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Rudiments of Calculus

Rudiments of Calculus Author A. Arnold
ISBN-10 0080516459
Release 2001-02-07
Pages 298
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This book presents what in our opinion constitutes the basis of the theory of the mu-calculus, considered as an algebraic system rather than a logic. We have wished to present the subject in a unified way, and in a form as general as possible. Therefore, our emphasis is on the generality of the fixed-point notation, and on the connections between mu-calculus, games, and automata, which we also explain in an algebraic way. This book should be accessible for graduate or advanced undergraduate students both in mathematics and computer science. We have designed this book especially for researchers and students interested in logic in computer science, comuter aided verification, and general aspects of automata theory. We have aimed at gathering in a single place the fundamental results of the theory, that are currently very scattered in the literature, and often hardly accessible for interested readers. The presentation is self-contained, except for the proof of the Mc-Naughton's Determinization Theorem (see, e.g., [97]. However, we suppose that the reader is already familiar with some basic automata theory and universal algebra. The references, credits, and suggestions for further reading are given at the end of each chapter.



Handbook of Mathematical Logic

Handbook of Mathematical Logic Author J. Barwise
ISBN-10 0080933645
Release 1982-03-01
Pages 1164
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The handbook is divided into four parts: model theory, set theory, recursion theory and proof theory. Each of the four parts begins with a short guide to the chapters that follow. Each chapter is written for non-specialists in the field in question. Mathematicians will find that this book provides them with a unique opportunity to apprise themselves of developments in areas other than their own.



A Friendly Introduction to Mathematical Logic

A Friendly Introduction to Mathematical Logic Author Christopher C. Leary
ISBN-10 9781942341079
Release 2015-07-27
Pages 380
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At the intersection of mathematics, computer science, and philosophy, mathematical logic examines the power and limitations of formal mathematical thinking. In this expansion of Leary's user-friendly 1st edition, readers with no previous study in the field are introduced to the basics of model theory, proof theory, and computability theory. The text is designed to be used either in an upper division undergraduate classroom, or for self study. Updating the 1st Edition's treatment of languages, structures, and deductions, leading to rigorous proofs of Godel's First and Second Incompleteness Theorems, the expanded 2nd Edition includes a new introduction to incompleteness through computability as well as solutions to selected exercises."



Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics The Axiomatic Method with Special Reference to Geometry and Physics

Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics   The Axiomatic Method with Special Reference to Geometry and Physics Author L. Brouwer
ISBN-10 9781443728126
Release 2008-11
Pages 504
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Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.



The Foundations of Mathematics

The Foundations of Mathematics Author Kenneth Kunen
ISBN-10 1904987141
Release 2009
Pages 251
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Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth.



Practical Foundations of Mathematics

Practical Foundations of Mathematics Author Paul Taylor
ISBN-10 0521631076
Release 1999-05-13
Pages 572
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Practical Foundations collects the methods of construction of the objects of twentieth-century mathematics. Although it is mainly concerned with a framework essentially equivalent to intuitionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel logic, the book looks forward to more subtle bases in categorical type theory and the machine representation of mathematics. Each idea is illustrated by wide-ranging examples, and followed critically along its natural path, transcending disciplinary boundaries between universal algebra, type theory, category theory, set theory, sheaf theory, topology and programming. Students and teachers of computing, mathematics and philosophy will find this book both readable and of lasting value as a reference work.



The Mathematical Analysis of Logic

The Mathematical Analysis of Logic Author George Boole
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105002021553
Release 1847
Pages 82
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The Mathematical Analysis of Logic has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The Mathematical Analysis of Logic also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The Mathematical Analysis of Logic book for free.



Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity

Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity Author Pavel Pudlák
ISBN-10 9783319001197
Release 2013-04-22
Pages 695
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The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory.



Basic Simple Type Theory

Basic Simple Type Theory Author J. Roger Hindley
ISBN-10 0521465184
Release 1997-07-31
Pages 186
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Type theory is one of the most important tools in the design of higher-level programming languages, such as ML. This book introduces and teaches its techniques by focusing on one particularly neat system and studying it in detail. By concentrating on the principles that make the theory work in practice, the author covers all the key ideas without getting involved in the complications of more advanced systems. This book takes a type-assignment approach to type theory, and the system considered is the simplest polymorphic one. The author covers all the basic ideas, including the system's relation to propositional logic, and gives a careful treatment of the type-checking algorithm that lies at the heart of every such system. Also featured are two other interesting algorithms that until now have been buried in inaccessible technical literature. The mathematical presentation is rigorous but clear, making it the first book at this level that can be used as an introduction to type theory for computer scientists.



Foundations of Constructive Analysis

Foundations of Constructive Analysis Author Errett Bishop
ISBN-10 4871877140
Release 2012-07
Pages 404
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This book, Foundations of Constructive Analysis, founded the field of constructive analysis because it proved most of the important theorems in real analysis by constructive methods. The author, Errett Albert Bishop, born July 10, 1928, was an American mathematician known for his work on analysis. In the later part of his life Bishop was seen as the leading mathematician in the area of Constructive mathematics. From 1965 until his death, he was professor at the University of California at San Diego.



Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs

Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs Author Larry J. Gerstein
ISBN-10 9781461442653
Release 2012-06-05
Pages 401
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As a student moves from basic calculus courses into upper-division courses in linear and abstract algebra, real and complex analysis, number theory, topology, and so on, a "bridge" course can help ensure a smooth transition. Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs is a textbook intended for such a course, or for self-study. This book introduces an array of fundamental mathematical structures. It also explores the delicate balance of intuition and rigor—and the flexible thinking—required to prove a nontrivial result. In short, this book seeks to enhance the mathematical maturity of the reader. The new material in this second edition includes a section on graph theory, several new sections on number theory (including primitive roots, with an application to card-shuffling), and a brief introduction to the complex numbers (including a section on the arithmetic of the Gaussian integers). Solutions for even numbered exercises are available on springer.com for instructors adopting the text for a course.



Categorical Logic and Type Theory

Categorical Logic and Type Theory Author Bart Jacobs
ISBN-10 0444508538
Release 2001
Pages 760
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This book is an attempt to give a systematic presentation of both logic and type theory from a categorical perspective, using the unifying concept of fibred category. Its intended audience consists of logicians, type theorists, category theorists and (theoretical) computer scientists.



Discovering Modern Set Theory The basics

Discovering Modern Set Theory  The basics Author Winfried Just
ISBN-10 9780821802663
Release 1996
Pages 210
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This book is an introduction to set theory for beginning graduate students who want to get a sound grounding in those aspects of set theory used extensively throughout other areas of mathematics. Topics covered include formal languages and models, the power and limitation of the Axiomatic Method, the Axiom of Choice, including the fascinating Banach-Tarski Paradox, applications of Zorn's Lemma, ordinal arithmetic, including transfinite induction, and cardinal arithmetic. The style of writing, more a dialogue with the reader than that of the Master indoctrinating the pupil, makes this also very suitable for self-study.



Models and Ultraproducts

Models and Ultraproducts Author John Lane Bell
ISBN-10 9780486449791
Release 2006
Pages 322
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In this text for first-year graduate students, the authors provide an elementary exposition of some of the basic concepts of model theory--focusing particularly on the ultraproduct construction and the areas in which it is most useful. The book, which assumes only that its readers are acquainted with the rudiments of set theory, starts by developing the notions of Boolean algebra, propositional calculus, and predicate calculus. Model theory proper begins in the fourth chapter, followed by an introduction to ultraproduct construction, which includes a detailed look at its theoretic properties. An overview of elementary equivalence provides algebraic descriptions of the elementary classes. Discussions of completeness follow, along with surveys of the work of Jónsson and of Morley and Vaught on homogeneous universal models, and the results of Keisler in connection with the notion of a saturated structure. Additional topics include classical results of Gödel and Skolem, and extensions of classical first-order logic in terms of generalized quantifiers and infinitary languages. Numerous exercises appear throughout the text.



Introduction to Logic

Introduction to Logic Author Alfred Tarski
ISBN-10 9780486318899
Release 2013-07-04
Pages 272
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This classic undergraduate treatment examines the deductive method in its first part and explores applications of logic and methodology in constructing mathematical theories in its second part. Exercises appear throughout.



Lectures on the Curry Howard Isomorphism

Lectures on the Curry Howard Isomorphism Author Morten Heine Sørensen
ISBN-10 0080478921
Release 2006-07-04
Pages 456
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The Curry-Howard isomorphism states an amazing correspondence between systems of formal logic as encountered in proof theory and computational calculi as found in type theory. For instance, minimal propositional logic corresponds to simply typed lambda-calculus, first-order logic corresponds to dependent types, second-order logic corresponds to polymorphic types, sequent calculus is related to explicit substitution, etc. The isomorphism has many aspects, even at the syntactic level: formulas correspond to types, proofs correspond to terms, provability corresponds to inhabitation, proof normalization corresponds to term reduction, etc. But there is more to the isomorphism than this. For instance, it is an old idea---due to Brouwer, Kolmogorov, and Heyting---that a constructive proof of an implication is a procedure that transforms proofs of the antecedent into proofs of the succedent; the Curry-Howard isomorphism gives syntactic representations of such procedures. The Curry-Howard isomorphism also provides theoretical foundations for many modern proof-assistant systems (e.g. Coq). This book give an introduction to parts of proof theory and related aspects of type theory relevant for the Curry-Howard isomorphism. It can serve as an introduction to any or both of typed lambda-calculus and intuitionistic logic. Key features - The Curry-Howard Isomorphism treated as common theme - Reader-friendly introduction to two complementary subjects: Lambda-calculus and constructive logics - Thorough study of the connection between calculi and logics - Elaborate study of classical logics and control operators - Account of dialogue games for classical and intuitionistic logic - Theoretical foundations of computer-assisted reasoning · The Curry-Howard Isomorphism treated as the common theme. · Reader-friendly introduction to two complementary subjects: lambda-calculus and constructive logics · Thorough study of the connection between calculi and logics. · Elaborate study of classical logics and control operators. · Account of dialogue games for classical and intuitionistic logic. · Theoretical foundations of computer-assisted reasoning



Reverse Mathematics

Reverse Mathematics Author John Stillwell
ISBN-10 9781400889037
Release 2018-01-02
Pages 200
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This book presents reverse mathematics to a general mathematical audience for the first time. Reverse mathematics is a new field that answers some old questions. In the two thousand years that mathematicians have been deriving theorems from axioms, it has often been asked: which axioms are needed to prove a given theorem? Only in the last two hundred years have some of these questions been answered, and only in the last forty years has a systematic approach been developed. In Reverse Mathematics, John Stillwell gives a representative view of this field, emphasizing basic analysis—finding the “right axioms” to prove fundamental theorems—and giving a novel approach to logic. Stillwell introduces reverse mathematics historically, describing the two developments that made reverse mathematics possible, both involving the idea of arithmetization. The first was the nineteenth-century project of arithmetizing analysis, which aimed to define all concepts of analysis in terms of natural numbers and sets of natural numbers. The second was the twentieth-century arithmetization of logic and computation. Thus arithmetic in some sense underlies analysis, logic, and computation. Reverse mathematics exploits this insight by viewing analysis as arithmetic extended by axioms about the existence of infinite sets. Remarkably, only a small number of axioms are needed for reverse mathematics, and, for each basic theorem of analysis, Stillwell finds the “right axiom” to prove it. By using a minimum of mathematical logic in a well-motivated way, Reverse Mathematics will engage advanced undergraduates and all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics.