Download or read online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to get book now. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.

Structure Analysis by Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering

Structure Analysis by Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering Author L.A. Feigin
ISBN-10 9781475766240
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 335
Download Link Click Here

Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.



Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules

Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules Author Dmitri I. Svergun
ISBN-10 9780191507038
Release 2013-08-08
Pages 368
Download Link Click Here

Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.



Biological Small Angle Scattering Techniques Strategies and Tips

Biological Small Angle Scattering  Techniques  Strategies and Tips Author Barnali Chaudhuri
ISBN-10 9789811060380
Release 2017-12-07
Pages 268
Download Link Click Here

This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications. The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS. The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for exploring the diversity of solution SAS methods and applications. Chapter 3 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.



Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules

Small Angle X Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules Author Dmitri I. Svergun
ISBN-10 9780191507038
Release 2013-08-08
Pages 368
Download Link Click Here

Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.



Elementary Scattering Theory

Elementary Scattering Theory Author D.S. Sivia
ISBN-10 9780199228676
Release 2011-01-06
Pages 201
Download Link Click Here

This book provides the basic theoretical background for X-ray and neutron scattering experiments. Since these techniques are increasingly being used by biologists and chemists, as well as physicists, the book is intended to be accessible to a broad spectrum of scientists.



Modern Aspects of Small Angle Scattering

Modern Aspects of Small Angle Scattering Author H. Brumberger
ISBN-10 9789401584579
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 463
Download Link Click Here

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Como, Italy, May 12--22, 1993



Advancing Methods for Biomolecular Crystallography

Advancing Methods for Biomolecular Crystallography Author Randy Read
ISBN-10 9789400762329
Release 2013-04-03
Pages 362
Download Link Click Here

This work presents a snapshot of the state of the art of modern biomolecular crystallography, from crystallisation through structure determination and even interactive presentation on the web. Methods driving the latest automated structure determination pipelines are explained, as well as how to deal with problems such as crystal pathologies that still demand expert analysis. These methods are illustrated through their application to problems of great biological interest, such as the molecular machinery underlying the complement pathway, the mechanism of action of monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and the structure of the eukaryotic ribosome. Complementary approaches, such as neutron diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, coherent diffraction and computational modelling, are also explored.



Small Angle X ray Scattering

Small Angle X ray Scattering Author Otto Glatter
ISBN-10 UOM:39015035194631
Release 1982
Pages 515
Download Link Click Here

Small Angle X ray Scattering has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Small Angle X ray Scattering also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Small Angle X ray Scattering book for free.



X ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization

X ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization Author Challa S.S.R. Kumar
ISBN-10 9783662486061
Release 2016-10-13
Pages 830
Download Link Click Here

Fifth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.



Characterization of Polymer Blends

Characterization of Polymer Blends Author Sabu Thomas
ISBN-10 9783527645619
Release 2014-10-28
Pages 994
Download Link Click Here

Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.



Intrinsically Disordered Protein Analysis

Intrinsically Disordered Protein Analysis Author Vladimir N. Uversky
ISBN-10 1461437032
Release 2012-07-21
Pages 454
Download Link Click Here

Over the past decade, there has been an explosive development of research of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which are also known as unfolded proteins. Structural biologists now recognize that the functional diversity provided by disordered regions complements the functional repertoire of ordered protein regions. In Intrinsically Disordered Protein Analysis: Methods and Experimental Tools, expert researchers explore the high abundance of IDPs in various organisms, their unique structural features, numerous functions, and crucial associations with different diseases. Volume 2 includes sections on single molecule techniques, methods to assess protein size and shape, analyzing conformational behavior, mass-spectrometry, expression and purification of IDP’s. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, the chapters include the kind of detailed description and implementation advice that is crucial for getting optimal results in the laboratory. Thorough and intuitive, Intrinsically Disordered Protein Analysis: Methods and Experimental Tools helps scientists further their investigations of these fascinating and dynamic molecules.



NMR of Biomolecules

NMR of Biomolecules Author Ivano Bertini
ISBN-10 9783527328505
Release 2012-04-16
Pages 612
Download Link Click Here

NMR is one of the most powerful methods for imaging of biomolecules. This book is the ultimate NMR guide for researchers in the biomedical community and gives not only background and practical tips but also a forward looking view on the future of NMR in systems biology.



Neutrons X rays and Light

Neutrons  X rays and Light Author Thomas Zemb
ISBN-10 0444511229
Release 2002
Pages 541
Download Link Click Here

Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.



X Ray and Neutron Diffraction

X Ray and Neutron Diffraction Author G. E. Bacon
ISBN-10 9781483158297
Release 2013-09-03
Pages 378
Download Link Click Here

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction describes the developments of the X-ray and the various research done in neutron diffraction. Part I of the book concerns the principles and applications of the X-ray and neutrons through their origins from classical crystallography. The book explains the use of diffraction methods to show the highly regular arrangement of atoms that forms a continuous pattern in three-dimensional space. The text evaluates the limitations and benefits of using the different types of radiation sources, whether these are X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Part II is a collection of reprints discussing the development of techniques that includes a modification of the Bragg method, which is a method of X-ray crystal analysis. One paper presents an improved numerical method of two-dimensional Fourier synthesis for crystals. This method uses a greatly reduced process of arrangement of sets of figures found in the two-dimensional Fourier series. The book also notes the theoretical considerations and the practical details, and then addresses precautions against possible inclusions of errors in this method. The text deals as well with the magnetic scattering of neutrons, and one paper presents a simple method of gathering information about the magnetic moment of the neutron besides the traditional Stern-Gerlach method. Nuclear scientists and physicists, atomic researchers, and nuclear engineers will greatly appreciate the book.



Polymer Morphology

Polymer Morphology Author Qipeng Guo
ISBN-10 9781118452158
Release 2016-05-16
Pages 464
Download Link Click Here

With a focus on structure-property relationships, this book describes how polymer morphology affects properties and how scientists can modify them. The book covers structure development, theory, simulation, and processing; and discusses a broad range of techniques and methods. • Provides an up-to-date, comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices of polymer morphology • Illustrates major structure types, such as semicrystalline morphology, surface-induced polymer crystallization, phase separation, self-assembly, deformation, and surface topography • Covers a variety of polymers, such as homopolymers, block copolymers, polymer thin films, polymer blends, and polymer nanocomposites • Discusses a broad range of advanced and novel techniques and methods, like x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy and their applications in the morphology of polymer materials



X Ray Diffraction

X Ray Diffraction Author Oliver H. Seeck
ISBN-10 9789814303606
Release 2015-02-10
Pages 414
Download Link Click Here

High-resolution x-ray diffraction and scattering is a key tool for structure analysis not only in bulk materials but also at surfaces and buried interfaces from the sub-nanometer range to micrometers. This book offers an overview of diffraction and scattering methods currently available at modern synchrotron sources and illustrates bulk and interface investigations of solid and liquid matter with up-to-date research examples. It presents important characteristics of the sources, experimental set-up, and new detector developments. The book also considers future exploitation of x-ray free electron lasers for diffraction applications.



Characterization of Polymer Blends

Characterization of Polymer Blends Author Sabu Thomas
ISBN-10 9783527645619
Release 2014-10-28
Pages 994
Download Link Click Here

Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.