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Spin Current

Spin Current Author Sadamichi Maekawa
ISBN-10 9780191635113
Release 2012-07-26
Pages 462
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Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called "spin current", are manipulated and controlled together. Recent progress in the physics of magnetism and the application of spin current has progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book is intended to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current. The emphasis is placed on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.



Concepts in Spin Electronics

Concepts in Spin Electronics Author Sadamichi Maekawa
ISBN-10 9780198568216
Release 2006-01-26
Pages 398
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Recently, a new branch of physics and nanotechnology called spin electronics has emerged, which aims at simultaneously exploiting the charge and spin of electrons in the same device. The aim of this book is to present new directions in the development of spin electronics in both the basic physics and the technology which will become the foundation of future electronics.



Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology

Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology Author
ISBN-10 9780080932286
Release 2011-01-28
Pages 3608
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Semiconductors are at the heart of modern living. Almost everything we do, be it work, travel, communication, or entertainment, all depend on some feature of semiconductor technology. Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology captures the breadth of this important field, and presents it in a single source to the large audience who study, make, and exploit semiconductors. Previous attempts at this achievement have been abbreviated, and have omitted important topics. Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts, this work delivers an objective yet cohesive global review of the semiconductor world. The work is divided into three sections. The first section is concerned with the fundamental physics of semiconductors, showing how the electronic features and the lattice dynamics change drastically when systems vary from bulk to a low-dimensional structure and further to a nanometer size. Throughout this section there is an emphasis on the full understanding of the underlying physics. The second section deals largely with the transformation of the conceptual framework of solid state physics into devices and systems which require the growth of extremely high purity, nearly defect-free bulk and epitaxial materials. The last section is devoted to exploitation of the knowledge described in the previous sections to highlight the spectrum of devices we see all around us. Provides a comprehensive global picture of the semiconductor world Each of the work's three sections presents a complete description of one aspect of the whole Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts



Microcavities

Microcavities Author Alexey Kavokin
ISBN-10 9780191620737
Release 2011-04-28
Pages 440
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Rapid development of microfabrication and assembly of nanostructures has opened up many opportunities to miniaturize structures that confine light, producing unusual and extremely interesting optical properties. This book addresses the large variety of optical phenomena taking place in confined solid state structures: microcavities. Realisations include planar and pillar microcavities, whispering gallery modes, and photonic crystals. The microcavities represent a unique laboratory for quantum optics and photonics. They exhibit a number of beautiful effects including lasing, superfluidity, superradiance, entanglement etc. Written by four practitioners strongly involved in experiments and theories of microcavities, it is addressed to any interested reader having a general physical background, but in particular to undergraduate and graduate students at physics faculties.



Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors

Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors Author Prasanta Kumar Basu
ISBN-10 0198526202
Release 2002-10-01
Pages 448
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Semiconductor optoelectronic devices are at the heart of all information generation and processing systems and are likely to be essential components of future optical computers. With more emphasis on optoelectronics and photonics in graduate programmes in physics and engineering, there is a need for a text providing a basic understanding of the important physical phenomena involved. Such a training is necessary for the design, optimization, and search for new materials, devices, and application areas. This book provides a simple quantum mechanical theory of important optical processes, i.e. band-to-band, intersubband, and excitonic absorption and recombination in bulk, quantum wells, wires, dots, superlattices, and strained layers including electro-optic effects. The classical theory of absorption, quantization of radiation, and band picture based on k.p perturbation has been included to provide the necessary background. Prerequisites for the book are a knowledge of quantum mechanics and solid state theory. Problems have been set at the end of each chapter, some of which may guide the reader to study processes not covered in the book. The application areas of the phenomena are also indicated.



III Nitride Semiconductors and Their Modern Devices

III Nitride Semiconductors and Their Modern Devices Author Bernard Gil
ISBN-10 9780199681723
Release 2013-08-22
Pages 638
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All recent developments of nitrides and of their technology are gathered here in a single book, with chapters written by world leaders in the field.



Semiconductor Detector Systems

Semiconductor Detector Systems Author Helmuth Spieler
ISBN-10 9780191523656
Release 2005-08-25
Pages 512
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Semiconductor sensors patterned at the micron scale combined with custom-designed integrated circuits have revolutionized semiconductor radiation detector systems. Designs covering many square meters with millions of signal channels are now commonplace in high-energy physics and the technology is finding its way into many other fields, ranging from astrophysics to experiments at synchrotron light sources and medical imaging. This book is the first to present a comprehensive discussion of the many facets of highly integrated semiconductor detector systems, covering sensors, signal processing, transistors and circuits, low-noise electronics, and radiation effects. The diversity of design approaches is illustrated in a chapter describing systems in high-energy physics, astronomy, and astrophysics. Finally a chapter "Why things don't work" discusses common pitfalls. Profusely illustrated, this book provides a unique reference in a key area of modern science.



Plasmonic Effects in Metal Semiconductor Nanostructures

Plasmonic Effects in Metal Semiconductor Nanostructures Author Alexey A. Toropov
ISBN-10 9780199699315
Release 2015
Pages 369
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Metal-semiconductor nanostructures represent an important new class of materials employed in designing advanced optoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, such as plasmonic nanolasers, plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes and solar cells, plasmonic emitters of single photons, and quantum devices operating in infrared and terahertz domains. The combination of surface plasmon resonances in conducting structures, providing strong concentration of an electromagnetic optical field nearby, with sharp optical resonances in semiconductors, which are highly sensitive to external electromagnetic fields, creates a platform to control light on the nanoscale. The design of the composite metal-semiconductor system imposes the consideration of both the plasmonic resonances in metal and the optical transitions in semiconductors - a key issue being their resonant interaction providing a coupling regime. In this book the reader will find descriptions of electrodynamics of conducting structures, quantum physics of semiconductor nanostructures, and guidelines for advanced engineering of metal-semiconductor composites. These constituents form together the physical basics of the metal-semiconductor plasmonics, underlying many effective practical applications. The list of covered topics also includes the review of recent results, such as the achievement of a strong coupling regime, and the preservation of non-classical statistics of photons in plasmonic cavities combined with semiconductor nanostructures.



Semiconductor Physics and Applications

Semiconductor Physics and Applications Author M. Balkanski
ISBN-10 0198517416
Release 2000-08-31
Pages 487
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This textbook covers the basic physics of semiconductors and their applications to practical devices, with emphasis on the basic physical principles upon which these devices operate. Extensive use of figures is made to enhance the clarity of the presentation and to establish contact with the experimental side of the topic. Graduate students and lecturers in semiconductor physics, condensed matter physics, electromagnetic theory, and quantum mechanics will find this a useful textbook and reference work.



Introduction to Spintronics Second Edition

Introduction to Spintronics  Second Edition Author Supriyo Bandyopadhyay
ISBN-10 9781482255577
Release 2015-09-18
Pages 636
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Introduction to Spintronics provides an accessible, organized, and progressive presentation of the quantum mechanical concept of spin and the technology of using it to store, process, and communicate information. Fully updated and expanded to 18 chapters, this Second Edition: Reflects the explosion of study in spin-related physics, addressing seven important physical phenomena with spintronic device applications Discusses the recently discovered field of spintronics without magnetism, which allows one to manipulate spin currents by purely electrical means Explores lateral spin-orbit interaction and its many nuances, as well as the possibility to implement spin polarizers and analyzers using quantum point contacts Introduces the concept of single-domain-nanomagnet-based computing, an ultra-energy-efficient approach to compute and store information using nanomagnets, offering a practical rendition of single-spin logic architecture ideas and an alternative to transistor-based computing hardware Features many new drill problems, and includes a solution manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption Still the only known spintronics textbook written in English, Introduction to Spintronics, Second Edition is a must read for those interested in the science and technology of storing, processing, and communicating information via the spin degree of freedom of electrons.



Solid State Physics

Solid State Physics Author Henry Ehrenreich
ISBN-10 0080865224
Release 2004-07-17
Pages 192
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Solid state physics is the branch of physics that is primarily devoted to the study of matter in its solid phase, especially at the atomic level. This prestigious serial presents timely and state-of-the-art reviews pertaining to all aspects of solid state physics.



Semiconductor Spintronics

Semiconductor Spintronics Author Jianbai Xia
ISBN-10 9789814327916
Release 2012
Pages 550
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Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors'' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.a



Low dimensional Semiconductors

Low dimensional Semiconductors Author M. J. Kelly
ISBN-10 9780191590092
Release 1995-11-23
Pages 564
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This text is a first attempt to pull together the whole of semiconductor science and technology since 1970 in so far as semiconductor multilayers are concerned. Material, technology, physics and device issues are described with approximately equal emphasis, and form a single coherant point of view. The subject matter is the concern of over half of today's active semiconductor scientists and technologists, the remainder working on bulk semiconductors and devices. It is now routine to design and the prepare semiconductor multilayers at a time, with independent control over the dropping and composition in each layer. In turn these multilayers can be patterned with features that as a small as a few atomic layers in lateral extent. The resulting structures open up many new ares of exciting solid state and quantum physics. They have also led to whole new generations of electronic and optoelectronic devices whose superior performance relates back to the multilayer structures. The principles established in the field have several decades to go, advancing towards the ultimate of materials engineering, the design and preparation of solids atom by atom. The book should appeal equally to physicists, electronic engineers and materials scientists.



Introduction to Magnetic Random Access Memory

Introduction to Magnetic Random Access Memory Author Bernard Dieny
ISBN-10 9781119009740
Release 2016-12-12
Pages 264
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Magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) is poised to replace traditional computer memory based on complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS). MRAM will surpass all other types of memory devices in terms of nonvolatility, low energy dissipation, fast switching speed, radiation hardness, and durability. Although toggle-MRAM is currently a commercial product, it is clear that future developments in MRAM will be based on spin-transfer torque, which makes use of electrons’ spin angular momentum instead of their charge. MRAM will require an amalgamation of magnetics and microelectronics technologies. However, researchers and developers in magnetics and in microelectronics attend different technical conferences, publish in different journals, use different tools, and have different backgrounds in condensed-matter physics, electrical engineering, and materials science. This book is an introduction to MRAM for microelectronics engineers written by specialists in magnetic materials and devices. It presents the basic phenomena involved in MRAM, the materials and film stacks being used, the basic principles of the various types of MRAM (toggle and spin-transfer torque; magnetized in-plane or perpendicular-to-plane), the back-end magnetic technology, and recent developments toward logic-in-memory architectures. It helps bridge the cultural gap between the microelectronics and magnetics communities.



Hot Electrons in Semiconductors

Hot Electrons in Semiconductors Author N. Balkan
ISBN-10 0198500580
Release 1998
Pages 512
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Since the arrival of the transistor in 1947, research in hot electrons, like any field in semiconductor research, has grown at a stunning rate. From a physicist's point of view the understanding of hot electrons and their interactions with the lattice has always been a challenging problem of condensed matter physics. Recently, with the advent of novel fabrication techniques such as electron beam or plasma etching and the advanced growth techniques such as the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)and metallo-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), it has become possible to fabricate semiconductor devices with sub-micron dimensions where the electrons are confined to two (quantum well), one (quantum wire) or zero (quantum dot) dimensions. In devices of such dimensions a few volts applied to the device result in the setting up of very high electric fields, hence a substantial heating of electrons. Thus electronic transport in the device becomes non- linear and can no longer be described using the simple equations of Ohm's law. The understanding of the operations of such devices, and the realisations of more advanced ones make it necessary to understand the dynamics of hot electrons. There is an obvious lack of good reference books on hot electrons in semiconductors. The few that exist either cover a very narrow field or are becoming quite outdated. This book is therefore written with the aim of filling the vacuum in an area where there is much demand for a comprehensive reference book. The book is intended for both established researchers and graduate students, and gives a complete account of the historical development of the subject, together with current research interests and future trends. The contributions are written by leading scientists in the field. They cover the physics of hot electrons in bulk and low dimensional device technology. The material is organised into subject area that can be classified broadly into five groups: (1)introduction and overview, (2)hot electron phonon interactions and the ultra-fast phenomena in bulk and two dimensional structures, (3)hot electrons in both long and short quantum wires and quantum dots, (4) hot electron tunnelling and hot electron transport in superlattices, and (5) novel devices based on hot electron transport. The chapters are grouped according to subject matter as far as possible. However, although there is much overlap of ideas and concepts, each chapter is essentially independent of the others.



Advances in III V Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanodevices

Advances in III V Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanodevices Author Jianye Li
ISBN-10 1608050521
Release 2011-01-01
Pages 178
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Semiconductor nanowires exhibit novel electronic and optical properties due to their unique one-dimensional structure and quantum confinement effects. In particular, III-V semiconductor nanowires have been of great scientific and technological interest for next generation optoelectronic devices including transistors, light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, and solar cells. Advances in III-V Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanodevices is an account of recent progress in the synthesis, characterization, physical properties, device fabrication, and applications of binary compound and ternary alloy III-V semiconductor nanowires. Each chapter is prepared by renowned experts in the field, describing the current state of knowledge and key areas of research. the book is written at the expert level, but also serves as a guide for researchers or graduate students aiming to enter semiconductor research.



Nano Devices and Sensors

Nano Devices and Sensors Author Juin J. Liou
ISBN-10 9781501501531
Release 2016-04-25
Pages 228
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This volume on semiconductor devices focuses on such topics as nano-imprinting, lithography, nanowire charge-trapping, thermo-stability in nanowires, nano-electrodes, and voltage and materials used for fabricating and improving electrical characteristics of nano-materials.