Download or read online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to get book now. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.

Structure Analysis by Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering

Structure Analysis by Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering Author L.A. Feigin
ISBN-10 9781475766240
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 335
Download Link Click Here

Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.



Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules

Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules Author Dmitri I. Svergun
ISBN-10 9780191507038
Release 2013-08-08
Pages 368
Download Link Click Here

Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.



Elementary Scattering Theory

Elementary Scattering Theory Author D.S. Sivia
ISBN-10 9780199228676
Release 2011-01-06
Pages 201
Download Link Click Here

This book provides the basic theoretical background for X-ray and neutron scattering experiments. Since these techniques are increasingly being used by biologists and chemists, as well as physicists, the book is intended to be accessible to a broad spectrum of scientists.



Biological Small Angle Scattering Techniques Strategies and Tips

Biological Small Angle Scattering  Techniques  Strategies and Tips Author Barnali Chaudhuri
ISBN-10 9789811060380
Release 2017-12-07
Pages 268
Download Link Click Here

This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications. The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS. The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for exploring the diversity of solution SAS methods and applications. Chapter 3 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.



X ray and Neutron Reflectivity

X ray and Neutron Reflectivity Author Jean Daillant
ISBN-10 9783540885887
Release 2008-11-19
Pages 350
Download Link Click Here

ways in which the magnetic interaction between neutrons and magnetic moments can yield information on the magnetization densities of thin ?lms and multilayers. I commend the organizers for having organized a group of expert lecturers to present this subject in a detailed but clear fashion, as the importance of the subject deserves. Argonne, IL S. K. Sinha Contents 1 The Interaction of X-Rays (and Neutrons) with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F. de Bergevin 1. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 Generalities and De?nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 3 From the Scattering by an Object to the Propagation in a Medium . 14 1. 4 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1. 5 X-Rays: Anisotropic Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1. A Appendix: the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2 Statistical Aspects of Wave Scattering at Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A. Sentenac and J. Daillant 2. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. 2 Description of Randomly Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2. 3 Description of a Surface Scattering Experiment, Coherence Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2. 4 Statistical Formulation of the Diffraction Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2. 5 Statistical Formulation of the Scattered Intensity Under the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3 Specular Re?ectivity from Smooth and Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 A. Gibaud and G. Vignaud 3. 1 The Re?ected Intensity from an Ideally Flat Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3. 2 X-Ray Re?ectivity in Strati?ed Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 3. 3 From Dynamical to Kinematical Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 3. 4 In?uence of the Roughness on the Matrix Coef?cients . . . . . . . . . . 111 3. A Appendix: The Treatment of Roughness in Specular Re?ectivity . . 113 3. B Appendix: Inversion of re?ectivity data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules

Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules Author Dmitri I. Svergun
ISBN-10 9780191507038
Release 2013-08-08
Pages 368
Download Link Click Here

Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.



Small Angle X ray Scattering

Small Angle X ray Scattering Author Otto Glatter
ISBN-10 UOM:39015035194631
Release 1982
Pages 515
Download Link Click Here

Small Angle X ray Scattering has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Small Angle X ray Scattering also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Small Angle X ray Scattering book for free.



X Ray Diffraction Imaging of Biological Cells

X Ray Diffraction Imaging of Biological Cells Author Masayoshi Nakasako
ISBN-10 9784431566182
Release 2018-03-29
Pages 228
Download Link Click Here

In this book, the author describes the development of the experimental diffraction setup and structural analysis of non-crystalline particles from material science and biology. Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. Now XFEL-CXDI marks the dawn of a new era in structural analys of non-crystalline particles with dimensions larger than 100 nm, which was quite impossible in the 20th century. To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. In addition, in XFEL experiments, non-crystalline particles scattered on thin support membranes and flash-cooled can be used to efficiently increase the rate of XFEL pulses. The rate, which depends on the number density of scattered particles and the size of X-ray beams, is currently 20-90%, probably the world record in XFEL-CXDI experiments. The experiment setups and results are introduced in this book. The author has also developed software suitable for efficiently processing of diffraction patterns and retrieving electron density maps of specimen particles based on the diffraction theory used in CXDI.



Scattering Methods and their Application in Colloid and Interface Science

Scattering Methods and their Application in Colloid and Interface Science Author Otto Glatter
ISBN-10 9780128135815
Release 2018-01-08
Pages 404
Download Link Click Here

Scattering Methods and their Application in Colloid and Interface Science offers an overview of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques (SAXS & SANS), as well as static and dynamic light scattering (SLS & DLS). These scattering techniques are central to the study of soft matter, such as colloidal dispersions and surfactant self-assembly. The theoretical concepts are followed by an overview of instrumentation and a detailed description of the evaluation techniques in the first part of the book. In the second part, several typical application examples are used to show the strength and limitations of these techniques. Features the latest input from the world-leading expert with personal experience in all the fields covered (SAXS, SANS, SLS and DLS) Includes unified notation throughout the book to enhance its readability Provides—in a single source—scattering theory, evaluation of techniques and a variety of applications



Small Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids

Small Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids Author Yuri B. Melnichenko
ISBN-10 9783319011042
Release 2015-09-28
Pages 314
Download Link Click Here

This book examines the meso- and nanoscopic aspects of fluid adsorption in porous solids using a non-invasive method of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Starting with a brief summary of the basic assumptions and results of the theory of small-angle scattering from porous media, the author focuses on the practical aspects and methodology of the ambient and high pressure SANS and SAXS experiments and corresponding data analysis. It is illustrated with results of studies of the vapor and supercritical fluid adsorption in porous materials published during the last decade, obtained both for man-made materials (e.g. porous fractal silica, Vycor glass, activated carbon) and geological samples (e.g. sandstones, shales and coal). In order to serve the needs of broad readership, the results are presented in the relevant context (e.g. petroleum exploration, anthropogenic carbon capture and sequestration, ion adsorption in supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, etc.).



Neutrons X rays and Light

Neutrons  X rays and Light Author Thomas Zemb
ISBN-10 0444511229
Release 2002
Pages 541
Download Link Click Here

Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.



Modern Aspects of Small Angle Scattering

Modern Aspects of Small Angle Scattering Author H. Brumberger
ISBN-10 9789401584579
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 463
Download Link Click Here

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Como, Italy, May 12--22, 1993



Neutron and X ray Spectroscopy

Neutron and X ray Spectroscopy Author Françoise Hippert
ISBN-10 9781402033377
Release 2006-07-08
Pages 566
Download Link Click Here

- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books



Neutron Scattering in Biology

Neutron Scattering in Biology Author Jörg Fitter
ISBN-10 9783540291114
Release 2006-05-01
Pages 560
Download Link Click Here

The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.



Advancing Methods for Biomolecular Crystallography

Advancing Methods for Biomolecular Crystallography Author Randy Read
ISBN-10 9789400762329
Release 2013-04-03
Pages 362
Download Link Click Here

This work presents a snapshot of the state of the art of modern biomolecular crystallography, from crystallisation through structure determination and even interactive presentation on the web. Methods driving the latest automated structure determination pipelines are explained, as well as how to deal with problems such as crystal pathologies that still demand expert analysis. These methods are illustrated through their application to problems of great biological interest, such as the molecular machinery underlying the complement pathway, the mechanism of action of monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and the structure of the eukaryotic ribosome. Complementary approaches, such as neutron diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, coherent diffraction and computational modelling, are also explored.



X Ray and Neutron Diffraction

X Ray and Neutron Diffraction Author G. E. Bacon
ISBN-10 9781483158297
Release 2013-09-03
Pages 378
Download Link Click Here

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction describes the developments of the X-ray and the various research done in neutron diffraction. Part I of the book concerns the principles and applications of the X-ray and neutrons through their origins from classical crystallography. The book explains the use of diffraction methods to show the highly regular arrangement of atoms that forms a continuous pattern in three-dimensional space. The text evaluates the limitations and benefits of using the different types of radiation sources, whether these are X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Part II is a collection of reprints discussing the development of techniques that includes a modification of the Bragg method, which is a method of X-ray crystal analysis. One paper presents an improved numerical method of two-dimensional Fourier synthesis for crystals. This method uses a greatly reduced process of arrangement of sets of figures found in the two-dimensional Fourier series. The book also notes the theoretical considerations and the practical details, and then addresses precautions against possible inclusions of errors in this method. The text deals as well with the magnetic scattering of neutrons, and one paper presents a simple method of gathering information about the magnetic moment of the neutron besides the traditional Stern-Gerlach method. Nuclear scientists and physicists, atomic researchers, and nuclear engineers will greatly appreciate the book.



High Pressure Bioscience

High Pressure Bioscience Author Kazuyuki Akasaka
ISBN-10 9789401799188
Release 2015-07-14
Pages 730
Download Link Click Here

This volume covers both the basic concepts and theory of bio-macromolecules under pressure and the various frontiers in high-pressure bioscience and biotechnology. A century has passed since Bridgman discovered the irreversible coagulation of egg white by applying pressure at 700 atmospheres in 1914. Today we are able to monitor pressure-dependent changes in protein structure as a reversible process even at atomic scale with modern spectroscopic techniques. We can study the fluctuating reality of protein structures as designed by nature, which is the basis for all dynamism of life on earth. We are currently facing a new era of high-pressure bioscience, in which pressure is no longer an “odd” or “foreign” variable to life, but rather an integrated part of it. Pressure is used as a crucial variable for disclosing the secrets of nature and as a powerful new tool for enhancing certain reactions in bio-macromolecules and even in living cells for our practical and industrial needs. A dramatic advancement of high-pressure bioscience both in the basic and the applied sciences is thus anticipated in near future, for which sharing the current advanced knowledge on structure and dynamics of bio-macromolecules under pressure among researchers in both fields is crucial. This book serves as a valuable resource not only for those working directly in a pressure-related field, but also for those working in many other fields of the biosciences. Particularly, the basic part of it is intended to serve as a classical text book on high-pressure bioscience to a wide audience including students and researchers in both basic and applied fields in years to come. Readers can focus on topics of immediate interest first, but may wish to go over other chapters if interest arises in a later occasion.