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Reliability for the Social Sciences

Reliability for the Social Sciences Author Ross E. Traub
ISBN-10 0803943253
Release 1994-01-24
Pages 174
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How can social scientists assess the reliability of the measures derived from tests and questionnaires? Through an illustrative review of the principles of classical reliability theory, Ross E Traub explores some general strategies for improving measurement procedures. Beginning with a presentation of random variables and the expected value of a random variable, the book covers such topics as: the definition of reliability as a coefficient and possible uses of a coefficient; the notion of parallel tests so as to make possible the estimation of a reliability coefficient for a set of measurements; what to do when parallel tests are not available; what factors affect the reliability coefficient; and how to estimate the



Measurement Theory and Applications for the Social Sciences

Measurement Theory and Applications for the Social Sciences Author Deborah L. Bandalos
ISBN-10 9781462532131
Release 2018-01-31
Pages 661
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Which types of validity evidence should be considered when determining whether a scale is appropriate for a given measurement situation? What about reliability evidence? Using clear explanations illustrated by examples from across the social and behavioral sciences, this engaging text prepares students to make effective decisions about the selection, administration, scoring, interpretation, and development of measurement instruments. Coverage includes the essential measurement topics of scale development, item writing and analysis, and reliability and validity, as well as more advanced topics such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, diagnostic classification models, test bias and fairness, standard setting, and equating. End-of-chapter exercises (with answers) emphasize both computations and conceptual understanding to encourage readers to think critically about the material.



Scale Development

Scale Development Author Robert F. DeVellis
ISBN-10 0761926054
Release 2003
Pages 171
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'Scale Development' guides the reader toward the identification of the latent variable, the generation of an item pool, the format for measurement & the optimization of the scale length. Using exercises to illustrate the concepts, the text also includes advice about factor analytic strategies.



Measurement in the Social Sciences

Measurement in the Social Sciences Author Hubert M. Blalock
ISBN-10 9781351329064
Release 2017-09-08
Pages 474
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Among the frustrations constantly confronting the social scientist are those associated with the general process of measurement. The importance of good measurement has long been recognized in principle, but it has often been neglected in practice in many of the social sciences. Now that the methodological tools of multivariate analysis, simultaneous-equation estimation, and causal modeling are diffused more widely into the social sciences, and now that the very serious implications of random and non-random measurement errors are being systematically investigated, it is all the more important that social scientists give top priority to the quality of their data and the clarity of their theoretical conceptualizations. The book is organized so that, one proceeds from problems of data collection to those of data analysis. It is not intended to be a complete work covering all types of measurement problems that have arisen in the social sciences. Instead, it represents a series of studies that are deemed to be crucial for the advancement of social science research but which have not received sufficient attention in most of the social sciences. The basic purpose is to stimulate further methodological research on measurement and to study the ways in which knowledge that has been accumulated in some fields may be generalized. Part I is concerned with applying scaling approaches developed in psychometrics to problems that arise in other social sciences. The focus is on finding better ways to ask questions of respondents so as to raise the level of measurement above that of simple ordinal scales. Part II focuses on multiple-indicator theory and strategies as applied to relatively complex models and to change data. In this section the emphasis shifts to how one analyzes fallible data through the construction of explicit measurement-error models. Part III deals with the statistical analysis of ordinal data, including the interpretation and empirical behaviors of various ordinal measures of association.



Introduction to Nonparametric Item Response Theory

Introduction to Nonparametric Item Response Theory Author Klaas Sijtsma
ISBN-10 0761908137
Release 2002-03-12
Pages 168
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Introduction to Nonparametric Item Response Theory addresses an important and complex topic in test development in a manner that is precise and accurate, yet accessible to students and practitioners with a modest background in classical test theory. It also provides an excellent introduction to nonparametric IRT models for the more mathematically sophisticated student or researcher who will welcome the extensive additonal reading lists that are found at the conclusion of each chapter.



Fundamentals of Item Response Theory

Fundamentals of Item Response Theory Author Ronald K. Hambleton
ISBN-10 0803936478
Release 1991
Pages 174
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By using familiar concepts from classical measurement methods and basic statistics, this book introduces the basics of item response theory (IRT) and explains the application of IRT methods to problems in test construction, identification of potentially biased test items, test equating and computerized-adaptive testing. The book also includes a thorough discussion of alternative procedures for estimating IRT parameters and concludes with an exploration of new directions in IRT research and development.



Generalizability Theory

Generalizability Theory Author Richard J. Shavelson
ISBN-10 0803937458
Release 1991-07-23
Pages 137
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In this volume, Shavelson and Webb offer an intuitive development of generalizability theory and cover a wide variety of topics such as generalizability studies with nested facets and with fixed facets, measurement error and generalizability coefficients, and decision studies with same and with different designs. Detailed illustrations, examples and exercises all serve to clearly describe the logic underlying major concepts in generalizability theory and assist readers in applying these methods when investigating the consistency of their own measurements.



Fuzzy Set Theory

Fuzzy Set Theory Author Michael Smithson
ISBN-10 076192986X
Release 2006-02-17
Pages 97
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Fuzzy set theory deals with sets or categories whose boundaries are blurry or, in other words, "fuzzy." This book presents an accessible introduction to fuzzy set theory, focusing on its applicability to the social sciences. Unlike most books on this topic, Fuzzy Set Theory: Applications in the Social Sciences provides a systematic, yet practical guide for researchers wishing to combine fuzzy set theory with standard statistical techniques and model-testing.



Diagnostic Measurement

Diagnostic Measurement Author Andr? A. Rupp
ISBN-10 9781606235287
Release 2010-04-09
Pages 348
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of diagnostic classification models (DCMs), which are useful for statistically driven diagnostic decision making. DCMs can be employed in a wide range of disciplines, including educational assessment and clinical psychology. For the first time in a single volume, the authors present the key conceptual underpinnings and methodological foundations for applying these models in practice. Specifically, they discuss a unified approach to DCMs, the mathematical structure of DCMs and their relationship to other latent variable models, and the implementation and estimation of DCMs using Mplus. The book's highly accessible language, real-world applications, numerous examples, and clearly annotated equations will encourage professionals and students to explore the utility and statistical properties of DCMs in their own projects. This book will appeal to professionals in the testing industry; professors and students in educational, school, clinical, and cognitive psychology. It will also serve as a useful text in doctoral-level courses in diagnostic testing, cognitive diagnostic assessment, test validity, diagnostic assessment, advanced educational measurement, psychometrics, and item response theory



Measurement for the Social Sciences

Measurement for the Social Sciences Author John R. Rossiter
ISBN-10 1441971580
Release 2010-11-25
Pages 169
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This book proposes a revolutionary new theory of construct measurement – called C-OAR-SE – for the social sciences. The acronym is derived from the following key elements: construct definition; object representation; attribute classification; rater entity identification; selection of item type; enumeration and scoring. The new theory is applicable to the design of measures of constructs in: • Management • Marketing • Information Systems • Organizational Behavior • Psychology • Sociology C-OAR-SE is a rationally rather than empirically-based theory and procedure. It can be used for designing measures of the most complex and also the most basic constructs that we use in social science research. C-OAR-SE is a radical alternative to the traditional empirically-based psychometric approach, and a considerable amount of the book’s content is devoted to demonstrating why the psychometric approach does not produce valid measures. The book argues that the psychometric approach has resulted in many misleading findings in the social sciences and has led to erroneous acceptance – or rejection – of many of our main theories and hypotheses, and that the C-OAR-SE approach to measurement would correct this massive problem. The main purpose of this book is to introduce and explain C-OAR-SE construct measurement theory in a way that will be understood by all social science researchers and that can be applied to designing new, more valid measures. Featuring numerous examples, practical applications, end-of-chapter questions, and appendices, the book will serve as an essential resource for students and professional researcher alike.



Reliability and Validity Assessment

Reliability and Validity Assessment Author Edward G. Carmines
ISBN-10 9781452207711
Release 1979-11-01
Pages 72
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This guide explains how social scientists can evaluate the reliability and validity of empirical measurements, discussing the three basic types of validity: criterion related, content, and construct. In addition, the paper shows how reliability is assessed by the retest method, alternative-forms procedure, split-halves approach, and internal consistency method.



Score Reliability

Score Reliability Author Bruce Thompson
ISBN-10 9781452214269
Release 2002-08-12
Pages 296
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"This is a book that should be on the desk of anyone truly concerned with reliability. The whole question of conditional reliabilities is current and important; and, the question of reliability generalization is being opened out and moving away from Cronbach's approach. The topic is an important one." --Richard L. Gorsuch, Director of Research in Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary Should a high school diploma be awarded to students based on their score on a final exit exam? Should businesses deny employment to people based on their score on a personality test? In a world of "high stakes" testing, it has become more important than ever to make certain the scores on which we base our decisions are reliable. Aimed at helping researchers create and evaluate scores better, this reader presents the basic concepts of classical (or "true score") and modern ("generalizability") test theory. Beginning with a review of reliability and validity issues in measurement, the book covers score reliability, reliability induction, and reliability generalization. Exercises with sample data are included at the end of each section so readers can demonstrate knowledge of the principles.



Ordinal Item Response Theory

Ordinal Item Response Theory Author Wijbrandt H. van Schuur
ISBN-10 9781452237909
Release 2011-05-04
Pages 128
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Measurement in the social sciences often refers to standardized answers to close-ended questions, in which answers are analyzed as if they were measurements on an interval scale. This volume presents a measurement model that maintains the ordinal aspects of the data in order to establish how well the model fits and how it measures subjects and items. It relaxes the most stringent assumptions from parametric item response theory, while maintaining its advantages over classical measurement methods, such as reliability and factor analysis. This volume is less technical than other books on the topic and is ideal for introductory courses in social science measurement.



The Theory and Practice of Item Response Theory

The Theory and Practice of Item Response Theory Author R. J. de Ayala
ISBN-10 9781462514694
Release 2013-10-15
Pages 448
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Item response theory (IRT) is a latent variable modeling approach used to minimize bias and optimize the measurement power of educational and psychological tests and other psychometric applications. Designed for researchers, psychometric professionals, and advanced students, this book clearly presents both the "how-to" and the "why" of IRT. It describes simple and more complex IRT models and shows how they are applied with the help of widely available software packages. Chapters follow a consistent format and build sequentially, taking the reader from model development through the fit analysis and interpretation phases that one would perform in practice. The use of common empirical data sets across the chapters facilitates understanding of the various models and how they relate to one another.



Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences

Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences Author L. Douglas Kiel
ISBN-10 0472084720
Release 1997
Pages 349
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Applications of chaos theory in political science, economics, and sociology



Psychometric Methods

Psychometric Methods Author Larry R. Price
ISBN-10 9781462524778
Release 2016-12-12
Pages 552
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Grounded in current knowledge and professional practice, this book provides up-to-date coverage of psychometric theory, methods, and interpretation of results. Essential topics include measurement and statistical concepts, scaling models, test design and development, reliability, validity, factor analysis, item response theory, and generalizability theory. Also addressed are norming and test equating, topics not typically covered in traditional psychometrics texts. Examples drawn from a dataset on intelligence testing are used throughout the book, elucidating the assumptions underlying particular methods and providing SPSS (or alternative) syntax for conducting analyses. The companion website presents datasets for all examples as well as PowerPoint slides of figures and key concepts. Pedagogical features include equation boxes with explanations of statistical notation, and end-of-chapter glossaries. The Appendix offers extensions of the topical chapters with example source code from SAS, SPSS, IRTPRO, BILOG-MG, PARSCALE, TESTFACT, and DIMTEST.



Generalizability Theory

Generalizability Theory Author Robert L. Brennan
ISBN-10 9781475734560
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 538
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Generalizability theory offers an extensive conceptual framework and a powerful set of statistical procedures for characterizing and quantifying the fallibility of measurements. Robert Brennan, the author, has written the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of generalizability theory. The book provides a synthesis of those parts of the statistical literature that are directly applicable to generalizability theory. The principal intended audience is measurement practitioners and graduate students in the behavioral and social sciences, although a few examples and references are provided from other fields. Readers will benefit from some familiarity with classical test theory and analysis of variance, but the treatment of most topics does not presume specific background.