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Sex Allocation

Sex Allocation Author Stuart West
ISBN-10 9781400832019
Release 2009-09-28
Pages 480
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Recent decades have witnessed an explosion of theoretical and empirical studies of sex allocation, transforming how we understand the allocation of resources to male and female reproduction in vertebrates, invertebrates, protozoa, and plants. In this landmark book, Stuart West synthesizes the vast literature on sex allocation, providing the conceptual framework the field has been lacking and demonstrating how sex-allocation studies can shed light on broader questions in evolutionary and behavioral biology. West clarifies fundamental misconceptions in the application of theory to empirical data. He examines the field's successes and failures, and describes the research areas where much important work is yet to be done. West reveals how a shared underlying theoretical framework unites findings of sex-ratio variation across a huge range of life forms, from malarial parasites and hermaphroditic worms to sex-changing fish and mammals. He shows how research on sex allocation has been central to many critical questions and controversies in evolutionary and behavioral biology, and he argues that sex-allocation research serves as a key testing ground for different theoretical approaches and can help resolve debates about social evolution, parent-offspring conflict, genomic conflict, and levels of selection. Certain to become the defining book on the subject for the next generation of researchers, Sex Allocation explains why the study of sex allocation provides an ideal model system for advancing our understanding of the constraints on adaptation among all living things in the natural world.



The Theory of Sex Allocation

The Theory of Sex Allocation Author Eric L. Charnov
ISBN-10 9780691083124
Release 1982
Pages 355
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This book is the first comprehensive treatment of sex allocation from the standpoint of modern evolutionary theory. It shows how the determination of sex ratio, resource allocation to sperm versus egg within simultaneous hermaphroditism, and the evolution of sex reversal can he explained as examples of a single process. The genetical theory, developed mostly with graphical arguments, also specifies when hermaphroditism and dioecy are themselves evolutionary stable. The work balances theory with field and laboratory research, providing critical tests of the theory by empirical studies of sex ratio in parasitoid wasps and mites, sex reversal in shrimp and coral reef fish, and allocation of resources to pollen versus seeds in higher plants. In addition, the author oilers an encyclopedic review of the field and laboratory work of other scientists, reviews many as yet untested hypotheses in sex allocation, and points toward numerous plant and animal systems that hold promise for future tests.



Some Mathematical Questions in Biology sex Allocation and Sex Change

Some Mathematical Questions in Biology  sex Allocation and Sex Change Author Marc Mangel
ISBN-10 0821897179
Release 1990-10-26
Pages 205
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The seven articles in this volume are based on lectures presented at the annual symposium, Some Mathematical Questions in Biology, held in conjunction with the American Institute of Biological Sciences meeting in Toronto, Ontario in August 1989. Sexual selection, sex determination, and sex allocation have been at the center of evolutionary ecology since its inception and have played an important role in the development of many concepts. As this volume demonstrates, many key questions remain to be investigated through a combination of empirical and theoretical work. In addition, questions of sex provide a natural mechanism for crossing the great taxonomic divide by allowing plant and animal researchers to focus on similar kinds of questions using a wide variety of organisms.



Population Genetics and Evolution

Population Genetics and Evolution Author Gerdina de Jong
ISBN-10 9783642730696
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 282
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At least since the 1940s neo-Darwinism has prevailed as the consensus view in the study of evolution. The mechanism of evolution in this view is natural selection leading to adaptation, working on a substrate of adapta tionally random mutations. As both the study of genetic variation in natural populations, and the study of the mathematical equations of selec tion are reckoned to a field called population genetics, population genetics came to form the core in the theory of evolution. So much so, that the fact that there is more to the theory of evolution than population genetics became somewhat obscured. The genetics of the evolutionary process, or the genetics of evolutionary change, came close to being all of evolutionary biology. In the last 10 years, this dominating position of population genetics within evolutionary biology has been challenged. In evolutionary ecology, optimization theory proved more useful than population genetics for interesting predictions, especially of life history strategies. From develop mental biology, constraints in development and the role of internal regula tion were emphasized. From paleobiology, a proposal was put forward to describe the fossil record and the evolutionary process as a series of punc tuated equilibria; thus exhorting population geneticists to give a plausible account of how such might come about. All these developments tend to obscure the central role of population genetics in evolutionary biology.



Geographic Variation Speciation and Clines

Geographic Variation  Speciation  and Clines Author John A. Endler
ISBN-10 0691081921
Release 1977
Pages 246
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Geographic Variation, Speciation and Clines explores the origins and development of geographic variation, divergence, and speciation. In particular it is concerned with genetic divergence as it is usually found on continents, among groups of populations isolated only by distance. Although earlier writers on this topic considered the effects of geography and dispersal, intense geographic differentiation and speciation were thought to require complete isolation. Professor Endler shows how geographic differentiation and speciation may develop in spite of continuous gene flow. Following a review of the diverse and scattered literature on gene flow and population differentiation, the author discusses the relationships among gene flow, dispersal, and migration. He then summarizes the factors which limit the geographic extent of gene flow, and those which allow steep clines to develop in the absence of barriers to gene flow. His analysis draws on examples from the field, experiments, and single- and multiple-locus models. The mechanism and conditions for parapatric speciation are presented: steepening clines, development into hybrid zones, and the evolution of sexual isolation. In the final chapter the author considers the interpretation of natural clines and the associated geographic patterns of subspecies and species.



Sex and Evolution

Sex and Evolution Author George Christopher Williams
ISBN-10 0691081522
Release 1975
Pages 200
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This book explores the relationship between various types of reproduction and the evolutionary process. Starting with the concept of meiosis, George C. Williams states the conditions under which an organism with both sexual and asexual reproductive capacities will employ each mode. He argues that in low-fecundity higher organisms, sexual reproduction is generally maladaptive, and persists because there is no ready means of developing an asexual alternative. The book then considers the evolutionary development of diverse forms of sexuality, such as anisogamy, hermaphroditism. and the evolution of differences between males and females in reproductive strategy. The final two chapters examine the effect of genetic recombination on the evolutionary process itself.



The Acari

The Acari Author Reinhart Schuster
ISBN-10 9789401131025
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 554
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During the Inaugural Meeting of the European Association of Acarol ogists (EURAAC), held in Amsterdam in 1987, it was decided that the holding of a Symposium at regular intervals should be a major objective. With this in view, it was agreed that Professor Reinhart Schuster, the senior editor, be invited to accept the Presidency of the Association and, arising from that Office, to organize the first Symposium in Austria in 1988. There was strong support for a main theme focused on a particular aspect of acarology. From these discussions there emerged the proposal that emphasis be placed on aspects of reproduction, development and life-history strategies of the Acari. These were topics in the forefront of the discipline with exciting developments of interest not only to acarologists but to a wider audience because of the light they cast on fundamental processes in physiology, ecology and evolutionary biology. The object then was to invite a small number of key workers to present extended papers related to the main theme. There were seven of these all of which appear in the book. The remaining 51 contributions were offered papers a number of which fit within the framework of the Symposium theme.



Integrating Ecology and Evolution in a Spatial Context

Integrating Ecology and Evolution in a Spatial Context Author Jonathan Silvertown
ISBN-10 0521549337
Release 2001-08-01
Pages 423
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The profound consequences of the deceptively obvious statement that plants stand still but their genes don't are only just becoming clear. In this volume, an international team of authors, experts in the field of population biology, aim to advance our understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes by integrating them within a common frame of reference: space. Processes operating at three different spatial scales are examined: that of the population, metapopulation and the geographical range. Themes that recur at these different scales include spatial population dynamics, population genetics at boundaries, the imprint of spatial population dynamics upon genetic structure, adaptation, evolution of mating systems and the consequences of population genetics for ecological dynamics. Whilst the focus is largely on plants, the questions addressed are equally applicable to animals. It will be a valuable tool for researchers and advanced students, not only in this field, but also evolutionary biology and resource management.



The Behaviour of Teleost Fishes

The Behaviour of Teleost Fishes Author Tony J. Pitcher
ISBN-10 9781468482614
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 553
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This book is about the behaviour of teleosts, a well-defined, highly successful, taxonomic group of vertebrate animals sharing a common body plan and forming the vast majority of living bony fishes. There are weH over 22000 living species of teleosts, including nearly all those of importance in com mercial fisheries and aquaculture. Teleosts are represented injust about every conceivable aquatic environment from temporary desert pools to the deep ocean, from soda lakes to sub-zero Antarctic waters. Behaviour is the primary interface between these effective survival machines and their environment: behavioural plasticity is one of the keys to their success. The study of animal behaviour has undergone revolutionary changes in the past decade under the dual impact of behavioural ecology and sociobiology. The modern body of theory provides quantitatively testable and experi mentaHy accessible hypotheses. Much current work in animal behaviour has concentrated on birds and mammals, animals with ostensibly more complex structure, physiology and behavioural capacity, but there is a growing body of information about the behaviour of fishes. There is now increasing awareness that the same ecological and evolutionary rules govern teleost fish, and that their behaviour is not just a simplified version of that seen in birds and mammals. The details of fish behaviour intimately reflect unique and efficient adaptations to their three-dimensional aquatic environment.



Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions MPB 49

Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions  MPB 49 Author A. Townsend Peterson
ISBN-10 9780691136882
Release 2011-11-20
Pages 314
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Terminology, conceptual overview, biogeography, modeling.



Theoretical Studies on Sex Ratio Evolution

Theoretical Studies on Sex Ratio Evolution Author Samuel Karlin
ISBN-10 0691084122
Release 1986
Pages 313
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This book deals with a key area of population genetics: the ratio of the sexes in a population, or the allocation of resources to male versus female reproductive function. Samuel Karlin and Sabin Lessard establish the formal theoretical aspects of the evolution of sex ratio within the constraints of genetic mechanisms of sex determination. Their results generalize and unify existing work on the topic, strengthening previous conceptions in some cases and, in other instances, offering new directions of research. There are two main approaches to understanding the causes and effects of sex ratio. One approach focuses on the optimization and adaptive functions of sex allocation, while the other emphasizes the consequences of genetic sex determination mechanisms. In discussing the utility of these two approaches, Professors Karlin and Lessard examine the principal sex-determining mechanisms and facts involved in sex ratio representations, the various genetic and environmental factors that contribute to adaptive sex expression, and the evolution of sex determining systems and controls. From a population genetic perspective, the authors derive evolutionary properties in support of the high incidence of 1:1 sex ratio in natural populations and investigate the conditions that can explain the occurrence of biased sex ratio.



Foundations of Social Evolution

Foundations of Social Evolution Author Steven A. Frank
ISBN-10 0691059349
Release 1998
Pages 268
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This is a masterly theoretical treatment of one of the central problems in evolutionary biology, the evolution of social cooperation and conflict. Steven Frank tackles the problem with a highly original combination of approaches: game theory, classical models of natural selection, quantitative genetics, and kin selection. He unites these with the best of economic thought: a clear theory of model formation and comparative statics, the development of simple methods for analyzing complex problems, and notions of information and rationality. Using this unique, multidisciplinary approach, Frank makes major advances in understanding the foundations of social evolution. Frank begins by developing the three measures of value used in biology--marginal value, reproductive value, and kin selection. He then combines these measures into a coherent framework, providing the first unified analysis of social evolution in its full ecological and demographic context. Frank also extends the theory of kin selection by showing that relatedness has two distinct meanings. The first is a measure of information about social partners, with close affinity to theories of correlated equilibrium and Bayesian rationality in economic game theory. The second is a measure of the fidelity by which characters are transmitted to future generations--an extended notion of heritability. Throughout, Frank illustrates his methods with many examples, including a complete reformulation of the theory of sex allocation. The book also provides a unique "how-to" guide for constructing models of social behavior. It is essential reading for evolutionary biologists and for economists, mathematicians, and others interested in natural selection.



Sex Ratios

Sex Ratios Author Ian Hardy
ISBN-10 0511069936
Release 2002
Pages 424
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Sex ratios, the proportions of males and females in any given species, are important in evolutionary and behavioural ecology. This volume explores the context to and methods for many aspects of research on sex ratios, and will be an indispensable reference for all those working in this area.



Ecology

Ecology Author
ISBN-10 UOM:39015037948455
Release 1998
Pages
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Ecology has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Ecology also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Ecology book for free.



Entomologia experimentalis et applicata

Entomologia experimentalis et applicata Author
ISBN-10 UCAL:B4577256
Release 2000
Pages
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Entomologia experimentalis et applicata has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Entomologia experimentalis et applicata also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Entomologia experimentalis et applicata book for free.



North American Journal of Fisheries Management

North American Journal of Fisheries Management Author
ISBN-10 UOM:39015032243241
Release 1994
Pages
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North American Journal of Fisheries Management has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from North American Journal of Fisheries Management also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full North American Journal of Fisheries Management book for free.



Archives N erlandaises de Zoologie

Archives N  erlandaises de Zoologie Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105003060717
Release 1987
Pages
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Archives N erlandaises de Zoologie has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Archives N erlandaises de Zoologie also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Archives N erlandaises de Zoologie book for free.