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Salinity and Tides in Alluvial Estuaries

Salinity and Tides in Alluvial Estuaries Author H.H.G. Savenije
ISBN-10 0080461611
Release 2006-01-26
Pages 208
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The book describes an integrated theory that links estuary shape to tidal hydraulics, tidal mixing and salt intrusion. The shape of an alluvial estuary is characterised by exponentially varying width and the absence of bottom slope. This topography is closely related to tidal parameters, hydraulic parameters and parameters that describe 1-dimensional mixing and salt intrusion. Starting from the fundamental equations for conservation of mass and momentum, analytical equations are derived that relate the topography to tidal parameters (tidal excursion, phase lag, tidal damping, tidal amplification), wave celerity, lateral and vertical mixing and salt intrusion. The book presents a review of the state of the art, a comprehensive theoretical background and ample case illustrations from all over the world. It provides tools with which human interference in estuary dynamics can be described and predicted, resulting from, for instance: upstream fresh water abstraction, dredging, climate change or sea-level rise. In describing the interactions between tide, topography, water quality and river discharge, it provides useful information for hydraulic engineers, morphologists, ecologists and people concerned with water quality in alluvial estuaries. Although the book can be used as a text book, it is mainly a monograph aimed at graduate students and researchers. * Provides new integrated theory for tidal hydraulics, tidal mixing and salt intrusion in alluvial estuaries * Presents a consistent set of analytical equations to compute tidal movement, tidal mixing and salt intrusion, derived from the fundamental laws of conservation of mass and momentum * Serves as a practical guide with many illustrations of applications in real estuaries



Estuarine Processes

Estuarine Processes Author Martin Wiley
ISBN-10 9781483265421
Release 2014-05-10
Pages 446
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Estuarine Processes, Volume II: Circulation, Sediments, and Transfer of Material in the Estuary provides information pertinent to estuarine processes and focuses on dynamic interactions at several levels of organization. This book describes the effects of physical alterations on estuarial hydraulics, dissolved and particulate material support, and on aquatic biota. Organized into six parts encompassing 27 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the historic changes in salinity balance in the estuarial zone of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. This text then reviews the effect of enlargement of artificial waterway of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which has resulted in substantial alterations of the physical hydrography, biotic populations and chemical environment of the canal and its approaches. Other chapters consider the elements in a mathematical model for estuarial sediment transport. This book discusses as well sediment transport rates in coastal waters. The final chapter deals with accurate estimates of fish abundance for models of many estuarine processes. This book is a valuable resource for ecologists, environmentalists, and scientists.



Contributions to Modern and Ancient Tidal Sedimentology

Contributions to Modern and Ancient Tidal Sedimentology Author Bernadette Tessier
ISBN-10 9781119218388
Release 2016-03-03
Pages 360
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Tidal deposits have been a specific research topic for about 40 years, and whilst this has resulted in a proliferation of papers in scientific journals, there have only been a few book-length syntheses. Over the years, tidal sedimentology has been reinforced by fluid mechanics and numerical modelling but has remained rooted in facies and stratigraphic studies. Recent developments in tidal sedimentology lean toward a more quantitative assessment of the imprint of tides in the facies record of intertidal and shallow subtidal areas. They highlight the increasing relevance of tidal deposits studies, from high resolution subsurface reservoir geology to climate change and sea-level rise. This volume gathers 17 contributions to the Tidalites 2012 congress held in Caen, France. It reflects current advances in the sedimentology and stratigraphy of tidal deposits, in both ancient and modern environments. It shows the current diversity of this field of research, through a wide spectrum of methods including remote sensing, in-situ hydrodynamical measurements, and ichnology, in addition to classic field studies and petrography.



Modeling morphodynamic evolution in alluvial estuaries

Modeling morphodynamic evolution in alluvial estuaries Author Mick van der Wegen
ISBN-10 9780203093344
Release 2010-12-30
Pages 188
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The main objective of this research is to investigate the governing processes and characteristics that drive morphodynamic evolution in alluvial estuaries by application of a process-based numerical model (Delft3D). It is of utmost importance to understand estuarine processes so that impact of human interference (like dredging and land reclamation) and long-term changes (like sea level rise) can be evaluated. The research addresses a number of cases ranging from an rectangular basins to real estuaries like the Western Scheldt in the Netherlands or San Pablo Bay in California. The more schematized approach allow to study morphodynamic evolution over several millennia under constant forcing and answers more fundamental questions related to conditions of equilibrium and related time scales. The more realistic cases give insight into the skill of the approach in predicting decadal morphodynamic developments. More processes are included to mimic realistic conditions and model results are compared to bathymetric measurements over the last century. The research shows that the modeling approach is good capable of describing stable morphodynamic calculations over a timescale of millennia with patterns similar to patterns observed in reality. Additionally, the approach shows that it is possible to predict decadal morphodynamic developments in real estuaries with significant skill.



Estuaries

Estuaries Author David Prandle
ISBN-10 9780521888868
Release 2009-01-22
Pages 236
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This volume provides researchers, students, practising engineers and managers access to knowledge, practical formulae and new hypotheses for the dynamics, mixing, sediment regimes and morphological evolution in estuaries. The objectives are to explain the underlying governing processes and synthesise these into descriptive formulae which can be used to guide the future development of any estuary. Each chapter focuses on different physical aspects of the estuarine system - identifying key research questions, outlining theoretical, modeling and observational approaches, and highlighting the essential quantitative results. This allows readers to compare and interpret different estuaries around the world, and develop monitoring and modeling strategies for short-term management issues and for longer-term problems, such as global climate change. The book is written for researchers and students in physical oceanography and estuarine engineering, and serves as a valuable reference and source of ideas for professional research, engineering and management communities concerned with estuaries.



Lagoons of Sri Lanka

Lagoons of Sri Lanka Author Silva, E. I. L.
ISBN-10 9789290907787
Release 2013-03-01
Pages 122
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Sri Lanka, an island in the Indian Ocean, has lagoons along 1,338 km of its coastline. They experience low-energy oceanic waves and semidiurnal microtidal currents. The Sri Lankan coastal lagoons are not numerous but they are diverse in size, shape, configuration, ecohydrology, and ecosystem values and services. The heterogeneous nature, in general, and specific complexities, to a certain extent, exhibited by coastal lagoons in Sri Lanka are fundamentally determined by coastal and adjoining hinterland geomorphology, tidal fluxes and fluvial inputs, monsoonal-driven climate and weather, morphoedaphic attributes, and cohesive interactions with human interventions.Most coastal lagoons in Sri Lanka are an outcome of mid-Holocene marine transgression and subsequent barrier formation and spit development enclosing the water body between the land and the sea. This process has varied from one coastal stretch to another due to wave-derived littoral drift, sediment transport by tidal fluxes, fluvial inputs and wave action or, in other words, sea-level history, shore-face dynamics and tidal range as the three major factors that control the origin and maintenance of the sandy barrier, the most important features for the formation and evolution of coastal lagoons with their landward water mass. In certain stretches of Sri Lanka’s coastline, formation of the barrier spit was very active due to shore-face dynamics that resulted in chains of shore parallel, elongated lagoons. They are among the most productive in terms of ecosystem yield and show some similarities to large tropical lagoons with respect to sea entrance, zonation, biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, some of them become seasonally hypersaline due to lack of freshwater input and high evaporation. Functions and processes of some of these water bodies are fairly known. There are a fair number of small back-barrier lagoons of different shapes and sizes whose origin goes back to sea-level history. They are located on low-energy coasts with prominent beach ridges and restricted hinterland geomorphology. Mixing processes of these landward indentations are hindered by elevated sand dunes, and their salinity increases due to poor freshwater input and high evaporation leading to seasonally hypersaline conditions. These sedimented lagoons, primarily confined to the southeastern coast of the island, are biologically the least productive, with limited ecosystem values and services. Another group of moderately elongated semicircular, slightly large lagoons in the same coast, formed exclusively by submergence due to mid-Holocene sea-level rises, do not receive sufficient freshwater input leading to seasonally hypersaline conditions. They are also biologically unproductive but some are ecologically important since they provide habitats conducive to migratory birds. In contrast, some lagoons on the southern coast receive sufficient freshwater via streams draining the wet zone, maintain more estuarine salinities, exhibit rich biodiversity and serve as functional resource units. Lagoons formed by mid-Holocene submergence and recession of water level with simultaneous chain barrier formation on the high energy southwest coast, which includes cliffs, small bays and headlands, show peculiar configurations and link channel characteristics. Some of these irregular water bodies have clusters of small isles and luxuriant mangrove swamps with high biodiversity but not very rich in catadromous finfish and shellfish species due to the restricted nature of the entrance channel and nondistinct salinity gradients. The barrier-built, seasonally hypersaline lagoon complex in the Jaffna Peninsula, the largest lagoon system in the country with multiple perennial entrances show extremely narrow salinity ranges towards the upper limit of salinity. The main lagoon is elongated and the shore parallel to eastward and southward extensions is connected by narrow channels. The other lagoon in the Jaffna Peninsula is elongated, shore parallel and ribbon-shaped and receives tidal water throughout the year but freshwater is received only from precipitation and surface runoff. Even though the lagoons in the peninsula are extremely rich in ecosystem heterogeneity their hydrology and hydrodynamics have been severely disturbed by infrastructural development for transportation and by attempts to create a freshwater river for Jaffna. There are a few virgin lagoons of moderate size also on the northern coast, south of the Jaffna Peninsula on both the east and west sides. They look very typical tropical lagoons rich in biodiversity and biological production but their structure, functions and values are virtually unknown in scientific or socioeconomic terms. The lagoons located on the east coast are not numerous but relatively large in extent. They are also an outcome not only of mid-Holocene sea-level rises but of submerged multi-delta valleys or abandoned paleo estuaries. When inundated, the multi-delta valley configuration became elongated and is shore parallel with a smooth seaward shoreline; both shorelines become irregular when coastal waves are weak, and internal waves are created by the action of local winds. Configuration of a lagoon formed by inundation of an abandoned river valley is irregular with a long entrance channel extended landward. These lagoons are highly productive with a variety of associated ecosystems, large open water areas and wide perennial sea entrances. When the lagoon is too much elongated, zonation is prominent due to fewer entrance effects. Lagoons form a particular type of natural capital which generates use values (fish, shrimp, fuelwood, salt, fodder, ecotourism, anchorage, recreation, etc.) and nonuse values (habitat preservation, biodiversity, ecosystem linkages, etc.) contributing positively towards improving the human well-being. Of many values of lagoons in Sri Lanka, only the extractive values are generally utilized at present, by way of fish and shrimp catches, salt production and use of mangrove for various purposes. Besides, coastal lagoons generate a range of nonextractive use values and nonuse values, which could add towards the total economic value. Misuse has taken place at several instances when “use” adversely affects the status of the resources or the health of the ecosystem due to vulnerability and poverty, population pressure, urbanization, development activities and multi-stakeholder issues. The status of lagoon resources shows that the resources in the majority of Sri Lankan lagoons still remain satisfactory, somewhat good or very good. Nevertheless, concerns for management of lagoons in Sri Lanka exist only where “use values” (extractive values, such as fish and shrimp) exist. There is no evidence of resources management in lagoons for inspirational, scholarly values or tacit knowledge of the same. Management for use values exhibits several stages from zero management to comanagement via community management and state intervention. Most of Sri Lanka’s lagoons have the potential for generating high extractive and nonextractive use values which could improve the human well-being, while maintaining resources sustainability. Unfortunately, these potentials have not been understood or “seen” yet by the relevant authorities, although a few instances of exploring this potential were noticed.



Hydrodynamics and Water Quality

Hydrodynamics and Water Quality Author Zhen-Gang Ji
ISBN-10 9781119371939
Release 2017-05-09
Pages 612
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The primary reference for the modeling of hydrodynamics and water quality in rivers, lake, estuaries, coastal waters, and wetlands This comprehensive text perfectly illustrates the principles, basic processes, mathematical descriptions, case studies, and practical applications associated with surface waters. It focuses on solving practical problems in rivers, lakes, estuaries, coastal waters, and wetlands. Most of the theories and technical approaches presented within have been implemented in mathematical models and applied to solve practical problems. Throughout the book, case studies are presented to demonstrate how the basic theories and technical approaches are implemented into models, and how these models are applied to solve practical environmental/water resources problems. This new edition of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality: Modeling Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries has been updated with more than 40% new information. It features several new chapters, including one devoted to shallow water processes in wetlands as well as another focused on extreme value theory and environmental risk analysis. It is also supplemented with a new website that provides files needed for sample applications, such as source codes, executable codes, input files, output files, model manuals, reports, technical notes, and utility programs. This new edition of the book: Includes more than 120 new/updated figures and 450 references Covers state-of-the-art hydrodynamics, sediment transport, toxics fate and transport, and water quality in surface waters Provides essential and updated information on mathematical models Focuses on how to solve practical problems in surface waters—presenting basic theories and technical approaches so that mathematical models can be understood and applied to simulate processes in surface waters Hailed as “a great addition to any university library” by the Journal of the American Water Resources Association (July 2009), Hydrodynamics and Water Quality, Second Edition is an essential reference for practicing engineers, scientists, and water resource managers worldwide.



Unsteady Flow in Open Channels

Unsteady Flow in Open Channels Author Jurjen A. Battjes
ISBN-10 9781316982730
Release 2017-02-16
Pages
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Practitioners in water engineering rely on a thorough understanding of shallow water flows in order to safeguard our habitat, while at the same time sustaining the water environment. This book proposes a unified theoretical framework for the different types of shallow flow, providing a coherent approach to interpret the behaviour of such flows, and highlighting the similarities and differences. Every major topic in the book is accompanied by worked examples illustrating the theoretical concepts. Practical examples, showcasing inspiring research and engineering applications from the past and present, provide insight into how the theory developed. The book is also supplemented by a range of online resources, available at www.cambridge.org/battjes, including problem sets and computer codes. A solutions manual is available for instructors. This book is intended for students and professionals working in environmental water systems, in areas such as coasts, rivers, harbours, drainage, and irrigation canals.



Oceanography and Marine Biology

Oceanography and Marine Biology Author R.N. Hughes
ISBN-10 9781315351568
Release 2016-11-25
Pages 510
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Ever-increasing interest in oceanography and marine biology and their relevance to global environmental issues create a demand for authoritative reviews summarizing the results of recent research. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review has catered to this demand since its founding by the late Harold Barnes more than 50 years ago. Its objectives are to consider, annually, the basic areas of marine research, returning to them when appropriate in future volumes; to deal with subjects of special and topical importance; and to add new subjects as they arise. The favourable reception and complimentary reviews accorded to all the volumes shows that the series is fulfilling a very real need. Volume 54 follows closely the objectives and style of the earlier volumes, continuing to regard the marine sciences—with all their various aspects—as a unity. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of marine science are dealt with by experts actively engaged in these fields. The series is an essential reference text for researchers and students in all fields of marine science and related subjects, and it finds a place in libraries of universities, marine laboratories, research institutes and government departments. It is consistently among the highest ranking series in terms of impact factor in the marine biology category of the citation indices compiled by the Institute for Scientific Information/Web of Science.



The Ganges Water Diversion Environmental Effects and Implications

The Ganges Water Diversion  Environmental Effects and Implications Author M. Monirul Qader Mirza
ISBN-10 9781402027925
Release 2006-02-03
Pages 368
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This book deals with environmental effects on both sides of the border between Bangladesh and India caused by the Ganges water diversion. This issue came to my attention in early 1976 when news media in Bangladesh and overseas, began publications of articles on the unilateral withdrawal of a huge quantity of water from the Ganges River through the commissioning of the Farakka Barrage in India. I first pursued the subject professionally in 1984 while working as a contributor for Bangladesh Today, Holiday and New Nation. During the next two decades, I followed the protracted hydro-political negotiations between the riparian countries in the Ganges basin, and I traveled extensively to observe the environmental and ecological changes in Bangladesh as well as India that occurred due to the water diversion. The Ganges, one of the longest rivers of the world originates at the Gangotri glacier in the Himalayas and flows across the plains of North India. Eventually the river splits into two main branches and empties into the Bay of Bengal. The conflict of diversion and sharing of the Ganges water arose in the middle of the last century when the government of India decided to implement a barrage at Farakka to resolve a navigation problem at the Kolkata Port.



Tsunami Propagation in Tidal Rivers

Tsunami Propagation in Tidal Rivers Author Elena Tolkova
ISBN-10 9783319732879
Release 2018-01-10
Pages 123
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Using observations of the 2011-Tohoku and some other tsunamis in rivers as a starting point for analytical and numerical exploration, this book suggests a basis for predicting tsunami impacts in a river after the wave has transitioned into the river’s channel.



Environmental Flows

Environmental Flows Author Angela Arthington
ISBN-10 9780520953451
Release 2012-10-15
Pages 424
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Environmental Flows describes the timing, quality, and quantity of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human well-being and livelihoods that depend upon them. It answers crucial questions about the flow of water within and between different kinds of ecosystems. What happens when the flow or the availability of water is curtailed or diverted, either naturally or by human activity? How will climate change alter the availability of water and impact aquatic ecosystems? Methodological developments from the simplest hydrological formulas to large-scale frameworks that inform water management make this book a must-read for water managers and freshwater and estuarine ecologists contending with ever-changing conditions influencing the flow of water.



Modelling Approaches to Understand Salinity Variations in a Highly Dynamic Tidal River

Modelling Approaches to Understand Salinity Variations in a Highly Dynamic Tidal River Author Ali Dinar Abdullah
ISBN-10 9781351652537
Release 2017-03-16
Pages 145
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This book reports the first systematic monitoring and modelling study on water availability, water quality and seawater intrusion of the Shatt al-Arab River (SAR) on the border of Iraq and Iran, where causes and concentration levels of salinity have not yet been fully understood, let alone addressed, leading to conflicting perceptions of its origin (external or internal), the natural conditions and the practices that can explain the current critical conditions. Current scientific knowledge on the SAR salinity problem is deficient, partially due to the complex and dynamic interaction between marine and terrestrial salinity sources, including return flows by water users of the different water sectors in the Euphrates and Tigris rivers upstream of the SAR. The development of a new series of monitoring stations and various modelling approaches helped to better understand the interactions between these different sources. The comprehensive and detailed dataset formed the basis for a validated analytical model that can predict the extent of seawater relative to other salinity sources in an estuary, and for a hydrodynamic model that can predict salinity changes. The adaptability of the models to changing conditions makes them directly applicable by water managers. The procedure can be applied to other comparable systems.



Coastal Sedimentary Environments

Coastal Sedimentary Environments Author R.A. Jr. Davis
ISBN-10 9781461250784
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 716
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The zone where land and sea meet is composed of a variety of complex environments. The coastal areas of the world contain a large percentage of its population and are therefore of extreme economic importance. Industrial, residential, and recreational developments, as well as large urban complexes, occupy much of the coastal margin of most highly developed countries. Undoubtedly future expansion in many undeveloped maritime countries will also be concentrated on coastal areas. Accompanying our occupation of coasts in this age of technology is a dependence on coastal environments for transportation, food, water, defense, and recreation. In order to utilize the coastal zone to its capacity, and yet not plunder its resources, we must have extensive knowledge of the complex environments contained along the coasts. The many environments within the coastal zone include bays, estuaries, deltas, marshes, dunes, and beaches. A tremendously broad range of conditions is represented by these environments. Salinity may range from essentially fresh water in estuaries, such as along the east coast of the United States, to extreme hypersaline lagoons, such as Laguna Madre in Texas. Coastal environments may be in excess of a hundred meters deep (fjords) or may extend several meters above sea level in the form of dunes. Some coastal environments are well protected and are not subjected to high physical energy except for occasional storms, whereas beaches and tidal inlets are continuously modified by waves and currents.



Estuarine and Coastal Hydrography and Sediment Transport

Estuarine and Coastal Hydrography and Sediment Transport Author R. J. Uncles
ISBN-10 9781107040984
Release 2017-08-17
Pages 366
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A practical guide to the latest techniques to measure sediments, seabed, water and transport mechanisms in estuaries and coastal waters. Covering a broad range of topics, enough background is included to explain how each technology functions. A review of recent fieldwork experiments demonstrates how modern methods apply in real-life scenarios.



Tidal Freshwater Wetlands

Tidal Freshwater Wetlands Author Aat Barendregt
ISBN-10 3823615513
Release 2009
Pages 320
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Tidal Freshwater Wetlands has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Tidal Freshwater Wetlands also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Tidal Freshwater Wetlands book for free.



Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks

Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks Author B.B.S. Singhal †
ISBN-10 9789401592086
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 400
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Hydrology is a topical and growing subject, as the earth's water resources become scarcer and more vulnerable. Although more than half the surface area of continents is covered with hard fractured rocks, there has until now been no single book available dealing specifically with fractured rock hydrogeology. This book deals comprehensively with the fundamental principles for understanding these rocks, as well as with exploration techniques and assessment. It also provides in-depth discussion of structural mapping, remote sensing, geophysical exploration, GIS, field hydraulic testing, groundwater quality and contamination, geothermal reservoirs, and resources assessment and management. Hydrogeological aspects of various lithology groups, including crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, carbonate rocks and clastic formations, are dealt with separately, using and discussing examples from all over the world. Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks will be an invaluable reference source for postgraduate students, researchers, exploration scientists, and engineers engaged in the field of groundwater development in fractured rock areas.