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Social Inequalities in Health in Nonhuman Primates

Social Inequalities in Health in Nonhuman Primates Author Carol A. Shively
ISBN-10 9783319308722
Release 2016-04-20
Pages 178
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This book provides a comprehensive look at nonhuman primate social inequalities as models for health differences associated with socioeconomic status in humans. The benefit of the socially-housed monkey model is that it provides the complexity of hierarchical structure and rank affiliation, i.e. both negative and positive aspects of social status. At the same time, nonhuman primates are more amenable to controlled experiments and more invasive studies that can be used in human beings to examine the effects of low status on brain development, neuroendocrine function, immunity, and eating behavior. Because all of these biological and behavioral substrates form the underpinnings of human illness, and are likely shared among primates, the nonhuman primate model can significantly advance our understanding of the best interventions in humans.



Howler Monkeys

Howler Monkeys Author Martín M. Kowalewski
ISBN-10 9781493919604
Release 2014-12-04
Pages 440
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Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) comprise twelve species of leaf-eating New World monkeys that range from southern Mexico through northern Argentina. This genus is the most widespread of any New World primate taxa, and can be found to inhabit a range of forest types from undisturbed rainforest to severely anthropogenically impacted forest fragments. Although there have been many studies on individual species of howler monkeys, this book is the first comprehensive volume to place information on howler behavior and biology within a theoretical framework of ecological and social adaptability. This is the second of two volumes devoted to the genus Alouatta. This volume: · Examines behavioral and physiological mechanisms that enable howler monkeys to exploit highly disturbed and fragmented habitats · Presents models of howler monkey diet, social organization, and mating systems that can also inform researchers studying Old World colobines, apes, and other tropical mammals These goals are achieved in a collection of chapters written by a distinguished group of scientists on the feeding ecology, behavior, mating strategies, and management and conservation of howlers. This book also contains chapters on the howler microbiome, the concept of behavioral variability, sexual selection, and the role of primates in forest regeneration.



New Horizons in Health

New Horizons in Health Author Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences
ISBN-10 9780309072960
Release 2001-02-09
Pages 224
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New Horizons in Health discusses how the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can integrate research in the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences to better understand the causes of disease as well as interventions that promote health. It outlines a set of research priorities for consideration by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR), with particular attention to research that can support and complement the work of the National Institutes of Health. By addressing the range of interactions among social settings, behavioral patterns, and important health concerns, it highlights areas of scientific opportunity where significant investment is most likely to improve national—and global—health outcomes. These opportunities will apply the knowledge and methods of the behavioral and social sciences to contemporary health needs, and give attention to the chief health concerns of the general public.



Origins of Altruism and Cooperation

Origins of Altruism and Cooperation Author Robert W. Sussman
ISBN-10 144199520X
Release 2011-08-02
Pages 440
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This book is about the evolution and nature of cooperation and altruism in social-living animals, focusing especially on non-human primates and on humans. Although cooperation and altruism are often thought of as ways to attenuate competition and aggression within groups, or are related to the action of “selfish genes”, there is increasing evidence that these behaviors are the result of biological mechanisms that have developed through natural selection in group-living species. This evidence leads to the conclusion that cooperative and altruistic behavior are not just by-products of competition but are rather the glue that underlies the ability for primates and humans to live in groups. The anthropological, primatological, paleontological, behavioral, neurobiological, and psychological evidence provided in this book gives a more optimistic view of human nature than the more popular, conventional view of humans being naturally and basically aggressive and warlike. Although competition and aggression are recognized as an important part of the non-human primate and human behavioral repertoire, the evidence from these fields indicates that cooperation and altruism may represent the more typical, “normal”, and healthy behavioral pattern. The book is intended both for the general reader and also for students at a variety of levels (graduate and undergraduate): it aims to provide a compact, accessible, and up-to-date account of the current scholarly advances and debates in this field of study, and it is designed to be used in teaching and in discussion groups. The book derived from a conference sponsored by N.S.F., the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, the Washington University Committee for Ethics and Human Values, and the Anthropedia Foundation for the study of well-being.



Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity

Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity Author Alexey Moskalev
ISBN-10 9780128110836
Release 2017-11-17
Pages 544
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Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity provides an in-depth analysis of the epigenetic nature of aging and the role of epigenetic factors in mediating the link between early-life experiences and life-course health and aging. Chapters from leading international contributors explore the effect of adverse conditions in early-life that may result in disrupted epigenetic pathways, as well as the potential to correct these disrupted pathways via targeted therapeutic interventions. Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance, epigenetic drug discovery, and the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating specific age-associated illnesses—including cancer and cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases—are explored in detail. This book will help researchers in genomic medicine, epigenetics, and biogerontology better understand the epigenetic determinants of aging and longevity, and ultimately aid in developing therapeutics to extend the human life-span and treat age-related disease. Offers a comprehensive overview of the epigenetic nature of aging, as well as the impact of epigenetic factors on longevity and regulating age-related disease Provides readers with clinical and epidemiological evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the link between early-life experiences, life-course health and aging trajectory Applies current knowledge of epigenetic regulatory pathways towards developing therapeutic interventions for age-related diseases and extending the human lifespan



Calcium Signalling and Disease

Calcium Signalling and Disease Author Ernesto Carafoli
ISBN-10 9781402061912
Release 2007-09-29
Pages 592
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Authors highlight several promising discoveries in the field of calcium signaling that provide new information about both genetic and acquired pathologies. Their discussions will give you new insights into the underlying causes of congenital and acquired diseases and point the way to new, even more promising research and therapies.



Ethnoprimatology

Ethnoprimatology Author Michel T. Waller
ISBN-10 9783319304694
Release 2016-07-28
Pages 422
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The list of challenges facing nonhuman primates in the 21st century is a long one. The expansion of palm oil plantations to feed a growing consumer class is eating away at ape and monkey habitats in Southeast Asia and Central Africa. Lemurs are hunted for food in the poorest parts of Madagascar while monkeys are used as medicine in Brazil. Traditional cultural beliefs are maintaining demand for animal body parts in West African markets while viral YouTube videos of “cute” and “cuddly” lorises have increased their market value as pets and endangered their populations. These and other issues are addressed in this book by leading researchers in the field of ethnoprimatology, the study of human/nonhuman primate interactions that combines traditional primatological methodologies with cultural anthropology in an effort to better understand the nuances of our economic, ritualistic, and ecologic relationships.



Threats to Mangrove Forests

Threats to Mangrove Forests Author Christopher Makowski
ISBN-10 9783319730165
Release 2018-04-20
Pages 724
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This book focuses on the worldwide threats to mangrove forests and the management solutions currently being used to counteract those hazards. Designed for the professional or specialist in marine science, coastal zone management, biology, and related disciplines, this work will appeal to those not only working to protect mangrove forests, but also the surrounding coastal areas of all types. Examples are drawn from many different geographic areas, including North and South America, India, and Southeast Asia. Subject areas covered include both human-induced and natural impacts to mangroves, intended or otherwise, as well as the efforts being made by coastal researchers to promote restoration of these coastal fringing forests.



Race Monogamy and Other Lies They Told You

Race  Monogamy  and Other Lies They Told You Author Agustín Fuentes
ISBN-10 9780520285996
Release 2015-05
Pages 304
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There are three major myths of human nature: humans are divided into biological races; humans are naturally aggressive; and men and women are truly different in behavior, desires, and wiring. In an engaging and wide-ranging narrative, Agustín Fuentes counters these pervasive and pernicious myths about human behavior. Tackling misconceptions about what race, aggression, and sex really mean for humans, Fuentes incorporates an accessible understanding of culture, genetics, and evolution, requiring us to dispose of notions of “nature or nurture.” Presenting scientific evidence from diverse fields—including anthropology, biology, and psychology—Fuentes devises a myth-busting toolkit to dismantle persistent fallacies about the validity of biological races, the innateness of aggression and violence, and the nature of monogamy and differences between the sexes. A final chapter plus an appendix provide a set of take-home points on how readers can myth-bust on their own. Accessible, compelling, and original, this book is a rich and nuanced account of how nature, culture, experience, and choice interact to influence human behavior.



Microbial Threats to Health

Microbial Threats to Health Author Institute of Medicine
ISBN-10 0309185548
Release 2003-08-25
Pages 397
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Infectious diseases are a global hazard that puts every nation and every person at risk. The recent SARS outbreak is a prime example. Knowing neither geographic nor political borders, often arriving silently and lethally, microbial pathogens constitute a grave threat to the health of humans. Indeed, a majority of countries recently identified the spread of infectious disease as the greatest global problem they confront. Throughout history, humans have struggled to control both the causes and consequences of infectious diseases and we will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. Following up on a high-profile 1992 report from the Institute of Medicine, Microbial Threats to Health examines the current state of knowledge and policy pertaining to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases from around the globe. It examines the spectrum of microbial threats, factors in disease emergence, and the ultimate capacity of the United States to meet the challenges posed by microbial threats to human health. From the impact of war or technology on disease emergence to the development of enhanced disease surveillance and vaccine strategies, Microbial Threats to Health contains valuable information for researchers, students, health care providers, policymakers, public health officials. and the interested public.



The Metabolic Ghetto

The Metabolic Ghetto Author Jonathan Wells
ISBN-10 9781107009479
Release 2016-07-21
Pages 622
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A multidisciplinary analysis of the role of nutrition in generating hierarchical societies and cultivating a global epidemic of chronic diseases.



Mind the Gap

Mind the Gap Author Peter M Kappeler
ISBN-10 3642027253
Release 2009-11-09
Pages 504
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This volume features a collection of essays by primatologists, anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists who offer some answers to the question of what makes us human, i. e. , what is the nature and width of the gap that separates us from other primates? The chapters of this volume summarize the latest research on core aspects of behavioral and cognitive traits that make humans such unusual animals. All contributors adopt an explicitly comparative approach, which is based on the premise that comparative studies of our closest biological relatives, the nonhuman primates, provide the logical foundation for identifying human univ- sals as well as evidence for evolutionary continuity in our social behavior. Each of the chapters in this volume provides comparative analyses of relevant data from primates and humans, or pairs of chapters examine the same topic from a human or primatological perspective, respectively. Together, they cover six broad topics that are relevant to identifying potential human behavioral universals. Family and social organization. Predation pressure is thought to be the main force favoring group-living in primates, but there is great diversity in the size and structure of social groups across the primate order. Research on the behavioral ecology of primates and other animals has revealed that the distribution of males and females in space and time can be explained by sex-speci?c adaptations that are sensitive to factors that limit their ?tness: access to resources for females and access to potential mates for males.



Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology

Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology Author Elliott Sober
ISBN-10 0262691620
Release 1994
Pages 506
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There has been considerable and lively debate in philosophy of biology over the decade since the first edition of this anthology appeared. Changes and additions in the new edition reflect the ways in which the subject has broadened and deepened on several fronts; more than half of the-chapters are new. In all, twenty-three selections take up fitness, function and teleology, adaptationism, units of selection, essentialism and population thinking, species, systematic philosophies, phylogenetic inference, reduction of Mendelian genetics to molecular biology, ethics and sociobiology, and cultural evolution and evolutionary epistemology. Elliott Sober is Hans Reichenbach Professor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.



Primates Pathogens and Evolution

Primates  Pathogens  and Evolution Author Jessica F. Brinkworth
ISBN-10 9781461471813
Release 2013-08-30
Pages 428
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The immune systems of human and non-human primates have diverged over time, such that some species differ considerably in their susceptibility, symptoms, and survival of particular infectious diseases. Variation in primate immunity is such that major human pathogens - such as immunodeficiency viruses, herpesviruses and malaria-inducing species of Plasmodium - elicit striking differences in immune response between closely related species and within primate populations. These differences in immunity are the outcome of complex evolutionary processes that include interactions between the host, its pathogens and symbiont/commensal organisms. The success of some pathogens in establishing persistent infections in humans and other primates has been determined not just by the molecular evolution of the pathogen and its interactions with the host, but also by the evolution of primate behavior and ecology, microflora, immune factors and the evolution of other biological systems. To explore how interactions between primates and their pathogens have shaped their mutual molecular evolution, Primates, Pathogens and Evolution brings together research that explores comparative primate immune function, the emergence of major and neglected primate diseases, primate-microorganism molecular interactions, and related topics. This book will be of interest to anyone curious as to why infectious diseases manifest differently in humans and their closest relatives. It will be of particular interest to scholars specializing in human and non-human primate evolution, epidemiology and immunology, and disease ecology. Primates, Pathogens and Evolution offers an overview and discussion of current findings on differences in the molecular mechanics of primate immune response, as well as on pathogen-mediated primate evolution and human and non-human primate health.



Missing the Revolution

Missing the Revolution Author Jerome H. Barkow
ISBN-10 9780195130027
Release 2006-01
Pages 302
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In The Adapted Mind, Jerome Barkow, along with Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, set out to redefine evolutionary psychology for the social sciences and to create a new agenda for the next generation of social scientists. While biologically oriented psychologists quickly accepted the work, social scientists in psychology and researchers in anthropology and sociology, who deal with the same questions of human behavior, were more resistant. Missing the Revolution is an invitation to researchers from these disciplines who, in Barkow's view, have been missing the great evolution-revolution of our time to engage with Darwinian thought, which is now so large a part of the non-sociological study of human nature and society. Barkow asks the reader to put aside the preconceptions and stereotypes social scientists often have of the "biological" and to take into account a powerful paradigm that is far away from those past generations who would invoke a vocabulary of "genes" and "Darwin" as justification for genocide. The evolutionary perspective, Barkow maintains, provides no particular support for the status quo, no rationalizations for racism or any other form of social inequality. "Cultural" cannot possibly be opposed to "biological" because culture and society are the only means we have of expressing our evolved psychology; social-cultural constructionism is not only compatible with an evolutionary approach but demanded by it. To marshal evidence for his argument, Barkow has gathered together eminent scholars from a variety of disciplines to present applications of evolutionary psychology in a manner intended to illustrate their relevance to current concerns for social scientists. The contributors include, among others, evolutionary psychologist Anne Campbell, a Darwinian feminist who reaches out to feminist social cosntructionists; sociologist Ulica Segarstrale, who analyzes the opposition of the "cultural left" to Darwinism; sociologist Bernd Baldus, who criticizes evolutionists for ignoring agency; criminologist Anthony Walsh, who presents a biosocial criminology; and primatologists Lars Rodseth and Shannon A. Novak, who reveal an unexpected uniqueness to human social organization. Missing the Revolution is a challenge to scholars to think critically about a powerful social and intellectual movement which insists that the theoretical perspective that has been so successful when applied to the behavior of other animal species can be applied to our own.



Early Child Development from Measurement to Action

Early Child Development from Measurement to Action Author Mary E. Young
ISBN-10 9780821370872
Release 2007
Pages 306
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Prosperity in the world today depends on societies' nurturing of young children. Quality care (stimulation, health, and nutrition) during ages 0 - 5 has a decisive and long-lasting impact on a person's development, ability to learn, and capacity to regulate emotions. Cognitive and noncognitive (social and emotional) skills, set early in life, determine later success. New research in neurobiology and the behavioral and social sciences is converging to enhance this understanding of early child development. Recently, researchers noted epigenetic effects in brain development - that is, the interaction of environment (early experiences) with genetics to shape brain structure and function - that with proper nurturing would enable people to have competence to create prosperous, sustainable, tolerant, nonviolent, and democratic communities. The World Bank recently hosted a symposium on the priority of early child development for economic growth and equity. The participants urged application of population - based tools and measures to assess the outcomes of children's early years and children's readiness for school. This approach, which shifts the focus from measures of disease, dysfunction, and mortality, is already yielding essential data for designing intervention programs, identifying children at risk, and leveraging policy and investment - to improve the possibilities for all children globally.



The Health Gap

The Health Gap Author Michael Marmot
ISBN-10 9781408857984
Release 2015-09-10
Pages 400
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There are dramatic differences in health between countries and within countries. But this is not a simple matter of rich and poor. A poor man in Glasgow is rich compared to the average Indian, but the Glaswegian's life expectancy is 8 years shorter. The Indian is dying of infectious disease linked to his poverty; the Glaswegian of violent death, suicide, heart disease linked to a rich country's version of disadvantage. In all countries, people at relative social disadvantage suffer health disadvantage, dramatically so. Within countries, the higher the social status of individuals the better is their health. These health inequalities defy usual explanations. Conventional approaches to improving health have emphasised access to technical solutions – improved medical care, sanitation, and control of disease vectors; or behaviours – smoking, drinking – obesity, linked to diabetes, heart disease and cancer. These approaches only go so far. Creating the conditions for people to lead flourishing lives, and thus empowering individuals and communities, is key to reduction of health inequalities. In addition to the scale of material success, your position in the social hierarchy also directly affects your health, the higher you are on the social scale, the longer you will live and the better your health will be. As people change rank, so their health risk changes. What makes these health inequalities unjust is that evidence from round the world shows we know what to do to make them smaller. This new evidence is compelling. It has the potential to change radically the way we think about health, and indeed society.