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Root Physiology from Gene to Function

Root Physiology  from Gene to Function Author Hans Lambers
ISBN-10 9781402040993
Release 2006-02-03
Pages 270
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In the last decade, enormous progress has been made on the physiology of plant roots, including on a wide range of molecular aspects. Much of that progress has been captured in the chapters of this book. Breakthroughs have been made possible through integration of molecular and whole-plant aspects. The classical boundaries between physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology have vanished. There has been a strong focus on a limited number of model species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. That focus has allowed greater insight into the significance of specific genes for plant development and functioning. However, many species are very different from A. thaliana, in that they are mycorrhizal, develop a symbiosis with N2-fixing microsymbionts, or have other specialised root structures. Also, some have a much greater capacity to resist extreme environments, such as soil acidity, salinity, flooding or heavy-metal toxicities, due to specific adaptations. Research on species other than A. thaliana is therefore pivotal, to develop new knowledge in plant sciences in a comprehensive manner. This fundamental new knowledge can be the basis for important applications in, e.g., agriculture and plant conservation. Although significant progress has been made, much remains to be learnt. It is envisaged that discoveries made in the recent past will likely lead to major breakthroughs in the next decade.



Plant Roots

Plant Roots Author Amram Eshel
ISBN-10 9781439846490
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 848
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The decade since the publication of the third edition of this volume has been an era of great progress in biology in general and the plant sciences in particular. This is especially true with the advancements brought on by the sequencing of whole genomes of model organisms and the development of "omics" techniques. This fourth edition of Plant Roots: The Hidden Half reflects these developments that have transformed not only the field of biology, but also the many facets of root science. Highlights of this new edition include: The basics of root research and their evolution and role in the global context of soil development and atmosphere composition New understandings about roots gained in the post-genomic era, for example, how the development of roots became possible, and the genetic basis required for this to occur The mechanisms that determine root structure, with chapters on cellular patterning, lateral root and vascular development, the molecular basis of adventitious roots, and other topics Plant hormone action and signaling pathways that control root development, including new chapters on strigolactones and brassinosteroids Soil resource acquisition from agricultural and ecological perspectives Root response to stress, with chapters that address the impact of the genomic revolution on this topic Root-rhizosphere interactions, from beneficial microorganisms to detrimental nematodes Modern research techniques for the field and the lab Each chapter not only presents a clear summation of the topic under discussion, but also includes a vision of what is to be expected in the years to come. The wide coverage of themes in this volume continues the tradition that makes this work recognized as a fundamental source of information for root scientists at all levels.



Molecular Physiology and Ecophysiology of Sulfur

Molecular Physiology and Ecophysiology of Sulfur Author Luit J. De Kok
ISBN-10 9783319201375
Release 2015-10-20
Pages 265
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This proceedings volume contains a selection of invited and contributed papers of the 9th International Workshop on Sulfur Metabolism in Plants, which was hosted by Heinz Rennenberg, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg and was held at Schloss Reinach, Freiburg-Munzigen, Germany from April 14-17, 2014. The focus of this workshop was on molecular physiology and ecophysiology of sulfur in plants and the content of this volume presents an overview on the current research developments in this field.



Ecophysiology of root systems environment interaction

Ecophysiology of root systems environment interaction Author Boris Rewald
ISBN-10 9782889192854
Release 2014-09-03
Pages
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There is a scarcity of detailed information regarding the ecophysiology of root systems and the way root system functioning is affected by both internal and external factors. Furthermore, global climate change is expected to increase the intensity of climate extremes, such as severe drought, heat waves and periods of heavy rainfall; in addition other stresses such as salinization of soils are increasing world-wide. Recently an increasing awareness has developed that understanding plant traits will play a major role in breeding of future crop plants. For example, there is increasing evidence that the traits of root systems are defined by the properties of individual roots. However, further knowledge on the functional importance of root segments and the molecular/physiological mechanisms underlying root system functioning and persistence is needed, and would specifically allow modifying (crop) root system functionality and efficiency in the future. Another major gap in knowledge is localized at the root-soil interface and in regard to the potential adaptive plasticity of root-rhizosphere interactions under abiotic stress and/or competition. It is currently unknown whether adaptations in microbe communities occur, for example due to modified exudation rates, and what are the subsequent influences on nutrient mobilization and uptake. Furthermore, uncovering the mechanisms by which roots perceive neighboring roots may not only contribute to our understanding of plant developmental strategies, but also has important implications on the study of competitive interactions in natural communities, and in optimizing plant performance and resource use in agricultural and silvicultural systems. In this Research Topic, we aimed to provide an on-line, open-access snapshot of the current state of the art of the field of root ecology and physiology, with special focus on the translation of root structure to function, and how root systems are influenced by interplay with internal and external factors such as abiotic stress, microbes and plant-plant interaction. We welcomed original research papers, but reviews of specific topics, articles formulating opinions or describing cutting-edge methods were also gladly accepted.



Crop Physiology

Crop Physiology Author Victor O. Sadras
ISBN-10 9780124169791
Release 2014-09-17
Pages 564
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From climate change to farming systems to genetic modification of organisms, Crop Physiology, Second Edition provides a practical tool for understanding the relationships and challenges of successful cropping. With a focus on genetic improvement and agronomy, this book addresses the challenges of environmentally sound production of bulk and quality food, fodder, fiber, and energy which are of ongoing international concern. The second edition of Crop Physiology continues to provide a unique analysis of these topics while reflecting important changes and advances in the relevant science and implementation systems. Contemporary agriculture confronts the challenge of increasing demand in terms of quantitative and qualitative production targets. These targets have to be achieved against the background of soil and water scarcity, worldwide and regional shifts in the patterns of land use driven by both climate change and the need to develop crop-based sources of energy, and the environmental and social aspects of agricultural sustainability. Provides a view of crop physiology as an active source of methods, theories, ideas, and tools for application in genetic improvement and agronomy Written by leading scientists from around the world Combines environment-specific cropping systems and general principles of crop science to appeal to advanced students, and scientists in agriculture-related disciplines, from molecular sciences to natural resources management



Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress

Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress Author Parvaiz Ahmad
ISBN-10 9781461447474
Release 2012-11-09
Pages 512
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This book will shed light on the effect of salt stress on plants development, proteomics, genomics, genetic engineering, and plant adaptations, among other topics. Understanding the molecular basis will be helpful in developing selection strategies for improving salinity tolerance. The book will cover around 25 chapters with contributors from all over the world.



Mycorrhiza

Mycorrhiza Author Ajit Varma
ISBN-10 9783540788263
Release 2008-09-09
Pages 797
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This book is perfectly timed for the worldwide explosion of interest in mycorrhizal research. With a strong emphasis on the latest findings in genetics and molecular biology, it contains all current information and speculation on the structure, function and biotechnological applications of mycorrhizas.



Nutrient Use Efficiency in Plants

Nutrient Use Efficiency in Plants Author Malcolm J. Hawkesford
ISBN-10 9783319106359
Release 2014-11-14
Pages 279
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Nutrient Use Efficiency in Plants: Concepts and Approaches is the ninth volume in the Plant Ecophysiology series. It presents a broad overview of topics related to improvement of nutrient use efficiency of crops. Nutrient use efficiency (NUE) is a measure of how well plants use the available mineral nutrients. It can be defined as yield (biomass) per unit input (fertilizer, nutrient content). NUE is a complex trait: it depends on the ability to take up the nutrients from the soil, but also on transport, storage, mobilization, usage within the plant, and even on the environment. NUE is of particular interest as a major target for crop improvement. Improvement of NUE is an essential pre-requisite for expansion of crop production into marginal lands with low nutrient availability but also a way to reduce use of inorganic fertilizer.



Forage Plant Ecophysiology

Forage Plant Ecophysiology Author Cory Matthew
ISBN-10 9783038424888
Release 2018-03-16
Pages 220
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Forage Plant Ecophysiology" that was published in Agriculture



Nitrogen Acquisition and Assimilation in Higher Plants

Nitrogen Acquisition and Assimilation in Higher Plants Author Sara Amancio
ISBN-10 9781402027284
Release 2007-09-29
Pages 300
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Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth. During the green revolution nitrogenfertilisation was responsible for spectacular yield increases. At present yield is balanced with commitments towards the environment and sustainable agriculture. For agro-biotechnology comprehensive knowledge of plant functioning is needed. Yield improvement and accumulation of essential nitrogen compounds is relying on selection and gene technologies. Research on the uptake, acquisition and assimilation of nitrogen, as well as the synthesis and storage of reserve and defence N-compounds, therefore, is essential. The third volume in the Plant Ecophysiology series integrates functional and molecular physiology with ecophysiological and sustainable agricultural approaches to get a better understanding of the regulation and the impact of environmental and stress signals on nitrogen acquisition and assimilation. The book is of interest for advanced students and junior researchers and supplies comprehensive information for scientists working in the field of nitrogen metabolism and readers interested in sustainable development.



Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests

Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests Author William K. Smith
ISBN-10 9780080925936
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 338
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Conifers--pine, fir, and spruce trees--are dominant species in forests around the world. This book focuses on the physiology of conifers and how these physiological systems operate. Special consideration is devoted to the means by which ecophysiological processes influence organismal function and distribution. Chapters focus on the genetics of conifers, their geographic distribution and the factors that influence this distribution, the impact of insect herbivory on ecophysiological parameters, the effects of air pollution, and the potential impact that global climatic changes will have upon conifers. Because of the growing realization that forests have a crucial role to play in global environmental health, this book will appeal to a developing union of ecologists, physiologists and more theoretically minded foresters.



Plant Stems

Plant Stems Author
ISBN-10 0080539084
Release 1995-07-19
Pages 440
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Stems, of various sizes and shapes, are involved in most of the organic processes and interactions of plants, ranging from support, transport, and storage to development and protection. The stem itself is a crucially important intermediary: it links above- and below ground organs-connecting roots to leaves. An international team of leading researchers vividly illustrate that stems are more than pipes, more than simple connecting and supporting structures; rather stems are critical, anatomically distinct structures of enormous variability. It is, to an unappreciated extent, this variability that underpins both the diversity and the success of plants in myriad ecosystems. Plant Stems will be a valuable resource on form/function relationships for researchers and graduate-level students in ecology, evolutionary biology, physiology, development, genetics, agricultural sciences, and horticulture as they unravel the mechanisms and processes that allow organisms and ecosystems to function. Syntheses of structural, physiological, and ecological functions of stems Multiple viewpoints on how stem structure relates to performance Highlights of major areas of plant biology long neglected



Plant Physiological Ecology

Plant Physiological Ecology Author Hans Lambers
ISBN-10 9781475728552
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 540
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This textbook is remarkable for emphasising that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. The authors begin with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes.



Physiology of the Plant Root System

Physiology of the Plant Root System Author J. Kolek
ISBN-10 9780792312055
Release 1992-05-31
Pages 362
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Until recently the interest of plant physiologists in the structure and function of the root, as compared with the above-ground organs, was rather limited. In contrast to the data obtained from agricultural research, where the root is understood as an organ of water and nutrient uptake, recent studies on root systems have evolved as a consequence of an increase in our general knowledge of the transport of substances across biological cell membranes. This has led to increased interest in studies of ion uptake and transport from a novel viewpoint. Parallel to this, the complexity of the histological structure of the root has necessitated a study of this structure in relation to processes which take place in the root. The evaluation of such complex relationships is, in this book, concentrated on recent findings concerning the anatomical structure of the root in relation to its functional manifestations. Based on the principles of structure and function, the metabolic processes in the root, as well as the uptake and transport of water and ions are dealt with. The emphasis throughout is on the structural features. Finally, a short chapter has been included about the root under conditions of environmental stress.



Ecophysiology in Short Rotation Forestry

Ecophysiology in Short Rotation Forestry Author
ISBN-10 MINN:31951D00511075E
Release 1990
Pages 87
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Ecophysiology in Short Rotation Forestry has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Ecophysiology in Short Rotation Forestry also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Ecophysiology in Short Rotation Forestry book for free.



Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology

Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology Author David Gibson
ISBN-10 9780191651236
Release 2014-10-16
Pages 320
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The field of plant population ecology has advanced considerably in the last decade since the first edition was published. In particular there have been substantial and ongoing advances in statistics and modelling applications in population ecology, as well as an explosion of new techniques reflecting the availability of new technologies (e.g. affordable and accurate Global Positioning Systems) and advances in molecular biology. This new edition has been updated and revised with more recent examples replacing older ones where appropriate. The book's trademark question-driven approach has been maintained and some important topics such as the metapopulation concept which are missing entirely from the current edition are now included throughout the text.



Mycorrhiza Eco Physiology Secondary Metabolites Nanomaterials

Mycorrhiza   Eco Physiology  Secondary Metabolites  Nanomaterials Author Ajit Varma
ISBN-10 9783319578491
Release 2017-09-12
Pages 334
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This is the fourth updated and revised edition of a well-received book that emphasises on fungal diversity, plant productivity and sustainability. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field. This book is an up-to-date overview of current progress in mycorrhiza and association with plant productivity and environmental sustainability. The result is a must hands-on guide, ideally suited for agri-biotechnology, soil biology, fungal biology including mycorrhiza and stress management, academia and researchers. The topic of this book is particularly relevant to researchers involved in mycorrhiza, especially to food security and environmental protection. Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.