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Small Scale Gas to Liquid Fuel Synthesis

Small Scale Gas to Liquid Fuel Synthesis Author Nick Kanellopoulos
ISBN-10 9781466599390
Release 2015-02-23
Pages 588
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It is estimated that a large fraction of natural gas reserves are found in locations from where transport is not economical. If these isolated natural gas reserves could be converted to synthetic fuels, they would generate around 250 billion barrels of synthetic oil—a quantity equal to one-third of the Middle East’s proven oil reserves. Small-Scale Gas to Liquid Fuel Synthesis explores next-generation technologies geared toward overcoming the significant cost and technical barriers prohibiting the extensive use of conventional gas to liquid (GTL) processes for the exploitation of small and/or isolated natural gas reservoirs. The book highlights key research activities in the framework of two large European projects—Innovative Catalytic Technologies & Materials for Next Gas to Liquid Processes (NEXT-GTL) and Oxidative Coupling of Methane followed by Oligomerization to Liquids (OCMOL)—examining novel technical developments that reduce the costs associated with air fractioning and syngas production. Featuring contributions from internationally respected experts, Small-Scale Gas to Liquid Fuel Synthesis discusses innovative GTL technologies based on recent advances in catalytic membrane systems, reaction engineering, and process design. The book provides academic and industrial researchers with a concise presentation of the current state of the art of low-cost, energy-efficient GTL technologies for small-scale applications.



Producing Liquid Fuels from Coal

Producing Liquid Fuels from Coal Author James T. Bartis
ISBN-10 9780833046765
Release 2008-12-04
Pages 198
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Large U.S. coal reserves and viable technology make promising a domestic industry producing liquid fuels from coal. Weighing benefits, costs, and environmental issues, a productive and robust U.S. strategy is to promote a limited amount of early commercial experience in coal-to-liquids production and to prepare the foundation for managing associated greenhouse-gas emissions, both in a way that reduces uncertainties and builds future capabilities.



Nanotechnology in Catalysis

Nanotechnology in Catalysis Author Bert Sels
ISBN-10 9783527699810
Release 2017-06-21
Pages 1500
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Reflecting the R&D efforts in the field that have resulted in a plethora of novel applications over the past decade, this handbook gives a comprehensive overview of the tangible benefits of nanotechnology in catalysis. By bridging fundamental research and industrial development, it provides a unique perspective on this scientifically and economically important field. While the first three parts are devoted to preparation and characterization of nanocatalysts, the final three provide in-depth insights into their applications in the fine chemicals industry, the energy industry, and for environmental protection, with expert authors reporting on real-life applications that are on the brink of commercialization. Timely reading for catalytic chemists, materials scientists, chemists in industry, and process engineers.



Chemical Energy from Natural and Synthetic Gas

Chemical Energy from Natural and Synthetic Gas Author Yatish T. Shah
ISBN-10 9781315302348
Release 2017-03-16
Pages 714
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Commercial development of energy from renewables and nuclear is critical to long-term industry and environmental goals. However, it will take time for them to economically compete with existing fossil fuel energy resources and their infrastructures. Gas fuels play an important role during and beyond this transition away from fossil fuel dominance to a balanced approach to fossil, nuclear, and renewable energies. Chemical Energy from Natural and Synthetic Gas illustrates this point by examining the many roles of natural and synthetic gas in the energy and fuel industry, addressing it as both a "transition" and "end game" fuel. The book describes various types of gaseous fuels and how are they are recovered, purified, and converted to liquid fuels and electricity generation and used for other static and mobile applications. It emphasizes methane, syngas, and hydrogen as fuels, although other volatile hydrocarbons are considered. It also covers storage and transportation infrastructure for natural gas and hydrogen and methods and processes for cleaning and reforming synthetic gas. The book also deals applications, such as the use of natural gas in power production in power plants, engines, turbines, and vehicle needs. Presents a unified and collective look at gas in the energy and fuel industry, addressing it as both a "transition" and "end game" fuel. Emphasizes methane, syngas, and hydrogen as fuels. Covers gas storage and transport infrastructure. Discusses thermal gasification, gas reforming, processing, purification and upgrading. Describes biogas and bio-hydrogen production. Deals with the use of natural gas in power production in power plants, engines, turbines, and vehicle needs.



Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts and Catalysis

Fischer Tropsch Synthesis  Catalysts  and Catalysis Author Burtron H. Davis
ISBN-10 9781466555303
Release 2016-04-06
Pages 417
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With petroleum prices spiraling upward, making synthetic fuels—or "synfuels"—from coal, natural gas, and biomass has become more economically competitive. Advanced energy companies now focus exclusively on alternative fuels, and many oil companies have programs dedicated to developing synthetic fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process, which uses a collection of chemical reactions to convert mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons, is the studied method of choice for producing synthetic petroleum substitutes. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts, and Catalysis: Advances and Applications began at a symposium held during the 248th American Chemical Society meeting, where high attendance demonstrated great interest in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The lively discussions that occurred led to the creation of this carefully constructed reference work. The contributors here have expanded and reorganized their presentations from the conference into thorough chapters that reflect the four key subject areas that dominated the presentations: Catalyst preparation and activation Catalyst activity and reaction mechanisms Catalyst characterization and related reactions Topics concerning commercializing the Fischer-Tropsch process While describing advances and exploring the potential of the Fischer-Tropsch process in the future of synthetic fuels, the research also demonstrates that several issues remain in producing increasingly active catalysts and more efficient reactor design. Covering recent developments in Fischer-Tropsch technology for renewable resources and green energy, this book is a significant contribution for researchers and practitioners concerned with the production of synthetic fuels. It explores new and sophisticated techniques while providing a look at the application of these advances to commercial processing conditions.



Electricity based Fuels

Electricity based Fuels Author Alexander Tremel
ISBN-10 9783319724591
Release 2017-12-07
Pages 95
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This book discusses the needs of future energy systems with a focus on the electricity and transportation sectors. The general idea behind electricity based fuel is explained, the current status and future potential developments of this technology are presented. A main challenge in the production of electricity based fuels is the fluctuating energy input from renewable electricity generation. The arising design and optimization targets for integrated power-to-fuel plants are discussed, also presenting plant design and operation strategies. The book gives an outlook on future expected production costs of electricity based fuels and compares it with fossil fuels and alternatives.



Deterministic Global Optimization

Deterministic Global Optimization Author Christodoulos A. Floudas
ISBN-10 9781475749496
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 742
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The vast majority of important applications in science, engineering and applied science are characterized by the existence of multiple minima and maxima, as well as first, second and higher order saddle points. The area of Deterministic Global Optimization introduces theoretical, algorithmic and computational ad vances that (i) address the computation and characterization of global minima and maxima, (ii) determine valid lower and upper bounds on the global minima and maxima, and (iii) address the enclosure of all solutions of nonlinear con strained systems of equations. Global optimization applications are widespread in all disciplines and they range from atomistic or molecular level to process and product level representations. The primary goal of this book is three fold : first, to introduce the reader to the basics of deterministic global optimization; second, to present important theoretical and algorithmic advances for several classes of mathematical prob lems that include biconvex and bilinear; problems, signomial problems, general twice differentiable nonlinear problems, mixed integer nonlinear problems, and the enclosure of all solutions of nonlinear constrained systems of equations; and third, to tie the theory and methods together with a variety of important applications.



Fuel Cells Technologies for Fuel Processing

Fuel Cells  Technologies for Fuel Processing Author Dushyant Shekhawat
ISBN-10 0444535640
Release 2011-03-18
Pages 568
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Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing provides an overview of the most important aspects of fuel reforming to the generally interested reader, researcher, technologist, teacher, student, or engineer. The topics covered include all aspects of fuel reforming: fundamental chemistry, different modes of reforming, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, fuel desulfurization, reaction engineering, novel reforming concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, and recent research and development. While no attempt is made to describe the fuel cell itself, there is sufficient description of the fuel cell to show how it affects the fuel reformer. By focusing on the fundamentals, this book aims to be a source of information now and in the future. By avoiding time-sensitive information/analysis (e.g., economics) it serves as a single source of information for scientists and engineers in fuel processing technology. The material is presented in such a way that this book will serve as a reference for graduate level courses, fuel cell developers, and fuel cell researchers. Chapters written by experts in each area Extensive bibliography supporting each chapter Detailed index Up-to-date diagrams and full colour illustrations



Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals

Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Author Mark Crocker
ISBN-10 9781849730358
Release 2010
Pages 532
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This up-to-date overview on the conversion of thermochemical biomass to fuels and chemicals is written by experts in the field.



Concepts in Syngas Manufacture

Concepts in Syngas Manufacture Author Jens Rostrup-Nielsen
ISBN-10 9781908978004
Release 2011-07-21
Pages 392
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This book provides a general overview of syngas technologies as well as an in-depth analysis of the steam reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon oxides which can be made from hydrocarbons, coal and biomass. It is an important intermediate in the chemical industry for manufacture of ammonia, methanol and other petrochemicals as well as hydrogen for refineries and fuel cells. Syngas is playing a growing role in the energy sector, because it can be converted into a number of important energy carriers and fuels. Syngas catalysis creates new options and flexibility in the complex energy network. The steam reforming process is the main technology today for manufacture of syngas. It is a complex intern-mingling of catalysis and heat transfer with restrictions caused by secondary phenomena such as carbon formation. Many of the principles are applicable for other gasification technologies of growing importance. Concepts of Syngas Preparation aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to this complex field of growing importance and gives a detailed analysis of the catalyst and process problems. This book also serves as an important link between science and industry by illustrating how the basic principles can be applied to solve design issues and operational problems. Contents:Basic Principles:Routes to Syngas:General trendsManufacture by steam reforming of hydrocarbonsOther manufacture routesOther feedstocksGas treatmentSyngas Applications:Thermodynamic framework for syngas processesHydrogenFuel cellsCO rich gasesAmmoniaMethanol and synfuelsChemical recuperationSteam Reforming Technology:Technology of Steam Reforming:Early developmentsSteam reforming reactorsModelling of steam reforming reactorsModelling of the catalyst particleReaction kineticsCatalyst Properties and Activity:Catalyst structure and stabilityNickel surface areaCatalyst activityCarbon and Sulphur:Secondary phenomenaCarbon formationSteam reforming of higher hydrocarbonsSulphur poisoning of reforming reactionsSulphur passivated reformingOther poisonsCatalysis of Steam Reforming:Historical perspectiveThe role of step sitesGeometric or electronic effectsMetal activity. Micro-kineticsThe parallel approach Readership: Graduates and postgraduates in the field of catalysis chemistry, as well as researchers and chemical engineers. Keywords:Catalysis;Synthesis Gas;Syngas;Hydrogen;Steam Reforming;Autothermal Reforming;Gasification;Process Analysis;Synfuels;Fuel Cells;Thermodynamic Analysis;Carbon Formation;Sulphur PoisoningKey Features:Provides detailed analysis of steam reforming technology, written by highly accomplished specialists with years of industrial experience and high number of publications and citation rates



Energy Research Abstracts

Energy Research Abstracts Author
ISBN-10 MSU:31293010869539
Release 1993
Pages
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Energy Research Abstracts has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Energy Research Abstracts also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Energy Research Abstracts book for free.



Chemical Energy Storage

Chemical Energy Storage Author Robert Schlögl
ISBN-10 9783110266320
Release 2013-01-01
Pages 499
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Energy – in the headlines, discussed controversially, vital. The use of regenerative energy in many primary forms leads to the necessity to store grid dimensions for maintaining continuous supply and enabling the replacement of fossil fuel systems. This work provides a hands-on insight into the present status of energy conversion and deals with aspects of chemical energy storage considering the geosphere, electrochemistry, catalysis, synthesis of catalysts, functional analysis of catalytic processes and the interface between electrochemistry and heterogeneous catalysis.



Proceedings

Proceedings Author Bio-energy Council
ISBN-10 UOM:39015006056512
Release 1980
Pages 586
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Proceedings has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Proceedings also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Proceedings book for free.



Synthetic liquid fuels

Synthetic liquid fuels Author United States. Bureau of Mines
ISBN-10 UOM:39015078491076
Release 1950
Pages 70
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Synthetic liquid fuels has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Synthetic liquid fuels also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Synthetic liquid fuels book for free.



Oil and Gas Production Handbook An Introduction to Oil and Gas Production

Oil and Gas Production Handbook  An Introduction to Oil and Gas Production Author Havard Devold
ISBN-10 9781105538643
Release 2013*
Pages 82
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Oil and Gas Production Handbook An Introduction to Oil and Gas Production has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Oil and Gas Production Handbook An Introduction to Oil and Gas Production also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Oil and Gas Production Handbook An Introduction to Oil and Gas Production book for free.



Biomass for Renewable Energy Fuels and Chemicals

Biomass for Renewable Energy  Fuels  and Chemicals Author Donald L. Klass
ISBN-10 0080528058
Release 1998-07-06
Pages 651
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Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels, and Chemicals serves as a comprehensive introduction to the subject for the student and educator, and is useful for researchers who are interested in the technical details of biomass energy production. The coverage and discussion are multidisciplinary, reflecting the many scientific and engineering disciplines involved. The book will appeal to a broad range of energy professionals and specialists, farmers and foresters who are searching for methods of selecting, growing, and converting energy crops, entrepreneurs who are commercializing biomass energy projects, and those involved in designing solid and liquid waste disposal-energy recovery systems. Presents a graduated treatment from basic principles to the details of specific technologies Includes a critical analysis of many biomass energy research and commercialization activities Proposes several new technical approaches to improve efficiencies, net energy production, and economics Reviews failed projects, as well as successes, and methods for overcoming barriers to commercialization Written by a leader in the field with 40 years of educational, research, and commercialization experience



Fischer Tropsch Refining

Fischer Tropsch Refining Author Arno de Klerk
ISBN-10 9783527635610
Release 2012-12-21
Pages 638
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The Fischer-Tropsch process is gaining recognition again due to the world-wide increase in energy needs and decrease in oil availability. The increasing interest in utilizing biomass as a potential renewable feedstock in energy generation is further supporting this development. The book covers the production and refining of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude to fuels and chemicals systematically and comprehensively, presenting a wealth of new knowledge and material. As such, it deals extensively with aspects of engineering, chemistry and catalysis. This handbook and ready reference adopts a fundamental approach, looking at the molecules and their transformation from feed to product. Numerous examples illustrate the possibilities and limitations of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude as feesdstock. Of great interest to everyone interested in refining - not just Fischer-Tropsch specialists. From the Contents: Fischer-Tropsch Facilities and Refineries at a Glance Production of Fischer-Tropsch Syncrude Industrial Fischer-Tropsch Facilities Synthetic Transportation Fuels Refining Technology Refinery Design