars involved in cutting-edge research, and is an essential resource for scholars, students, and justice officials.