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Secrecy and Science

Secrecy and Science Author Brian Balmer
ISBN-10 9781317058380
Release 2016-04-01
Pages 182
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It is no secret that twentieth-century Britain was governed through a culture of secrecy, and secrecy was particularly endemic in military research and defence policy surrounding biological and chemical warfare. More generally, it is hard to exaggerate the role of secrecy in all past biological and chemical warfare programmes and several recent historical surveys of biological and chemical warfare research have emphasised that all state sponsored programmes, together with sub-state organised activities, were cloaked in utmost secrecy. Of these research programmes, Britain carried out one of the most significant in scale and scope in the twentieth century. Yet, partly because of the secrecy surrounding the programme, there is still little academic literature on its historical development. Equally, and despite secrecy being a pervasive feature of past and contemporary societies, social scientists and historians have paid relatively little scholarly attention to the nature, mechanics and effects of secrecy, particularly with regard to secrecy in relation to the production and governance of science and technology. Drawing on classical sociological writing on secrecy by Simmel, Merton and Shils this groundbreaking book by Brian Balmer draws on recently declassified documents to investigate significant episodes in the history of biological and chemical warfare. At the same time, it draws on more contemporary perspectives in science and technology studies that understand knowledge and social order as co-produced within heterogeneous networks of 'things and people' in order to develop a theoretical set of arguments about how the relationship between secrecy and science might be understood.



Biological Threats in the 21st Century

Biological Threats in the 21st Century Author Filippa Lentzos
ISBN-10 9781783269495
Release 2016-07-13
Pages 500
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Biological Threats in the 21st Century offers a fresh understanding of contemporary biological threats to national security. Readers are introduced to the politics, people, science and historical roots of contemporary biological threats through up-to-date, rigorous and accessible chapters written by leading academics and supplemented by expert point-of-view contributions and interviews. The book provides inspiration and resources for students and researchers, as well as policy makers in government, the public policy sector and the wider community. It is particularly pertinent for those interested in biological disarmament, non-proliferation, counterterrorism and health security. Contents:Editor's Introduction: The Politics, People, Science and Historical Roots (Filippa Lentzos)Crossing the Normative Barrier: Japan's Biological Warfare in China in World War II (Jeanne Guillemin)Past Proliferators:The British, United States and Canadian Biological Warfare Programs (Brian Balmer & John Ellis van Courtland Moon)Point of View: Open-Air Biowarfare Testing: American and British Experiences (Leonard A Cole)The Soviet Biological Warfare Program (Jens H Kuhn & Milton Leitenberg)Point of View: Life Inside the Soviet Bioweapons Program (Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley)The Iraqi Biological Warfare Program (Tim Trevan)Point of View: Hunting Saddam's Biological Weapons: A First-Hand Account (Gabriele Kraatz-Wadsack)The South African Biological Warfare Program (Alastair Hay)Point of View: Open Secrets: 'Truth Telling' and Transitional Justice in Revealing Biowarfare Programs (Chandré Gould)Bioweapons in Today's Context :RISE, the Rajneeshees, Aum Shinrikyo and Bruce Ivins (W Seth Carus)Point of View: Inside the Mind of a Bioterrorist (Toby Ewin)Aftershocks of the 2001 Anthrax Attacks (Kathleen M Vogel)Point of View: The Threat of Misuse (Gigi Kwik Gronvall)Searching for Cures or Creating Pandemics in the Lab? (Nancy D Connell & Brian Rappert)Point of View: Dangerous Life Sciences Research (David R Franz)Ebola: From Public Health Crisis to National Security Threat (Nicholas G Evans)Point of View: Building a Sustainable Biodefense Industry (Jacob Thorup Cohn)Quandaries in Contemporary Biodefense Research (Gregory D Koblentz)Disarmament and Non-Proliferation:The Traditional Tools of Biological Arms Control and Disarmament (Marie Isabelle Chevrier & Alex Spelling)Witness Seminar: Origins of the Biological Weapons Convention (Jeanne Guillemin, Matthew Meselson, Julian Perry Robinson & Nicholas Sims)Interview: Unconventional Weapons and Activist Scientists (Steven Rose & Filippa Lentzos)Point of View: Responsible Science: Strategies for Engaging Key Stakeholders (Jo L Husbands)Interview: International Security and Counter-Terrorism (Trevor Smith & Filippa Lentzos)Point of View: The Front Lines of Biological Weapons Non-Proliferation (Melissa Finley & Jennifer Gaudioso)Roundtable: The Future of Biothreat Governance (Iris Hunger, Jez Littlewood, Caitriona McLeish, Piers Millett & Ralf Trapp) Readership: Students and researchers, as well as policy makers in government, the public policy sector and the wider community. It is particularly pertinent for those interested in biological disarmament, non-proliferation, counterterrorism and health security.



Absence in Science Security and Policy

Absence in Science  Security and Policy Author Brian Balmer
ISBN-10 9781137493736
Release 2016-02-06
Pages 240
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This book explores the absent and missing in debates about science and security. Through varied case studies, including biological and chemical weapons control, science journalism, nanotechnology research and neuroethics, the contributors explore how matters become absent, ignored or forgotten and the implications for ethics, policy and society.



Dis Eases of Secrecy

Dis Eases of Secrecy Author B. RAPPERT
ISBN-10 1431424854
Release 2017-10-04
Pages 288
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"Dis-eases demonstrates how oppressive pasts can be engaged imaginatively rather than didactically. It is a seminal work for anyone committed to making 'post-apartheid' meaningful." - Verne Harris, Director: Archive and Dialogue, Nelson Mandela Foundation Between 1981 and 1995, a top-secret chemical and biological warfare program titled Project Coast was established and maintained by South Africa's apartheid government. Under the leadership of Wouter Basson, Project Coast scientists were involved in a number of dubious activities, including the mass production of ecstasy, the development of covert assassination weapons and the manufacture of chemical poisons designed to be undetectable post-mortem. Dis-eases of Secrecy is a retrospective analysis of Project Coast and shows how South African governments (past and present) have chosen to deal with the issues of biochemical weapons and warfare. It investigates possibilities for understanding the world of politics by examining how Project Coast has been remembered - and, in some instances, forgotten - by African and international governments. Through their first-hand involvement in the investigation spanning over 20 years, the authors examine how the continuing silences, impunities and stories surrounding Project Coast are still relevant for political accountability today. Readers will engage with how what is hidden reveals, and what is revealed hides. In this cleverly constructed book, readers are able to choose their own journey through the story. By taking on the role of investigator, readers are faced with the complexities of transitional justice, reconciliation and scientist developments that might give them a different view of South African politics in an ever-changing world order.



Biological Weapons

Biological Weapons Author Jeanne Guillemin
ISBN-10 9780231129435
Release 2006-03
Pages 258
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A timely account of how resources for biological weapons programs were mobilized and why such weapons have never been deployed in major conflicts offers an understanding of the relevance of the historical restraints placed on the use of biological weapons and looks at what can to done to prevent their proliferation in the post-September 11th world.



Behind the Fog

Behind the Fog Author Lisa Martino-Taylor
ISBN-10 9781315295190
Release 2017-07-28
Pages 212
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Behind the Fog is the first in-depth, comprehensive examination of the United States’ Cold War radiological weapons program. The book examines controversial military-sponsored studies and field trials using radioactive "simulants" that exposed American civilians to radiation and other hazardous substances without their knowledge or consent during the Cold War. Although Western biological and chemical weapons programs have been analyzed by a number of scholars, Behind the Fog is a strong departure from the rest in that the United States radiological weapons program has been generally unknown to the public. Martino-Taylor documents the coordinated efforts of a small group of military scientists who advanced a four-pronged secret program of human-subject radiation studies that targeted unsuspecting Americans for Cold War military purposes. Officials enabled such projects to advance through the layering of secrecy, by embedding classified studies in other studies, and through outright deception. Agency and academic partnerships advanced, supported, and concealed the studies from the public at large who ultimately served as unwitting test subjects. Martino-Taylor’s comprehensive research illuminates a dark chapter of government secrecy, the military-industrial-academic complex, and large-scale organizational deviance in American history. In its critical approach, Behind the Fog effectively examines the mechanisms that allow large-scale elite deviance to take place in modern society.



Spores Plagues and History

Spores  Plagues and History Author Chris Holmes
ISBN-10 1930754450
Release 2003-01-01
Pages 227
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This is much more than the story of a microbe. It is the tale of history and prophecy woven into a fabric what was, what might have been and what might yet be...



Multiple Autisms

Multiple Autisms Author Jennifer S. Singh
ISBN-10 1452949816
Release 2016
Pages
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Multiple Autisms has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Multiple Autisms also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Multiple Autisms book for free.



Clouds of Secrecy

Clouds of Secrecy Author Leonard A. Cole
ISBN-10 082263001X
Release 1990
Pages 188
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Assesses the risks of the Army's biological warfare program, discusses uses of germ warfare in Afghanistan by the Soviet Union, and examines the ethics of such weapons.



Anthrax

Anthrax Author Jeanne Guillemin
ISBN-10 9780520229174
Release 2001-02-16
Pages 321
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Chronicles the author's voyage to Russia's Ural Mountains and investigation into the deaths of sixty-four people from anthrax, officially caused by tainted meat but rumored to be the result of biological weapons research.



Laboratory Life

Laboratory Life Author Bruno Latour
ISBN-10 9781400820412
Release 2013-04-04
Pages 296
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This highly original work presents laboratory science in a deliberately skeptical way: as an anthropological approach to the culture of the scientist. Drawing on recent work in literary criticism, the authors study how the social world of the laboratory produces papers and other "texts,"' and how the scientific vision of reality becomes that set of statements considered, for the time being, too expensive to change. The book is based on field work done by Bruno Latour in Roger Guillemin's laboratory at the Salk Institute and provides an important link between the sociology of modern sciences and laboratory studies in the history of science.



A Web of Prevention

A Web of Prevention Author Brian Rappert
ISBN-10 9781849770354
Release 2012-05-16
Pages 224
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Web of Preventionprovides a timely contribution to the current debate about life science research and its implications for security. It is an informative guide for both experts and the public. It is a forward-looking contribution covering both ends of the equation and creates momentum for the current discussion on effective preventive measures and effective control measures. While there are no guarantees for preventing misuse, there are nonetheless crucial steps the world community can take towards the overarching goal of a global network for the life sciences. This book sheds light on concrete steps toward the achievement of this worthy goal. "This book with its collection of essays provides an in-depth analysis of the various mutually reinforcing elements that together create and strengthen a web of prevention - or of assurance - that is vital to ensure that the advances in the life sciences are not misused to cause harm. All those engaged in the life sciences and in policy making in governments around the world should read this book so they can take steps to strengthen the web preventing biological weapons". From the Foreword by Dr Gabriele Kraatz-Wadsack, Chief, Weapons of Mass Destruction Branch, Office for Disarmament Affairs, United Nations. "Since September 11, 2001 in many countries renewed attention has been given to how research in the life sciences might inadvertently or intentionally facilitate the development of biological or chemical weapons. This state-of-the-art volume examines the full extent of the issues and debates. Coverage includes an overview of recent scientific achievements in virology, microbiology, immunology and genetic engineering with a view to asking how they might facilitate the production of weapons of mass destruction by state, sub-state or terrorist organizations. Consideration is given to what we have and haven't learned from the past. Employing both academic analysis and reflections by practitioners, the book examines the security-inspired governance regimes for the life sciences that are under development. Ultimately the authors examine what is required to form a comprehensive and workable web of prevention and highlight the importance of encouraging discussions between scientists, policy makers and others regarding the governance of vital but potentially dangerous research". Dr Graham S. Pearson, Visiting Professor of International Security, University of Bradford, UK and previously Director-General, Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, UK



In the Name of Science

In the Name of Science Author Andrew Goliszek
ISBN-10 9781429997935
Release 2003-11-15
Pages 384
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Science, as Andrew Goliszek proves in this compendious, chilling, and eye-opening book, has always had its dark side. Behind the bright promise of life-saving vaccines and life-enhancing technologies lies the true cost of the efforts to develop them. Knowledge has a price; often that price has been human suffering. The ethical limits governing use of the human body in experimentation have been breached, redefined, and breached again---from the moment the first plague-ridden corpse was heaved over the fortifications of a besieged medieval city to the use of cutting-edge gene therapy today. Those limits are in constant need of redefinition, for the goals and the techniques have become both more refined and more secretive. The German and Japanese human experiments of the 1930s and 1940s horrified the world when they came to light. These barbaric exercises in pseudoscience grew out of assumptions of racial superiority. The subjects were deemed subhuman; ordinary guidelines could therefore be suspended. What has happened in the decades since World War II has differed only in degree. Explicitly or implicitly, any organization or government that undertakes or sponsors scientific research applies some measure of human worth. Experimentation rests upon an equation that balances suffering against gain, the good of the collective against the rights of the individual, and the risk of unknown consequences against the rewards of scientific discovery. Everything depends upon who makes that equation. The sobering and gripping accumulation of evidence in this book proves exactly what has been justified in the name of science. The science of "eugenics" justified enforced sterilization. The need to gain an upper hand in the Cold War justified CIA experiments involving mind control and drugs. The desperate race to control nuclear proliferation was used to justify radiation experiments whose effects are still being felt today. Chemical warfare, gene therapy, molecular medicine: These subjects dominate headlines and even direct our government's foreign policy, yet the whole truth about the experimentation behind them has never been made public. Though not a cheering book, In the Name of Science is a crucially important one, and it deserves a wide audience. A biologist by training, Goliszek presents each topic clearly and explains fully its significance and implications. Connecting the history of scientific experimentation through time with the topics that are likely to dominate the future, he has performed an invaluable service. No other book on the market provides the research included here, or presents it with such persuasive force.



Age of System

Age of System Author Hunter Heyck
ISBN-10 9781421417103
Release 2015-07-31
Pages 272
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Before the Second World War, social scientists struggled to define and defend their disciplines. After the war, "high modern" social scientists harnessed new resources in a quest to create a unified understanding of human behavior—and to remake the world in the image of their new model man. In Age of System, Hunter Heyck explains why social scientists—shaped by encounters with the ongoing "organizational revolution" and its revolutionary technologies of communication and control—embraced a new and extremely influential perspective on science and nature, one that conceived of all things in terms of system, structure, function, organization, and process. He also explores how this emerging unified theory of human behavior implied a troubling similarity between humans and machines, with freighted implications for individual liberty and self-direction. These social scientists trained a generation of decision-makers in schools of business and public administration, wrote the basic textbooks from which millions learned how the economy, society, polity, culture, and even the mind worked, and drafted the position papers, books, and articles that helped set the terms of public discourse in a new era of mass media, think tanks, and issue networks. Drawing on close readings of key texts and a broad survey of more than 1,800 journal articles, Heyck follows the dollars—and the dreams—of a generation of scholars that believed in "the system." He maps the broad landscape of changes in the social sciences, focusing especially intently on the ideas and practices associated with modernization theory, rational choice theory, and modeling. A highly accomplished historian, Heyck relays this complicated story with unusual clarity.



Pathogens for War

Pathogens for War Author Donald H. Avery
ISBN-10 9781442665019
Release 2013-04-28
Pages 448
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Pathogens for War explores how Canada and its allies have attempted to deal with the threat of germ warfare, one of the most fearful weapons of mass destruction, since the Second World War. In addressing this subject, distinguished historian Donald Avery investigates the relationship between bioweapons, poison gas, and nuclear devices, as well as the connection between bioattacks and natural disease pandemics. Avery emphasizes the crucially important activities of Canadian biodefence scientists – beginning with Nobel Laureate Frederick Banting – at both the national level and through cooperative projects within the framework of an elaborate alliance system. Delving into history through a rich collection of declassified documents, Pathogens for War also devotes several chapters to the contemporary challenges of bioterrorism and disease pandemics from both national and international perspectives. As such, readers will not only learn about Canada’s secret involvement with biological warfare, but will also gain new insights into current debates about the peril of bioweapons – one of today’s greatest threats to world peace.



The Chemical Weapons Taboo

The Chemical Weapons Taboo Author Richard MacKay Price
ISBN-10 0801433061
Release 1997
Pages 233
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Richard M. Price asks why, among all the ominous technologies of weaponry throughout the history of warfare, chemical weapons carry a special moral stigma. Something more seems to be at work than the predictable resistance people have expressed to any new weaponry, from the crossbow to nuclear bombs. Perceptions of chemical warfare as particularly abhorrent have been successfully institutionalized in international proscriptions and, Price suggests, understanding the sources of this success might shed light on other efforts at arms control. To explore the origins and meaning of the chemical weapons taboo, Price presents a series of case studies from World War I through the Gulf War of 1990-1991. He traces the moral arguments against gas warfare from the Hague Conferences at the turn of the century through negotiations for the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. From the Italian invasion of Ethiopia to the war between Iran and Iraq, chemical weapons have been condemned as the "poor man's bomb." Drawing upon insights from Michel Foucault to explain the role of moral norms in an international arena rarely sensitive to such pressures, he focuses on the construction of and mutations in the refusal to condone chemical weapons.



The Scientific Intellectual

The Scientific Intellectual Author Lewis Samuel Feuer
ISBN-10 141283886X
Release 1991
Pages 441
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In The Scientific Intellectual, Lewis S. Feuer traces the evolution of this new human type, seeking to define what ethic inspired him and the underlying emotions that created him. Under the influence of Max Weber the rise of the scientific spirit has been viewed by sociologists as an offspring of the Protestant revolution, with its asceticism and sense of guilt acting as causative agents in the rise of capitalism and the growth of the scientific movement. Feuer takes strong issue with this view, pointing out how it is at odds with what we know of the psychological conditions of modern societies making for human curiosity and its expression in the observation of and experiment with nature.