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State Space Methods for Time Series Analysis

State Space Methods for Time Series Analysis Author Jose Casals
ISBN-10 9781482219609
Release 2016-04-06
Pages 270
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The state-space approach provides a formal framework where any result or procedure developed for a basic model can be seamlessly applied to a standard formulation written in state-space form. Moreover, it can accommodate with a reasonable effort nonstandard situations, such as observation errors, aggregation constraints, or missing in-sample values. Exploring the advantages of this approach, State-Space Methods for Time Series Analysis: Theory, Applications and Software presents many computational procedures that can be applied to a previously specified linear model in state-space form. After discussing the formulation of the state-space model, the book illustrates the flexibility of the state-space representation and covers the main state estimation algorithms: filtering and smoothing. It then shows how to compute the Gaussian likelihood for unknown coefficients in the state-space matrices of a given model before introducing subspace methods and their application. It also discusses signal extraction, describes two algorithms to obtain the VARMAX matrices corresponding to any linear state-space model, and addresses several issues relating to the aggregation and disaggregation of time series. The book concludes with a cross-sectional extension to the classical state-space formulation in order to accommodate longitudinal or panel data. Missing data is a common occurrence here, and the book explains imputation procedures necessary to treat missingness in both exogenous and endogenous variables. Web Resource The authors’ E4 MATLAB® toolbox offers all the computational procedures, administrative and analytical functions, and related materials for time series analysis. This flexible, powerful, and free software tool enables readers to replicate the practical examples in the text and apply the procedures to their own work.



Probabilistic Foundations of Statistical Network Analysis

Probabilistic Foundations of Statistical Network Analysis Author Harry Crane
ISBN-10 9781351807333
Release 2018-04-17
Pages 236
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Probabilistic Foundations of Statistical Network Analysis presents a fresh and insightful perspective on the fundamental tenets and major challenges of modern network analysis. Its lucid exposition provides necessary background for understanding the essential ideas behind exchangeable and dynamic network models, network sampling, and network statistics such as sparsity and power law, all of which play a central role in contemporary data science and machine learning applications. The book rewards readers with a clear and intuitive understanding of the subtle interplay between basic principles of statistical inference, empirical properties of network data, and technical concepts from probability theory. Its mathematically rigorous, yet non-technical, exposition makes the book accessible to professional data scientists, statisticians, and computer scientists as well as practitioners and researchers in substantive fields. Newcomers and non-quantitative researchers will find its conceptual approach invaluable for developing intuition about technical ideas from statistics and probability, while experts and graduate students will find the book a handy reference for a wide range of new topics, including edge exchangeability, relative exchangeability, graphon and graphex models, and graph-valued Levy process and rewiring models for dynamic networks. The author’s incisive commentary supplements these core concepts, challenging the reader to push beyond the current limitations of this emerging discipline. With an approachable exposition and more than 50 open research problems and exercises with solutions, this book is ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students interested in modern network analysis, data science, machine learning, and statistics. Harry Crane is Associate Professor and Co-Director of the Graduate Program in Statistics and Biostatistics and an Associate Member of the Graduate Faculty in Philosophy at Rutgers University. Professor Crane’s research interests cover a range of mathematical and applied topics in network science, probability theory, statistical inference, and mathematical logic. In addition to his technical work on edge and relational exchangeability, relative exchangeability, and graph-valued Markov processes, Prof. Crane’s methods have been applied to domain-specific cybersecurity and counterterrorism problems at the Foreign Policy Research Institute and RAND’s Project AIR FORCE. ? ? ? ? ? ?



Nonparametric Models for Longitudinal Data

Nonparametric Models for Longitudinal Data Author Colin O. Wu
ISBN-10 9780429939082
Release 2018-05-23
Pages 552
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Nonparametric Models for Longitudinal Data with Implementations in R presents a comprehensive summary of major advances in nonparametric models and smoothing methods with longitudinal data. It covers methods, theories, and applications that are particularly useful for biomedical studies in the era of big data and precision medicine. It also provides flexible tools to describe the temporal trends, covariate effects and correlation structures of repeated measurements in longitudinal data. This book is intended for graduate students in statistics, data scientists and statisticians in biomedical sciences and public health. As experts in this area, the authors present extensive materials that are balanced between theoretical and practical topics. The statistical applications in real-life examples lead into meaningful interpretations and inferences. Features: Provides an overview of parametric and semiparametric methods Shows smoothing methods for unstructured nonparametric models Covers structured nonparametric models with time-varying coefficients Discusses nonparametric shared-parameter and mixed-effects models Presents nonparametric models for conditional distributions and functionals Illustrates implementations using R software packages Includes datasets and code in the authors’ website Contains asymptotic results and theoretical derivations Both authors are mathematical statisticians at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and have published extensively in statistical and biomedical journals. Colin O. Wu earned his Ph.D. in statistics from the University of California, Berkeley (1990), and is also Adjunct Professor at the Georgetown University School of Medicine. He served as Associate Editor for Biometrics and Statistics in Medicine, and reviewer for National Science Foundation, NIH, and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Xin Tian earned her Ph.D. in statistics from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey (2003). She has served on various NIH committees and collaborated extensively with clinical researchers.



Markov Models Optimization

Markov Models   Optimization Author M.H.A. Davis
ISBN-10 041231410X
Release 1993-08-01
Pages 308
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This book presents a radically new approach to problems of evaluating and optimizing the performance of continuous-time stochastic systems. This approach is based on the use of a family of Markov processes called Piecewise-Deterministic Processes (PDPs) as a general class of stochastic system models. A PDP is a Markov process that follows deterministic trajectories between random jumps, the latter occurring either spontaneously, in a Poisson-like fashion, or when the process hits the boundary of its state space. This formulation includes an enormous variety of applied problems in engineering, operations research, management science and economics as special cases; examples include queueing systems, stochastic scheduling, inventory control, resource allocation problems, optimal planning of production or exploitation of renewable or non-renewable resources, insurance analysis, fault detection in process systems, and tracking of maneuvering targets, among many others. The first part of the book shows how these applications lead to the PDP as a system model, and the main properties of PDPs are derived. There is particular emphasis on the so-called extended generator of the process, which gives a general method for calculating expectations and distributions of system performance functions. The second half of the book is devoted to control theory for PDPs, with a view to controlling PDP models for optimal performance: characterizations are obtained of optimal strategies both for continuously-acting controllers and for control by intervention (impulse control). Throughout the book, modern methods of stochastic analysis are used, but all the necessary theory is developed from scratch and presented in a self-contained way. The book will be useful to engineers and scientists in the application areas as well as to mathematicians interested in applications of stochastic analysis.



Smoothing Splines

Smoothing Splines Author Yuedong Wang
ISBN-10 9781420077568
Release 2011-06-22
Pages 384
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A general class of powerful and flexible modeling techniques, spline smoothing has attracted a great deal of research attention in recent years and has been widely used in many application areas, from medicine to economics. Smoothing Splines: Methods and Applications covers basic smoothing spline models, including polynomial, periodic, spherical, thin-plate, L-, and partial splines, as well as more advanced models, such as smoothing spline ANOVA, extended and generalized smoothing spline ANOVA, vector spline, nonparametric nonlinear regression, semiparametric regression, and semiparametric mixed-effects models. It also presents methods for model selection and inference. The book provides unified frameworks for estimation, inference, and software implementation by using the general forms of nonparametric/semiparametric, linear/nonlinear, and fixed/mixed smoothing spline models. The theory of reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) is used to present various smoothing spline models in a unified fashion. Although this approach can be technical and difficult, the author makes the advanced smoothing spline methodology based on RKHS accessible to practitioners and students. He offers a gentle introduction to RKHS, keeps theory at a minimum level, and explains how RKHS can be used to construct spline models. Smoothing Splines offers a balanced mix of methodology, computation, implementation, software, and applications. It uses R to perform all data analyses and includes a host of real data examples from astronomy, economics, medicine, and meteorology. The codes for all examples, along with related developments, can be found on the book’s web page.



Statistics in the 21st Century

Statistics in the 21st Century Author Martin A. Tanner
ISBN-10 9781420035391
Release 2001-07-09
Pages 576
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Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intellectual unity of the field as we see the same themes recurring in different contexts. We see how the development of statistics has been driven by the unprecedented and still growing range of applications, by the explosion in computer technology, and by the new types of data that continue to emerge and advance the discipline. Organized around major areas of application and leading up to vignettes on theory and methods, Statistics in the 21st Century forms a landmark record of the progress and perceived future of the discipline. No student, researcher, or practitioner of statistics should miss this extraordinary opportunity to view the past, present, and future world of statistics through the eyes of its foremost thinkers.



Analysis of Time Series Structure

Analysis of Time Series Structure Author Nina Golyandina
ISBN-10 1420035843
Release 2001-01-23
Pages 320
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Over the last 15 years, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) has proven very successful. It has already become a standard tool in climatic and meteorological time series analysis and well known in nonlinear physics and signal processing. However, despite the promise it holds for time series applications in other disciplines, SSA is not widely known among statisticians and econometrists, and although the basic SSA algorithm looks simple, understanding what it does and where its pitfalls lay is by no means simple. Analysis of Time Series Structure: SSA and Related Techniques provides a careful, lucid description of its general theory and methodology. Part I introduces the basic concepts, and sets forth the main findings and results, then presents a detailed treatment of the methodology. After introducing the basic SSA algorithm, the authors explore forecasting and apply SSA ideas to change-point detection algorithms. Part II is devoted to the theory of SSA. Here the authors formulate and prove the statements of Part I. They address the singular value decomposition (SVD) of real matrices, time series of finite rank, and SVD of trajectory matrices. Based on the authors' original work and filled with applications illustrated with real data sets, this book offers an outstanding opportunity to obtain a working knowledge of why, when, and how SSA works. It builds a strong foundation for successfully using the technique in applications ranging from mathematics and nonlinear physics to economics, biology, oceanology, social science, engineering, financial econometrics, and market research.



Dynamic Linear Models with R

Dynamic Linear Models with R Author Giovanni Petris
ISBN-10 9780387772387
Release 2009-06-12
Pages 252
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State space models have gained tremendous popularity in recent years in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. After a detailed introduction to general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. Whenever possible it is shown how to compute estimates and forecasts in closed form; for more complex models, simulation techniques are used. A final chapter covers modern sequential Monte Carlo algorithms. The book illustrates all the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R. Many detailed examples based on real data sets are provided to show how to set up a specific model, estimate its parameters, and use it for forecasting. All the code used in the book is available online. No prior knowledge of Bayesian statistics or time series analysis is required, although familiarity with basic statistics and R is assumed.



Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods

Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods Author James Durbin
ISBN-10 9780191627194
Release 2012-05-03
Pages 368
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This new edition updates Durbin & Koopman's important text on the state space approach to time series analysis. The distinguishing feature of state space time series models is that observations are regarded as made up of distinct components such as trend, seasonal, regression elements and disturbance terms, each of which is modelled separately. The techniques that emerge from this approach are very flexible and are capable of handling a much wider range of problems than the main analytical system currently in use for time series analysis, the Box-Jenkins ARIMA system. Additions to this second edition include the filtering of nonlinear and non-Gaussian series. Part I of the book obtains the mean and variance of the state, of a variable intended to measure the effect of an interaction and of regression coefficients, in terms of the observations. Part II extends the treatment to nonlinear and non-normal models. For these, analytical solutions are not available so methods are based on simulation.



Sequential Analysis

Sequential Analysis Author Alexander Tartakovsky
ISBN-10 9781439838211
Release 2014-08-27
Pages 603
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Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection systematically develops the theory of sequential hypothesis testing and quickest changepoint detection. It also describes important applications in which theoretical results can be used efficiently. The book reviews recent accomplishments in hypothesis testing and changepoint detection both in decision-theoretic (Bayesian) and non-decision-theoretic (non-Bayesian) contexts. The authors not only emphasize traditional binary hypotheses but also substantially more difficult multiple decision problems. They address scenarios with simple hypotheses and more realistic cases of two and finitely many composite hypotheses. The book primarily focuses on practical discrete-time models, with certain continuous-time models also examined when general results can be obtained very similarly in both cases. It treats both conventional i.i.d. and general non-i.i.d. stochastic models in detail, including Markov, hidden Markov, state-space, regression, and autoregression models. Rigorous proofs are given for the most important results. Written by leading authorities in the field, this book covers the theoretical developments and applications of sequential hypothesis testing and sequential quickest changepoint detection in a wide range of engineering and environmental domains. It explains how the theoretical aspects influence the hypothesis testing and changepoint detection problems as well as the design of algorithms.



Inference in Hidden Markov Models

Inference in Hidden Markov Models Author Olivier Cappé
ISBN-10 9780387289823
Release 2006-04-18
Pages 653
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This book is a comprehensive treatment of inference for hidden Markov models, including both algorithms and statistical theory. Topics range from filtering and smoothing of the hidden Markov chain to parameter estimation, Bayesian methods and estimation of the number of states. In a unified way the book covers both models with finite state spaces and models with continuous state spaces (also called state-space models) requiring approximate simulation-based algorithms that are also described in detail. Many examples illustrate the algorithms and theory. This book builds on recent developments to present a self-contained view.



Introduction to Time Series Modeling

Introduction to Time Series Modeling Author Genshiro Kitagawa
ISBN-10 1584889225
Release 2010-04-21
Pages 296
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In time series modeling, the behavior of a certain phenomenon is expressed in relation to the past values of itself and other covariates. Since many important phenomena in statistical analysis are actually time series and the identification of conditional distribution of the phenomenon is an essential part of the statistical modeling, it is very important and useful to learn fundamental methods of time series modeling. Illustrating how to build models for time series using basic methods, Introduction to Time Series Modeling covers numerous time series models and the various tools for handling them. The book employs the state-space model as a generic tool for time series modeling and presents convenient recursive filtering and smoothing methods, including the Kalman filter, the non-Gaussian filter, and the sequential Monte Carlo filter, for the state-space models. Taking a unified approach to model evaluation based on the entropy maximization principle advocated by Dr. Akaike, the author derives various methods of parameter estimation, such as the least squares method, the maximum likelihood method, recursive estimation for state-space models, and model selection by the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Along with simulation methods, he also covers standard stationary time series models, such as AR and ARMA models, as well as nonstationary time series models, including the locally stationary AR model, the trend model, the seasonal adjustment model, and the time-varying coefficient AR model. With a focus on the description, modeling, prediction, and signal extraction of times series, this book provides basic tools for analyzing time series that arise in real-world problems. It encourages readers to build models for their own real-life problems.



State Space Models

State Space Models Author Yong Zeng
ISBN-10 9781461477891
Release 2013-08-15
Pages 347
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State-space models as an important mathematical tool has been widely used in many different fields. This edited collection explores recent theoretical developments of the models and their applications in economics and finance. The book includes nonlinear and non-Gaussian time series models, regime-switching and hidden Markov models, continuous- or discrete-time state processes, and models of equally-spaced or irregularly-spaced (discrete or continuous) observations. The contributed chapters are divided into four parts. The first part is on Particle Filtering and Parameter Learning in Nonlinear State-Space Models. The second part focuses on the application of Linear State-Space Models in Macroeconomics and Finance. The third part deals with Hidden Markov Models, Regime Switching and Mathematical Finance and the fourth part is on Nonlinear State-Space Models for High Frequency Financial Data. The book will appeal to graduate students and researchers studying state-space modeling in economics, statistics, and mathematics, as well as to finance professionals.



Models for Dependent Time Series

Models for Dependent Time Series Author Granville Tunnicliffe Wilson
ISBN-10 9781420011500
Release 2015-07-29
Pages 340
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Models for Dependent Time Series addresses the issues that arise and the methodology that can be applied when the dependence between time series is described and modeled. Whether you work in the economic, physical, or life sciences, the book shows you how to draw meaningful, applicable, and statistically valid conclusions from multivariate (or vector) time series data. The first four chapters discuss the two main pillars of the subject that have been developed over the last 60 years: vector autoregressive modeling and multivariate spectral analysis. These chapters provide the foundational material for the remaining chapters, which cover the construction of structural models and the extension of vector autoregressive modeling to high frequency, continuously recorded, and irregularly sampled series. The final chapter combines these approaches with spectral methods for identifying causal dependence between time series. Web Resource A supplementary website provides the data sets used in the examples as well as documented MATLAB® functions and other code for analyzing the examples and producing the illustrations. The site also offers technical details on the estimation theory and methods and the implementation of the models.



Longitudinal Data with Serial Correlation

Longitudinal Data with Serial Correlation Author Richard .H. Jones
ISBN-10 0412406500
Release 1993-02-01
Pages 240
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Explains methods of accounting for correlations in the data from the repeated observation of subjects over a long period. For graduate students of biostatistics, statistics, or other disciplines that collect longitudinal data. Assumes a first-year graduate knowledge of statistical theory and methods, particularly the matrix approach to regression analysis, but no familiarity with state space methodology. Includes some FORTRAN subroutines. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR



Gaussian Markov Random Fields

Gaussian Markov Random Fields Author Havard Rue
ISBN-10 0203492021
Release 2005-02-18
Pages 280
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Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) models are most widely used in spatial statistics - a very active area of research in which few up-to-date reference works are available. This is the first book on the subject that provides a unified framework of GMRFs with particular emphasis on the computational aspects. This book includes extensive case-studies and, online, a c-library for fast and exact simulation. With chapters contributed by leading researchers in the field, this volume is essential reading for statisticians working in spatial theory and its applications, as well as quantitative researchers in a wide range of science fields where spatial data analysis is important.



Handbook of Discrete Valued Time Series

Handbook of Discrete Valued Time Series Author Richard A. Davis
ISBN-10 9781466577749
Release 2016-01-06
Pages 464
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Model a Wide Range of Count Time Series Handbook of Discrete-Valued Time Series presents state-of-the-art methods for modeling time series of counts and incorporates frequentist and Bayesian approaches for discrete-valued spatio-temporal data and multivariate data. While the book focuses on time series of counts, some of the techniques discussed can be applied to other types of discrete-valued time series, such as binary-valued or categorical time series. Explore a Balanced Treatment of Frequentist and Bayesian Perspectives Accessible to graduate-level students who have taken an elementary class in statistical time series analysis, the book begins with the history and current methods for modeling and analyzing univariate count series. It next discusses diagnostics and applications before proceeding to binary and categorical time series. The book then provides a guide to modern methods for discrete-valued spatio-temporal data, illustrating how far modern applications have evolved from their roots. The book ends with a focus on multivariate and long-memory count series. Get Guidance from Masters in the Field Written by a cohesive group of distinguished contributors, this handbook provides a unified account of the diverse techniques available for observation- and parameter-driven models. It covers likelihood and approximate likelihood methods, estimating equations, simulation methods, and a Bayesian approach for model fitting.